ISSN: 2320-0189

All submissions of the EM system will be redirected to **Online Manuscript Submission System**. Authors are requested to submit articles directly to **Online Manuscript Submission System** of respective journal.

**Joseph KE Ortega ^{*}**

Bioengineering Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado Denver, 1200 Larimer Street, NC-3024-F, P.O. Box 173364, Denver, CO, 80217-3364, USA

- *Corresponding Author:
- Joseph KE Ortega

Bioengineering Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado Denver, USA(303) 556-8489

Tel:

**E-mail:**Joseph.Ortega@ucdenver.edu

**Received date:** 02/06/2016 **Accepted date:** 17/08/2016 **Published date:** 23/08/2016

**Visit for more related articles at** Research & Reviews: Journal of Botanical Sciences

Expansive growth is central to development, morphogenesis, and sensory responses of algal, fungal and plant cells. These walled cells generate turgor pressure by absorbing water. The turgor pressure produces irreversible (plastic) and reversible (elastic) deformations in a wall whose mechanical properties are regulated biochemically. These **biophysical processes** (water uptake and wall deformation) are described by established interrelated biophysical equations, the augmented **growth** equations. Dimensional analysis is used to make the Augmented Growth Equations dimensionless, producing dimensionless coefficients. The dimensionless coefficients are interpreted as ratios of biophysical processes. The utility of the dimensionless augmented growth equations and the dimensionless coefficients are explored. It is found that one dimensionless coefficient may provide insight into the wall chemistry used by different cells to regulate their wall mechanical properties. Different magnitudes of the dimensionless coefficient for algal, fungal, and **plant cells** suggests that different molecular mechanisms are used to regulate their wall mechanical properties.

Morphogenesis, Fungal cells, Glycoproteins, Plant cells, Expansive growth

Volumetric (expansive) growth is fundamental to development, morphogenesis, and sensory responses of plant, algal and
fungal cells. These cells can grow to large volumes, e.g. fungal cells (sporangiophores) can grow to lengths greater than 20 cm
(**Figure 1**). These cells are encased in a strong and somewhat rigid cell wall. The cell wall is an **exoskeleton** that gives the cell
shape and support while providing both physical and chemical protection from the external environment. Typical plant and algal
cell walls are composed of cellulose microfibrils embedded in an amorphous matrix of hemicelluloses, pectins, and small amounts
of structural proteins [1]. Typical fungal cell walls are composed of chitin and β-glucan microfibrils embedded in an amorphous
matrix of chitosan, glycoproteins, and lipids [2,3]. The polymers in the walls are linked together by covalent bonds, hydrogen bonds,
**hydrophobic interaction**, and ionic associations [3].

The stage I sporangiophore appears as a single pointed cell that grows longitudinally and vertically at the apical tip in the growth zone. In the scheme on the left, the growth zone is shown as light green and the non-growing stalk is dark green. Clockwise rotation growth (when viewed from above) and elongation growth occur concurrently during stage I producing left-handed helical growth. Stage II begins with spherical growth at the apical tip without elongation and rotation growth. The diameter of the sporangium continues to increase until stage III, where the diameter is constant (≈0.5 mm) and no expansive growth is observed. Stage IVa begins with elongation growth concurrent with counter-clockwise rotation growth (right-handed helical growth) in a short growth zone located approximately 0.6 mm below the sporangium. The sporangium begins to darken and elongation growth, rotation growth, and growth zone length continue to increase. The right-handed helical growth continues for approximately one hour before the rotation rate gradually decreases to zero and clockwise rotation begins without interruption of elongation growth. Stage IVb begins with the initiation of left-handed helical growth and exhibits nearly constant elongation and rotation growth rates for many hours. Stage IVc is initiated by counter-clockwise rotation and right-handed helical growth. Typically, this is a very old sporangiophore. Stage V is the last stage and does not exhibit expansive growth. Reproduced from [4] with permission.

Cells with walls accumulate active solutes inside their semi-permeable plasma membrane. This generates the osmotic
potential needed to absorb water from its external environment and produce **turgor pressure** that stresses the wall. Wall stresses
produce irreversible (plastic) and reversible (elastic) wall deformations in three orthogonal directions, generally stretching the
wall in the two directions parallel to the wall surface (longitudinally and circumferentially) and contracting the wall in the direction
perpendicular to the surface, making the wall thinner [4]. New wall materials (**polymers**, proteins, etc.) are continuously added to
the inside surface to maintain a nearly constant wall thickness that varies between 0.1 μm and 1.0 μm, depending on the cell
species [5].

