Malaria Disease and Diagnosis | Open Access Journals

ISSN: 2319-9865

Malaria Disease and Diagnosis

Gopalarao vuppala*, Rama Krishna and Krishna Murthy

Montissory Siva sivani institute of science and technology, Gurraju palem, Mylavaram, Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh, India

*Corresponding Author:
Gopalarao vuppala
Montissory Siva sivani institute of science and technology
Gurraju palem, Mylavaram, Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh, India

Received: 03 May 2015 Accepted: 05 June 2015

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Keywords

Malaria, parasitic protozoans, P. vivax, artemisinin

Introduction

Malaria could be a mosquito-borne communicable disease of humans and alternative animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a cluster of acellular microorganism) happiness to the genus Plasmodium. protozoal infection causes symptoms that usually embody fever, fatigue, disgorgement and headaches. In severe cases it will cause yellow skin, seizures, coma or death. The unwellness is transmitted by the biting of mosquitos, and also the symptoms typically begin 10 to fifteen days when being bitten. If not befittingly treated, individuals might have recurrences of the unwellness months later. In those that have recently survived associate infection, re-infection usually causes milder symptoms. This partial resistance disappears over months to years if the person has no continued exposure to protozoal infection. The unwellness is transmitted most typically by associate infected feminine genus Anopheles two-winged insects. The bite introduces the parasites from the mosquito's spittle into a personality's blood. [1] The parasites trip the liver wherever they mature and reproduce. 5 species of Plasmodium will infect and be unfold by humans. Most deaths area unit caused by P. falciparum as a result of P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. protozoal infectionegenerally cause a milder type of malaria. The species P. knowlesi seldom causesunwellness in humans. protozoal infection is usually diagnosed by the microscopic examination of blood mistreatment blood films, or with antigen-based fast diagnostic tests. ways that use the enzymechain reaction to discover the parasite's desoxyribonucleic acid are developed, however don't seem to be wide utilized in areas wherever protozoal infection is common attributable to their price and quality.

The risk of unwellness may be reduced by preventing two-winged insects bites by mistreatment two-winged insects nets and bug repellents, or with mosquito-control measures like spraying pesticides and exhausting standing water. Many medications area unit obtainable to stopprotozoal infection in travellers to areas wherever the unwellness is common. Occasional doses of the medication sulfadoxine / pyrimethamine area unit suggested in infants and when the primarytrimester of physiological state in areas with high rates of protozoal infection. Despite a requirement, no effective immunizing agent exists, though efforts to develop one area unit in progress. The suggested treatment for protozoal infection could be a combination of antimalarial drug medications that has associate artemisinin. The second medication is also either Mephaquine, lumefantrine, or sulfadoxine / pyrimethamine. antimalarial drug at the side of antibiotic drug is alsoused if associate artemisinin isn't obtainable. it's suggested that in areas wherever the unwellnessis common, protozoal infection is confirmed if potential before treatment is started attributable toissues of accelerating drug resistance. Resistance among the parasites has developed to manyantimalarial drug medications; as an example, chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum has unfold to mostprotozoal infection areas, and resistance to artemisinin has become a haul in some elements of geographical area.

The unwellness is widespread within the tropical and semitropic regions that exist during a broad band round the equator. This includes abundant of geographical area, Asia, and Latin America. Protozoal infection is usually related to economic condition and features a major negative impacton economic development. In continent it's calculable to lead to losses of US$12 billion a year attributable to raised care prices, lost ability to figure, and effects on commercial enterprise. the planet Health Organization reports there have been 198 million cases of protozoal infection worldwide in 2013. This resulted in associate calculable 584,000 to 855,000 deaths, the bulk (90%) of that occurred in continent.

