|Vikas Panchal1, Amit Gupta2, Dr.P.C.Tiwari3, Naveen Rathi4
Research Scholar, Mechanical Engineering, N.C.C.E/KUK, Israna (Panipat), Haryana, India1
Assistant Professor, Mechanical Engineering, N.C.C.E, Israna (Panipat), Haryana, India2
Associate Professor, Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Kurukshetra Haryana, India3 Assistant Professor, Mechanical Engineering, H.C.T.M/KUK, Kaithal Haryana, India4
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Recently number of Indian banks has increased enormously. The effective management of banks is fast becoming of prime importance to the general welfare and prosperity of the society. Moreover with international competition some researchers attempt to improve the management techniques to increase productivity of service sector. JIT is a system designed to make an organization operate efficiently and with a minimum number of human and mechanical resources. JIT also improves quality, reduces inventory levels and provides maximum motivation to solve problems as soon as they occur. This study work finds various Just In Time (JIT) elements which are important to both the customer and the employers in Indian context. This paper presents the relative importance and difficulties in implementation of JIT elements in the banking sector and verification of data with the help of Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA) Technique and also identifies the JIT elements which are most important and easy to implement in the manufacturing Industries.
|JIT, JIT elements, survey, Banking sector, Anova technique|
|Just-In-time (JIT) is defined in the APICS (American Production and Inventory Control Society) dictionary as “a philosophy of manufacturing based on planned elimination of all waste and on continuous improvement of productivity”. It also has been described as an approach with the objective of producing the right part in the right place at the right time (i n other words, “just in time”). Waste results from any activity that adds cost without adding value, such as the unnecessary moving of materials, the accumulation of excess inventory, or the use of faulty production methods that create products requiring subsequent rework. JIT (also known as lean production or stockless production) should improve profits and return on investment by reducing inventory levels (increasing the inventory turnover rate), reducing variability, improving product quality, reducing production and delivery lead times, and reducing other costs (such as those associated with machine setup and equipment breakdown). In a JIT system, underutilized (excess) capacity is used instead of buffer inventories to hedge against problems that may arise.|
|JIT is just not a technique or set of techniques of manufacturing, but is an advanced approach or philosophy which embraces both new and old techniques and provides a wide range of benefits by renovation of existing manufacturing systems. A simple definition of JIT is to produce and deliver finished goods just in time to be sold, subassemblies just in time to be assembled into finished goods, fabricate parts just in time to go into subassemblies, and purchase parts just in time to be transferred in to fabricated parts.|
|The first basic principle involved in JIT production approach is the elimination of waste. In a JIT system, waste is defined as anything associated with the production process that does not add value to the product. Thus, waste includes quality defects, inventories of all kinds, time spent to move material and time spent in setting up the machines. If the implications of managing the reduction in waste for the categories mentioned above are analyzed, it becomes obvious why JIT is involved in all aspects of the management of production Process. The second principle of JIT involves the management of people. JIT philosophy assumes that people are capable and willing to take on more responsibility. If defective parts are being produced, an individual can stop the production line. Once stopped, everyone working on the line has the responsibility to solve the problem.|
|Every essential element of JIT may not be easily implemented and some elements are difficult to implement. These problems may be related to in appropriate understanding of JIT methodology or may be related to technical, operational and human problems.|
|There are some questions related to JIT system:|
|i) Which are the essential elements of JIT?|
|ii) Which elements are important and difficult to implement?|
|iii) Which elements can be easily implemented?|
|iv) Which elements are highly beneficial in banking sectors?|
|Firstly, various elements are identified from the available literature, experts from the field of academics and industrial professionals for the purpose of comparison. The procedure for the study is:|
|? Research design,|
|? Survey Participants and|
|? Data collection.|