Overall, expansive growth occurs as follows [6]. The cell wall is biochemically loosened to produce wall stress relaxation and pressure relaxation that decreases the magnitude of both the wall stresses and turgor pressure. Water uptake increases in response to the decrease in turgor pressure and expands (deforms) the loosened wall. The wall deformation increases the wall surface area (expansion) while decreasing the wall thickness. Concomitantly, new wall polymers and other wall materials are added to the inner surface of the wall to maintain a nearly constant wall thickness. This sequence of events - wall loosening, wall stress relaxation, pressure relaxation, water uptake, increase in turgor pressure, wall expansion, increase in wall stresses, and wall loosening again - is repeated continually during expansive growth.

Cellular expansive growth rate is generally controlled and regulated by manipulating the **mechanical properties** of the cell
wall to produce plastic deformation, and in some cases by changing the turgor pressure [7]. A considerable amount of research has
been conducted to understand how the mechanical properties are controlled at the molecular level [5,8-10]. Mathematical models
have been constructed in an attempt to supplement a qualitative description of expansive growth with a quantitative description,
to assist in the understanding of growth rate regulation, and to guide experimental investigations.

The qualitative concepts and processes involved in expansive growth have been formalized in quantitative biophysical
equations, the augmented growth equations [7,11,12]. The global augmented growth equations describe the two simultaneous
and interrelated physical processes that are involved with expansive growth (net water uptake and cell wall deformation) using
biophysical variables, thus coupling relevant **biology** with relevant physics. The first equation describes in relative terms, the rate
of change in water volume in the cell, v_{w}, as the difference in the volumetric rate of water uptake, L (Δπ − P), and **transpiration**,
v_{T}
[12-14].

(1)

**Equation 2 **describes in relative terms, the rate of change in volume of the cell wall chamber, v_{cw}, as the sum of the
volumetric irreversible (plastic) deformation rate, φ (P – P_{C}), and volumetric reversible (elastic) deformation rate, (1/ε) dP/dt, of
the cell wall [11].

(2)

During expansive growth the relative rates of change in volume of the water and the cell wall chamber are approximately
equal to each other, and to the relative volumetric growth rate of the cell, Therefore a third equation can be
obtained by setting (Equations 1 and 2) equal to each other, with the elimination of v_{w} and v_{cw}
[13,14].

(3)

The Augmented Growth Equations (Equations 1-3) have accurately described, and in some cases predicted, experimental results from growing plant cells in tissue [7,13,15], algal internode cells [16,17] and fungal sporangiophores [12,18,19]. Reviews discuss many of these experiments and analyses [7,14].

**Dimensional Analysis**

Additional insight into expansive growth can be obtained by using dimensional analysis. Dimensional analyses is a
mathematical tool used in the physical sciences and engineering [20] to obtain insight into relationships between variables
involved in processes of interest, to organize large quantities of experimental data, and to provide scaling laws for models. The
overall process is to obtain dimensionless groups of variables (Π parameters) involved in the process of interest and explore
the relationship between the parameters, experimentally or analytically. A straightforward method to obtain the Π parameters
is to make the governing equations dimensionless with constant reference quantities and manipulate the equations to produce
dimensionless coefficients, i.e. Π parameters [20]. As an example, the dimensionless linear momentum equation in fluid mechanics
produces a dimensionless coefficient for the viscous term that represents the ratio of viscous forces and inertia forces [20]. The
inverse of this dimensionless coefficient, or Π parameter, has been termed the **Reynolds number** (ρ U D /μ, where ρ is the fluid
density, U is the flow velocity, D is a characteristic length, and μ is the dynamic viscosity of the fluid). Two Π parameters, the
coefficient of drag (CD) and the Reynolds number (ReD), can be used to organize the drag force on a sphere of different diameters
(D) produced by hundreds of flows with different **fluids** and different flow velocities [20]. Analyses of the resultant curve (which
represents a functional relationship between the CD and ReD) reveal different flow regions (creep flow, transition flow, laminar
boundary layer flow, and turbulent boundary layer flow) that represent different flow patterns and reveals different functional
relationships between CD and ReD in these flow regions [20].

The variables in Equations 1-3 are made dimensionless (*) with the following constant reference parameters: vs (steady
or average relative volumetric growth rate), vsT (steady or average relative volumetric transpiration rate) and PC (critical turgor
pressure); please see analyses, estimates, and definitions for details. Substituting the respective expressions that includes the
dimensionless variable and reference parameter for each of the variables into Equations 1-3 and then dividing the first two
equations by the constant reference parameter, vs, and dividing the third equation by the constant coefficient, v_{s} *P _{C}* / ε, we get
dimensionless equations with dimensionless variables (*); please see Analyses, Estimates, and Definitions for details.