Epidemiology

The WHO estimates that in 2010 there have been 219 million cases of protozoal infection leading to 660,000 deaths. Others have calculable the quantity of cases at between 350 and 550 million for falciparum protozoal infection and deaths in 2010 at one.24 million up from one.0 million deaths in 1990. the bulk of cases (65%) occur in kids beneath fifteen years recent. regarding one hundred twenty five million pregnant ladies square measure in danger of infection every year; in geographical area, maternal protozoal infection is related to up to two hundred calculable baby deaths yearly. There square measure regarding 10,000 protozoal infection cases each year in Western Europe, and 1300–1500 within the u. s.. regarding 900 folks died from the malady in Europe between 1993 and 2003.Both the worldwide incidence of malady and ensuing mortality have declined in recent years. in keeping with the WHO, deaths as a result of protozoal infection in 2010 were reduced by over a 3rd from a 2000 estimate of 985,000, mostly as a result of the widespread use of insecticide-treated nets and artemisinin-based combination therapies. In 2012, there have been207 million cases of protozoal infection. That year, the malady is calculable to possess killed between 473,000 and 789,000 people, several of whom were kids in Africa.

Malaria is presently endemic in an exceedingly broad band round the equator, in areas of America, several components of Asia, and far of Africa; in geographical area, 85–90% of protozoal infection fatalities occur. Associate estimate for 2009 according that countries with the best death rate per a hundred,000 of population were Republic of Cote d'Ivoire (86.15), Angola (56.93) and state (50.66). A 2010 estimate indicated the deadliest countries per population were state, Mozambique and African nation. The protozoal infection Atlas Project aims to map world endemic levels of protozoal infection, providing a method with that to see the worldwide special limits of the malady and to assess malady burden. This effort LED to the publication of a map of P. falciparum endemicity in 2010. As of 2010, regarding a hundred countries have endemic protozoal infection. Every year, one hundred twenty five million international travelers visit these countries, and quite thirty,000 contract the malady.

The geographic distribution of protozoal infection among giant regions is advanced, and malaria-afflicted and malaria-free square measureas are typically found near one another. protozoal infection is current in tropical and sub tropic regions due to precipitation, consistent high temperatures and high humidness, beside stagnant waters within which dipterous insect larvaewithout delay mature, providing them with the surroundings they have for continuous breeding. In drier areas, outbreaks of protozoal infection are foretold with affordable accuracy by mappingprecipitation.Malaria is a lot of common in rural areas than in cities. for instance, many cities within the bigger Mekong River Subregion of southeast asia|Southeast Asia|geographical square measurea|geographic area|geographical region|geographic region are basically malaria-free, however the malady is current in several rural regions, as well as on international borders and forest fringes. In distinction, protozoal infection in Africa is gift in each rural and concrete areas, although the chance is lower within the larger cities.

There square measure four parasite species that cause protozoal infection in humans:

Plasmodium falciparum

Plasmodium vivax

Plasmodium malariae

Plasmodium ovale.

Life cycle

The life cycle of protozoal infection parasites. A dipterous insect causes associate degree infection by a bite. First, sporozoites enter the blood, and migrate to the liver. They infect liver cells, wherever they multiply into merozoites, rupture the liver cells, and come to the blood. The merozoites infect red blood cells, wherever they become ring forms, trophozoites and schizonts that successively manufacture any merozoites. Sexual forms are made, which, if concerned by a dipterous insect, can infect the insect and continue the life cycle.

In the life cycle of Plasmodium, a feminine genus Anopheles dipterous insect (the definitive host) transmits a motile infective kind (called the sporozoite) to a vertebrate host like a personality's (the secondary host), therefore acting as a transmission vector. A sporozoan travels through the blood vessels to liver cells (hepatocytes), wherever it reproduces asexually (tissue schizogony), manufacturing thousands of merozoites. These infect new red blood cells and initiate a series of agamogenetic multiplication cycles (blood schizogony) that manufacture eight to twenty four new infective merozoites, at that purpose the cells burst and therefore the infective cycle begins afresh. Different merozoites become immature gametocytes, that are the precursors of male and feminine gametes. Once a fertilized dipterous insect bites associate degree infected person, gametocytes arconcerned with the blood and mature within the dipterous insect gut. The male and feminine gametocytes fuse associate degreed kind an ookinete—a fertile, motile fertilized ovum. Ookinetes become new sporozoites that migrate to the insect's secretion glands, able to infect a brand new vertebrate host. The sporozoites are injected into the skin, within the spit, once the dipterous insect takes a ulterior feed.

