Mini Review on Dengue Fever | Open Access Journals

Mini Review on Dengue Fever

Jhansi Arigi*

 

Department of Biotechnology, Andhra University college of Engineering, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India

*Corresponding Author:
Jhansi Arigi
Department of Biotechnology, Andhra University
Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India
Tel: 9908157527.
E-mail: arigijhansi@gmail.com

Received date: 20/08/2016 Accepted date: 25/08/2016 Published date: 01/09/2016

Visit for more related articles at Research & Reviews: Journal of Hospital and Clinical Pharmacy

Abstract

Dengue fever is a viral disease; it will spread by infected mosquito bites. Individual with dengue virus will exhibit various symptoms include high fever, head ach, nausea, diarrhea, itching, bleeding in gums, skin rash and some time it leads to life threatening. Immediately they should consult doctor.

Keywords

Dengue fever, Aedes aegypti, Headache, Nausea, Diarrhea

Introduction

Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne viral infection caused by dengue virus [1-5]. Dengue infection is transmitted by female mosquitoes mainly of the species Aedes aegypti and, to a lesser extent, Aedes albopictus infected with virus. These mosquitoes will bite in the early morning or evening times but the infection will spread at any time of day. Mosquitoes will take blood from a person who is infected with dengue fever, from 2-10 days after the bite the mosquito will infect with the virus and the virus will spread to all tissues of the mosquito including its salivary glands [6-15].That virus will not affect mosquito but it will be infected for its life time and transfers the virus to humans. And that additionally transmits chikungunya, yellow fever and Zika virus [15-20]. Today, serious dengue influences most Asian and Latin American nations and has turned into a main source of hospitalization and passing among kids and grown-ups in these regions.

Symptoms typically start three to fourteen days after contamination. This may include a high fever, head ach, nausea, vomiting, muscle and joint pains, and skin rash. Recovery takes under two to seven days. In some cases, this will lead to life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever, resulting in decreasing platelet count and blood plasma spillage, or into dengue shock disorder where low blood pressure will occurs. There are 4 type of viruses that causes dengue [21-32] are DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3 and DEN-4. Recovery from disease by one serotype gives lifelong immunity while other serotypes can give temporary. A novel vaccine for dengue fever has been endorsed in three countries, yet it is not yet available [33-40]. This might be finished by disposing of or covering standing water and wearing attire that spreads a great part of the body. Treatment of intense dengue is strong and incorporates giving liquid either by mouth or intravenously for mellow or direct sickness. For more serious cases blood transfusion might be required [41-50]. About a large portion of a million people oblige admission to healing facility a year.

Symptoms

Regularly, individuals infected with dengue infection are asymptomatic (80%) or just have mellow indications like an uncomplicated fever and chills [51-57]. Others have more extreme disease (5%), and in a little extent it is life-threatening. The incubation period is about 3 to 14 days, yet frequently it is 4 to 7 days [58-66]. Subsequently, voyagers coming back from endemic regions are unrealistic to have dengue if fever or different side effects begin over 14 days in the wake of arriving home. Youngsters regularly encounter side effects like those of the basic cool and gastroenteritis (spewing and diarrhea) and have a more serious danger of serious complications; however starting side effects are by and large gentle yet incorporate high fever. The trademark manifestations of dengue are sudden-onset fever, cerebral pain (commonly situated behind the eyes), muscle and joint agonies, and a rash [67-74]. Dengue fever is also known as, "break bone fever", and originates from the related muscle and joint pains. The course of disease is isolated into three stages: febrile, basic, and recovery.

Febrile stage: This stage includes high fever, conceivably more than 40°C (104°F), severe head ach, bleeding from mouth and nose, muscle and joint pains, vomiting, rash, diarrhea, loss of appetite, pain behind eyes. These will last for 2-7 days [75-80]. Critical stage: In some people, disease will leads to critical phase, this stage includes leakage of plasma from blood vessels, and there may be organ dysfunction and bleeding, shock and hemorrhage. People who are infected with dengue virus for the second time will be at more risk of getting hemorrhagic fever; this will leads to death in more cases. Recovery stage: And then recovery phase, this phase lasts for 2-3 days and includes itching, slow heart rate, altered level of consciousness, seizures. A feeling of fatigue may last for weeks in adults.

Diagnosis

Diagnosis for dengue fever is made when you are suffering with high fever, head ach, vomiting, nausea, diarrhea, fatigue and etc. Doctors can diagnose this virus with blood test for the virus or antibodies. It will be difficult to diagnose because the symptoms will overlap with various viral diseases, platelet count test will help in diagnosing dengue fever [81-90].

Treatment

There is no particular treatment or medicine to treat dengue virus. The people who are suffering from dengue fever can use pain relievers to avoid muscle pains. They should take plenty of water and fluids. But traditionally, people believe that juice of carica papaya leaf juice will helps in increasing platelet count, which is one of the key symptoms of dengue fever [91-93].

Prevention

There is no vaccine to prevent dengue fever. The best technique for security is to maintain a strategic distance from mosquito chomps and to diminish the mosquito populace [94-98]. But traditionally, at the point when in a high-hazard zone, you ought to:

• Avoid intensely populated local locations

• Use mosquito repellent inside and outside

• Wear long sleeved shirts and jeans tucked into socks

• Use aerating and cooling as opposed to opening windows

• Ensure that window and entryway screens are secure, and any gaps are repaired

• Use mosquito nets if resting ranges are not screened

References