(4)

(5)

(6)

**Dimensionless Π Parameters**

Equations 4-6 are dimensionless and the coefficients for the terms on the RHS (in parenthesis) are also dimensionless.
Just as the Reynolds number is interpreted to be the ratio of inertia forces and **viscous** forces, the dimensionless coefficients in
Equations 4-6 may also be interpreted in terms of ratios of processes:

A benefit of using dimensionless equations is that a dimensionless governing equation can be solved and the dimensionless
solution can be used to study a wide spectrum of parameter values, without having to solve the governing equation each
time [20]. As an example, consider a stress relaxation experiment for some unspecified walled cell. An in vivo stress relaxation
experiment is conduct by isolating a growing walled cell from its water supply and eliminating transpiration by testing the cell in an
environmental chamber of 100% relative humidity. Then the turgor pressure decays in time and can be measured with a pressure
probe [15-18]. Water uptake and water loss from the cell is eliminated so that the decay in turgor pressure is the result of wall stress
relaxation alone. Experimentally, the condition that must be satisfied is that the volume of the cell must remain constant during
the experiment, i.e. v_{w} = 0 [11,15,18]. The governing equation for a stress relaxation experiment is obtained from Equation 5 by
imposing the condition that v_{cw}=v_{w}=0.

Using the dimensionless initial condition, the equation is integrated and the following dimensionless solution Equation 7 is obtained, where

(7)

It is apparent that the dimensionless time constant, *t _{c}**, for the exponential decay of the dimensionless turgor pressure,

(8)

Note that, Equation 8 is the same solution previously obtained for a stress relaxation experiment [11,15,18]. Other expansive growth behavior and experimental results can be described using modified versions of the dimensionless augmented growth equations (Equations 4-6). Their dimensionless solutions can be used to explore a large range of parameter magnitudes using the inclusive dimensionless groups.

It is apparent that new dimensionless groups can be obtained by taking products or ratios of the dimensionless groups
obtained from the dimensionless Augmented Growth Equations. For example, Π_{pw} can be obtained from the ratio, Π_{pv}/Π_{wv}=Π_{pw}=φ/
L=(relative volumetric plastic deformation rate of the wall)/(relative volumetric water uptake rate). The magnitude of Π_{pw} is useful
because when it is small (Π_{pw} << 1), it means that water uptake rate is not limiting during expansive growth and Equation 2 or
Equation 5, is the sole governing equation that determines the relative volumetric growth rate [15].

Traditionally in the physical sciences, dimensionless groups are used to organize and analyze large quantities of data from
experiments and tests [20]. Because dimensionless groups already provide functional relationships between inclusive variables, it
takes fewer graphs between relevant Π parameters to determine the functional relationship between all the variables involved in
the process [20]. The Π parameters obtained from the dimensionless augmented growth equations can be used to organize data
related to expansive growth of walled cells. One dimensionless group that is particularly interesting is Π_{pe}. This dimensionless
group reflects the constitutive (stress-strain) relationship of the growing cell wall, which in turn reflects wall loosening and wall
hardening characteristics of the wall chemistry used to regulate the wall mechanical properties and wall deformation behavior.
Some published data is available to evaluate Πpe. It is noted that nearly all of the relevant published research assumes that
changes in volume occur predominately by changing the length of the cell, the diameter is assumed to remain relatively constant.
Elongation growth rate data obtained from published research is used to evaluate Π_{pe}, i.e. Π_{pe} = (ε φ / *v _{s}*). Data is obtained [15-18] and
used to estimate Π

Although the global augmented growth equations have proven to be very useful, in general global equations have limitations.
Local mathematical biophysical models [14,21,22] for the cell wall are needed to describe wall deformation behavior during helical
growth [23-25], oscillatory cell growth [26,27], cellular bending [2,7] and **morphogenesis** [7,28-31]. The dimensionless augmented growth
equations and inclusive Π parameters can guide the construction of future local mathematical biophysical models to ensure
that the ratios of important processes (e.g. plastic and elastic deformation rates) are the same. For example, *wall deformation*
*similarity* may be established by matching the Π_{pe} of the local mathematical model to the Π_{pe} obtained experimentally.

**Dimensionless variables**

The variables in Equations 1-3 are made dimensionless (*) with the following constant reference parameters: P_{C} (critical
turgor pressure), v_{s} (steady relative volumetric growth rate), and v_{sT} (steady relative volumetric transpiration rate).

