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Aircraft Fuel Manifold Design Substantiation and Additive Manufacturing Technique Assessment Using Finite Element Analysis

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Abstract

An aircraft fuel system allows the crew to pump, manage, and deliver aviation- or jet fuel to the propulsion system and Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) of an aircraft. Fuel systems differ greatly due to different performance of the aircraft in which they are installed. The fuel system is designed to provide an uninterrupted flow of clean fuel from the fuel tanks to the engine. The fuel must be available to the engine under all conditions of engine power, altitude, attitude, and during all approved flight maneuvers. Two common classifications apply to fuel systems in small airplanes – gravity-feed and fuel-pump systems and current study focuses on the later one. The auxiliary fuel pump provides fuel under pressure to the fuel/air control unit for engine starting and/or emergency use. After starting, the engine-driven fuel pump provides fuel under pressure from the fuel tank to the fuel/air control unit. This control unit which meters fuel based on the mixture control setting, and sends it to the fuel manifold valve at a rate controlled by the throttle. After reaching the fuel manifold valve, the fuel is distributed to the individual fuel discharge nozzles. The discharge nozzles, which are located in each cylinder head, inject the fuel/air mixture directly into each cylinder intake port. An aircraft's fuel system has a more profound effect on aircraft performance than any other airframe system. Any failure in the fuel manifold will lead to catastrophic aircraft damage and it is very important to consider all the critical flight mission points for design substation. The current project work focuses on the design substantiation of twin engine commercial aircraft engine fuel manifold system to operate satisfactorily under all conditions, such as acceleration and deceleration, temperature, pressure, and flight attitudes. This work also focuses on the alternative manufacturing methodology “Additive Manufacturing Technique” for design optimization using finite element analysis. The proposed methodology will be verified in order to meet the FAA requirements. Hence in the present investigation attempts have been made on the following major sections fuel manifold design substantiation for temperature and pressure requirement, vibration analysis, high cycle and low cycle fatigue analysis, design optimization using additive manufacturing technique. A comparative study has been made between conventional and additive manufacturing. Analysis results has been correlated based on hand calculated results which indicates less than five percent deviation to satisfy the FAA guidelines. The rise in number of vehicles had led to many problems like traffic congestion, increase in consumption of fuels, rising travel costs. Considering all these problems we have studied different papers. This paper introduces bike sharing application which will help people to travel on one bike and share their expenses and also reduce pollution.