Only feminine mosquitoes take advantage of blood; male mosquitoes take advantage of plant nectar, and don't transmit the unwellness. The females of the genus Anopheles genus of dipterous insectchoose to feed in the dark. they sometimes begin sorting out a meal at crepuscule, and cancontinue throughout the night till taking a meal. protozoal infection parasites may be transmitted by blood transfusions, though this can be rare.

Pathophysiology

Malaria infection develops via 2 phases: one that involves the liver (exoerythrocytic phase), and one that involves red blood cells, or erythrocytes (erythrocytic phase). Once associate degree infected dipterous insect pierces a human skin to require a feed, sporozoites within the mosquito's spitenter the blood and migrate to the liver wherever they infect hepatocytes, multiplying asexually and asymptomatically for a amount of 8–30 days. once a possible dormant amount within the liver, these organisms differentiate to yield thousands of merozoites, which, following rupture of their host cells, escape into the blood and infect red blood cells to start the erythrocytic stage of the life cycle. The parasite escapes from the liver unseen by wrapping itself within the semipermeable membrane of the infected host liver cell. Within the red blood cells, the parasites multiply any, once more asexually, sporadically breaking out of their host cells to invade recent red blood cells. Many such amplification cycles occur. Thus, classical descriptions of waves of fever arise from synchronous waves of merozoites escaping and infecting red blood cells. Some P. vivax sporozoites don't straight away become exoerythrocytic-phase merozoites, however instead manufacture hypnozoites that staydormant for periods starting from many months (7–10 months is typical) to many years. Once a amount of dormancy, they activate and manufacture merozoites. Hypnozoites are to blame for long incubation and late relapses in P. vivax infections, though their existence in P. ovale is unsure.

The parasite is comparatively protected against attack by the body's system as a result of for many of its human life cycle it resides among the liver and blood cells and is comparatively invisible to immune police work. However, current infected blood cells ar destroyed within the spleen. To avoid this fate, the P. falciparum parasite displays adhesive proteins on the surface of the infected blood cells, inflicting the blood cells to stay to the walls of tiny blood vessels, thereby sequestering the parasite from passage through the final circulation and therefore the spleen. The blockage of the microvasculature causes symptoms like in placental protozoal infection. Sequestered red blood cells will breach the blood–brain barrier and cause cerebral protozoal infection.

Signs and symptoms

Symptoms of protozoal infection will recur once varied symptom-free periods. relying upon the cause, repeat is classified as either outbreak, relapse, or reinfection. Outbreak is once symptoms come once a symptom-free amount. it's caused by parasites extant within the blood as a results of inadequate or ineffective treatment. Relapse is once symptoms appear once the parasites are eliminated from blood however persist as dormant hypnozoites in liver cells. Relapse ordinarily happens between 8–24 weeks and is usually seen with P. vivax and P. ovale infections. P. vivax protozoal infection cases in temperate areas usually involve overwintering by hypnozoites, with relapses starting the year once the bite.

Reinfection means that the parasite that caused the past infection was eliminated from the body however a replacement parasite was introduced. Reinfection cannot pronto be distinguished from outbreak, though repeat of infection among fortnight of treatment for the initial infection is often attributed to treatment failure. individuals might develop some immunity once exposed to frequent infections.

Recurrent malaria

Typically the period of time of P falciparum will vary from ten to fourteen days. The protozoal infection convulsion begins with less-prominent symptoms, ie, the cold stage. Throughout this stage constriction lasts from half-hour to one hour throughout that the patient feels terribly uncomfortable. Subsequent stage, the new stage, lasts a pair of to six hours throughout that the patient feels extremely popular. The cycle ends with the sweating stage.

Infection with P falciparum, that is that the solely parasite species that's ready to invade all red blood cells, particularly the young cells, will doubtless end in the foremost severe sort of protozoal infection, inflicting in depth organ injury in kidneys, liver, brain, and alimentary canal. Cerebral protozoal infection specially will result in coma and convulsions. the majority deaths related to protozoal infection area unit attributable to falciparum protozoal infection.