|We identified a detailed list of 33 elements of JIT system which are suitable for banking sectors. But all elements of JIT may not be easy to implement. Therefore, there is a necessity to find out those elements of JIT system which are easy and which are difficult to implement in Indian context. Hence a survey of banking sectors is carried out to give useful insights on the basis of listed elements and benefits to achieve the above mentioned objectives. Indian banking sectors can become competitive by successful implementation of JIT.|
|The questionnaire was mailed in 50 banks taking single employee from each bank. The responses were collected from all the industries successfully. Then all the responses were analyzed. The mean score for each element was calculated. There are two tables giving the mean score of JIT elements for importance and difficulties in context of Indian Banks.|
|The first table provides the mean score of Degree of Importance of JIT elements in various Banks.|
|From Table 1, other most important elements are Group Incentive Scheme, Top Management Support, Customer Awareness, Ergonomics Design (Working Conditions), Employee Training, House Keeping (orderliness, cleanliness, discipline, and safety), Judoka (use of modern/automatic age), Flexible and multifunction workforce, Technical support, Ergonomics Design (Working Conditions) etc.|
|From the table 2 the most difficult elements are Organization Policies, Standardization, Group Incentive Scheme, Judoka (use of modern/automatic age), Job satisfaction, Expert Lectures, Employee Training, House Keeping (orderliness, cleanliness, discipline, safety), Employee Empowerment, Ergonomics Design (Working Conditions) and People strategy .|
|The least difficult elements from Table2 are Quality Circles, Sole Sourcing, Storage space reduction Degree of Complexity, Schedule Stability, Employee Feedback and Suggestions, Infrastructure (Aesthetic Value), Lead time/ Response time reduction, Value Addition Services (SDP).|
3.1 Data Analysis
|XY scatter chart is drawn between importance as abscissa and difficulty as ordinate. The axis crosses at their relative value of population mean (μ) i.e. for x axis it is 125 and for y axis its value is 125.|
|It is advisable that at the initial stage, those elements should be implemented in any organizations, which are highly important and relatively less difficult to implement.|
|In Figure 3.1, the lower right quarter i.e. Part-1 highlights those elements of JIT which are highly important and very easy to implement. These elements are Communication and Information Sharing, Team Work, Frequent and Reliable Service, Customer Awareness, Customer Satisfaction, Process Flexibility, and Commitment.|
|The upper right quarter i.e. Part-2 shows those elements which are highly important but are difficult to implement. These elements are Organization Policies, People Strategy, Employee Training, House Keeping (orderliness, cleanliness, discipline, and safety), Job satisfaction, Judoka (use of modern/automatic age), Group Incentive Scheme, Top Management Support, Standardization, Ergonomics Design (Working Conditions) and Administrative Efficiency etc.|
|The upper left quarter i.e. Part-3 depicts those elements which are less important and very difficult to implement in banks. These elements are Storage space reduction, Technical support, Quality Circles, Sole Sourcing and Schedule Stability|
|The lower left quarter i.e. Part-4 demonstrates those elements which are less important but are easy to implement. These elements are Lead time/ Response time reduction , Employee Feedback and Suggestions, Value Addition Services (SDP) .|
|3.2 ANOVA Technique|
|The ANOVA technique is important in the context of all those situations where we want to compare more than two populations such as in comparing the yield of crop from several varieties of seeds. In such circumstances one generally does not want to consider all possible combinations of two populations at a time for what would require a great number of tests before we would be able to arrive at a decision.|
|From the above table, it is clear that F- critical is less than the calculated F value. So we may conclude that the values of elements are significant.|
|In this paper, survey of 50 banks is carried out. On the basis of the mean calculated for different elements of JIT on 0-250 scale, all the elements have been analyzed and plotted on a scatter chart, from where most important and less difficult elements are found out. The data has been verified with the help of ANOVA technique.|
|The most beneficial elements for the surveyed Banks have also been identified. It is further suggested that JIT elements should be implemented in a phased manner and after confirming its success, it should be implemented to the whole process. First of all one should implement the most important and less difficult elements to the critical processes only as a pilot project. The most important and highly difficult elements should be implemented after the successful implementation of the pilot project.|
Tables at a glance
Figures at a glance
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