P vivax and P ovale area unit well recognized as causes of continual protozoal infection. Waksman et al reportable associate 8-month break between the traveler's visit to an epidemic country and also the manifestation of protozoal infection caused by P vivax. Another case report by Grobusch et al delineate a 22-month delay within the signs and symptoms of P vivax infection. The authors conclude that protozoal infection ought to be thought-about even years once traveling. protozoal infection within the past has been a significant ill health in elements of Europe, us, and different industrial countries. Currently, it's recognized as associate foreign malady in immigrants, military personnel, and travelers.

Several articles are written on the repetition of falciparum protozoal infection. protozoal infection repetition separated by quite twelve months is a smaller amount possible to flow from to P falciparum infection. P falciparum malaria repetition will occur by 2 completely different mechanisms: reinfection and outbreak. outbreak with a protracted latency is that the a lot of possible clarification for this case, as a result of reinfection sometimes happens once day fourteen of treatment and in endemic areas. outbreak may be as a (result of thanks to attributable to) (1) incomplete or inadequate treatment as a result of drug resistance or improper alternative of medication, (2) associate matter variation, and (3) multiple infection by completely different strains. Prompt diagnosing and treatment will decrease the associated morbidity, potential mortality, and associated prices of protozoal infection. Despite however recently or remotely travel occurred, protozoal infection ought to be enclosed within the medical diagnosis for anyone with a symptom malady United Nations agency has lived in or traveled to an epidemic space.

Specific population risk teams include:

young youngsters in stable transmission areas United Nations agency haven't none the less developed protecting immunity against the foremost severe varieties of the disease;

non-immune pregnant women: as protozoal infection causes high rates of miscarriage and may result in maternal death

semi-immune pregnant women in areas of high transmission. Protozoal infection may result in miscarriage and low birth weight, particularly throughout 1st and second pregnancies;

semi-immune HIV-infected pregnant girls in stable transmission areas, throughout all pregnancies. Girls with protozoal infection infection of the placenta even have the next risk of passing HIV infection to their newborns;

People with HIV/AIDS;

International travelers from non-endemic areas as a result of they lack immunity;

Immigrants from endemic area unit as and their youngsters living in non-endemic areas and returning to their home countries to go to friends and relatives are equally in danger due to waning or absent immunity.

Diagnosis

Blood tests will show the presence of the parasite and facilitate tailor treatment by determining:

Whether you have got protozoal infection

Which type of sporozoan is inflicting your symptoms

If your infection is caused by a parasite proof against bound medication

Whether the malady has effects on any of your very important organs

Some blood tests will take many days to finish, whereas others will turn out leads to but quarter-hour.

Treatments and medicines

The types of medicine and also the length of treatment can vary, relying on:

Which type of sporozoan you have got

The severity of your symptoms

Your age

Whether you are pregnant

Quinine and connected agents

Quinine includes a long history stretching from Peru, and also the discovery of the Cinchona pubescence, and also the potential uses of its bark, to this day and a set of derivatives that area unit still of times employed in the bar and treatment of protozoal infection. Antimalarial drug is associate organic compound that acts as a blood schizonticidal and weak gametocide against sporozoan and Plasmodium malaria. As associate organic compound, it's accumulated within the food vacuoles of Plasmodium species, particularly Plasmodium falciparum. It acts by inhibiting the hemozoin bio crystallization, therefore facilitating associate aggregation of cytotoxic haemitin. Antimalarial drug is a smaller amount effective and a lot of cyanogenic as a blood schizonticidal agent than chloroquine; but, it's still terribly effective and wide employed in the treatment of acute cases of severe P. falciparum. it's particularly helpful in areas wherever there's known to be a high level of resistance to antimalarial, mefloquine, and antibacterial combos with pyrimethamine. Antimalarial drug is additionally employed in post-exposure treatment of people arriving from a vicinity wherever protozoal infection is endemic.

Chloroquine

Chloroquine was, until recently, the most widely used anti-malarial. It was the original prototype from which most methods of treatment are derived. It is also the least expensive, best tested and safest of all available drugs. The emergence of drug-resistant parasitic strains is rapidly decreasing its effectiveness; however, it is still the first-line drug of choice in most sub-Saharan African countries. It is now suggested that it is used in combination with other antimalarial drugs to extend its effective usage. Popular drugs based on chloroquine phosphate (also called nivaquine) are Chloroquine FNA, Resochin and Dawaquin.

Amodiaquine

Amodiaquine is a 4-aminoquinolone anti-malarial drug similar in structure and mechanism of action to chloroquine. Amodiaquine has tended to be administered in areas of chloroquine resistance while some patients prefer its tendency to cause less itching than chloroquine. Amodiaquine is now available in a combined formulation with artesunate (ASAQ) and is among the artemisinin-combination therapies recommended by the World Health Organisation. Combination with sulfadoxine=pyrimethamine is no longer recommended (WHO guidelines 2010).

Proguanil

Proguanil (chloroguanide) is a biguanide; a synthetic derivative of pyrimidine. It was developed in 1945 by a British Antimalarial research group. It has many mechanisms of action but primarily is mediated through conversion to the active metabolite cycloguanil. This inhibits the malarial dihydrofolate reductase enzyme. Its most prominent effect is on the primary tissue stages of P. falciparum, P. vivax and P. ovale. It has no known effect against hypnozoites therefore is not used in the prevention of relapse. It has a weak blood schizonticidal activity and is not recommended for therapy of acute infection. However it is useful in prophylaxis when combined with atovaquone or chloroquine (in areas where there is no chloroquine resistance). 3 mg/kg is the advised dosage per day, (hence approximate adult dosage is 200 mg). The pharmacokinetic profile of the drugs indicates that a half dose, twice daily maintains the plasma levels with a greater level of consistency, thus giving a greater level of protection. The proguanil- chloroquine combination does not provide effective protection against resistant strains of P. falciparum. There are very few side effects to proguanil, with slight hair loss and mouth ulcers being occasionally reported following prophylactic use. Proguanil hydrochloride is marketed as Paludrine by AstraZeneca.

Sulfonamides

Sulfadoxine and sulfamethoxypyridazine are specific inhibitors of the enzyme dihydropteroate synthetase in the tetrahydrofolate synthesis pathway of malaria parasites. They are structural analogs of p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) and compete with PABA to block its conversion to dihydrofolic acid. Sulfonamides act on the schizont stages of the erythrocytic (asexual) cycle. When administered alone sulfonamides are not efficacious in treating malaria but co-administration with the antifolate pyrimethamine, most commonly as fixed-dose sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (Fansidar), produces synergistic effects sufficient to cure sensitive strains of malaria.

Mefloquine

Mefloquine was developed during the Vietnam War and is chemically related to quinine. It was developed to protect American troops against multi-drug resistant P. falciparum. It is a very potent blood schizonticide with a long half-life. It is thought to act by forming toxic heme complexes that damage parasitic food vacuoles. It is now used solely for the prevention of resistant strains of P. falciparum despite being effective against P. vivax, P. ovale and P. marlariae. Mefloquine is effective in prophylaxis and for acute therapy. It is now strictly used for resistant strains (and is usually combined with Artesunate). Chloroquine/proguanil or sulfa drug-pyrimethamine combinations should be used in all other Plasmodia infections.

Atovaquone

Atovaquone is available in combination with proguanil under the name Malarone, albeit at a price higher than Lariam. It is commonly used in prophylaxis by travellers and used to treat falciparum malaria in developed countries. A liquid oral suspension of Atovaquone is available under the name Mepron.

Primaquine

Primaquine is a highly active 8-aminoquinolone that is used in treating all types of malaria infection. It is most effective against gametocytes but also acts on hypnozoites, blood schizonticytes and the dormant plasmodia in P. vivax and P. ovale. It is the only known drug to cure both relapsing malaria infections and acute cases. The mechanism of action is not fully understood but it is thought to block oxidative metabolism in Plasmodia.

Artemisinin and derivatives

Artemisinin is a Chinese herb (qinghaosu) that has been used in the treatment of fevers for over 1,000 years, [4] thus predating the use of Quinine in the western world. It is derived from the plant Artemisia annua, with the first documentation as a successful therapeutic agent in the treatment of malaria is in 340 AD by Ge Hong in his book Zhou Hou Bei Ji Fang (A Handbook of Prescriptions for Emergencies). Ge Hong extracted the artemesinin using a simple macerate, and this method is still in use today. The active compound was isolated first in 1971 and named artemsinin. It is a sesquiterpene lactone with a chemically rare peroxide bridge linkage. It is this that is thought to be responsible for the majority of its anti-malarial action, although the target within the parasite remains controversial. At present it is strictly controlled under WHO guidelines as it has proven to be effective against all forms of multi-drug resistant P. falciparum, thus every care is taken to ensure compliance and adherence together with other behaviors associated with the development of resistance. It is also only given in combination with other anti-malarials.

Halofantrine

Halofantrine is a relatively new drug developed by the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research in the 1960s. It is a phenanthrene methanol, chemically related to Quinine and acts acting as a blood schizonticide effective against all plasmodium parasites. Its mechanism of action is similar to other anti-malarials. Cytotoxic complexes are formed with ferritoporphyrin XI that cause plasmodial membrane damage. Despite being effective against drug resistant parasites, halofantrine is not commonly used in the treatment (prophylactic or therapeutic) of malaria due to its high cost.

Doxycycline

Probably one of the more prevalent antimalarial drugs prescribed, due to its relative effectiveness and cheapness, doxycycline is a tetracycline compound derived from oxytetracycline. The tetracyclines were one of the earliest groups of antibiotics to be developed and are still used widely in many types of infection. It is a bacteriostatic agent that acts to inhibit the process of protein synthesis by binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit thus preventing the 50s and 30s units from bonding. Doxycycline is used primarily for chemoprophylaxis in areas where chloroquine resistance exists. It can also be used in combination with quinine to treat resistant cases of P. falciparum but has a very slow action in acute malaria, and should not be used as monotherapy.

Clindamycin

Clindamycin is a derivative of lincomycin, with a slow action against blood schizonticides. It is only used in combination with quinine in the treatment of acute cases of resistant P. falciparum infections and not as a prophylactic. Being more expensive and toxic than the other antibiotic alternatives, it is used only in cases where the Tetracyclines are contraindicated (for example in children).

Prevention

If you're going to be traveling to a location where malaria is common, talk to your doctor a few months ahead of time about drugs you can take — before, during and after your trip — that can help protect you from malaria parasites.

In general, the drugs taken to prevent malaria are the same drugs used to treat the disease. Your doctor needs to know where you'll be traveling so that he or she can prescribe the drug that will work best on the type of malaria parasite most commonly found in that region.

No vaccine yet

Scientists around the world are trying to develop a safe and effective vaccine for malaria. As of yet, however, there is still no malaria vaccine approved for human use.

Reducing exposure to mosquitoes

In countries where malaria is common, prevention also involves keeping mosquitoes away from humans. Strategies include:

Spraying your home. Treating your home's walls with insecticide can help kill adult mosquitoes that come inside.

Sleeping under a net. Bed nets, particularly those treated with insecticide, are especially recommended for pregnant women and young children.

Covering your skin. During active mosquito times, usually from dusk to dawn, wear pants and long-sleeved shirts.

Spraying clothing and skin. Sprays containing permethrin are safe to use on clothing, while sprays containing DEET can be used on skin.

Conclusion

There is a lot of to be worn out the analysis of protozoal infection and its treatment. the world image of protozoal infection is widespread, however most endemic area unit as are poor communities. Education on the bar of protozoal infection is greatly required. Advanced observe nurses will play a significant role within the demolition of this illness as they prepare themselves et al UN agency trip endemic protozoal infection areas, as they treat people that board endemic areas, and as they assist form international health policy that acknowledges the world importance of this illness.

References