**Dimensionless equations**

Substituting the respective expressions that includes the dimensionless variable and reference parameter (variables and their respective expressions in the right column above) for each of the variables into Equations 1-3, we get

(1)

and

(2)

and

(3)

Dividing first two equations by the constant reference parameter, v_{s}, and dividing the third equation by the constant
coefficient, v_{s} *P _{c}* /ε, we get

(4)

(5)

(6)

**Estimates for Π _{pe}**

The magnitude of Π_{pe} = (ε φ / v_{s}) is estimated for pea stems, internode algal cells, and fungal sporangiophores.

The following values were obtained for pea stems, *Pisum satinis* L. [15].

The following values were obtained for algal cells, *Chara corallina* [16,17]

*L = 13mm = 1.3×10 ^{4}μm*

The following values were obtained for fungal sporangiophores of *Phycomyces blakesleeanus* [18].

**Definition of variables and terms**

*A = area of the plasma membrane*

*L _{P} = hydraulic conductivity of the plasma membrane*

*P = turgor pressure (gage pressure relative to atmospheric pressure)*

*PC = critical turgor pressure (to be exceeded before plastic deformation occurs)*

*t = time*

*V = volume*

*V _{cw} = volume of cell wall chamber*

*V _{w} = volume of water in the cell*

*V _{T} = volume of water lost by transpiration*

*ε = volumetric elastic modulus*

*φ = relative irreversible extensibility of the cell wall*

*Δπ = osmotic pressure difference across the plasma membrane*

*L(Δπ – P) = relative volumetric rate of water uptake*

*φ(P – P _{C} ) = relative volumetric plastic deformation rate of the cell wall*

This research was support by NSF Grant, MCB-0948921, to J.K.E. Ortega.

- Carpita NC and Gibeaut DM. Structural models of primary cell walls in flowering plants: consistency of molecular structure with the physical properties of the walls during growth. 1993;
**3**:1-30. - Cerda Olmedo E and Lipson ED. Phycomyces
*.*Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, New York.1987. - Ruiz-Herrera J. Fungal cell wall: Structure, synthesis, and assembly
*,*Taylor & Francis Group CRC Press, Boca Raton, London, New York. 2012. - Ortega JKE, et al. Cell wall loosening in the fungus, Phycomyces blakesleeanus Plants. 2015;4:63-84.
- Cosgrove DJ. Growth of the plant cell wall. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol, 2005;6:850-861.
- Cosgrove DJ. How do plant cell walls extend? Plant Physiol. 1993;102:1-6.
- Geitmann A and Ortega JKE. Mechanics and modeling of plant cell growth
*.*T Plant Sci. 2009;14:467-478. - Cosgrove DJ. Loosening of plant cell walls by expansins. Nature. 2000;407:321-326.
- Proseus TE and Boyer JS. Calcium deprivation disrupts enlargement of Chara corallina cells: further evidence for the calcium pectate cycle. J Exp Bot. 2012;63:3953-3958.
- Boyer JS. Cell wall biosynthesis and the molecular mechanism of plant enlargement. Funct Plant Biol. 2009;36:383-394.
- Ortega JKE. Augmented growth equation for cell wall expansion. Plant Physiol. 1985;79:318-320.
- Ortega, et al. Pressure probe technique to study transpiration in Phycomyces sporangiophores. Plant Physiol. 1988;87:11-14.
- Ortega JKE. Plant cell growth in tissue. Plant Physiol. 2010;154:1244-1253.
- Ortega JKE and Welch SWJ. Mathematical models for expansive growth of cells with walls. Math Model Nat Phen. 2013;8:35-61.
- Cosgrove DJ. Cell wall yield properties of growing tissue; Evaluation by
*in vivo*stress relaxation. Plant Physiol. 1985;78:347-356. - Proseus T, et al. Separating growth from elastic deformation during cell enlargement. Plant Physiol. 1999;119:775-784.
- Proseus TE, et al. Turgor, temperature and the growth of plant cells: using Chara corallina as a model system. J Exp Bot. 2000;51:1481-1494.
- Ortega JKE, et al. In vivo creep and stress relaxation experiments to determine the wall extensibility and yield threshold for the sporangiophores of Phycomyces. Biophys J. 1989;56: 465-475.
- Ortega JKE, et al. Stiff mutant genes of Phycomyces affect turgor pressure and wall mechanical properties to regulate elongation growth rate. Front Plant Sci. 2012;3:99.
- Schlichting H. Boundary Layer Theory, (7thedn). McGraw-Hill, New York. 1979.
- Dumais J, et al. An anisotropic-viscoplastic model of plant cell morphogenesis by tip growth. Int J Dev Biol. 2006;50:209-222.
- Huang R, et al. A finite strain fibre-reinforced viscoelasto-viscoplastic model of plant cell wall growth. J Engr Math. 2015;95:121-154.
- Castle ES. Amer J Bot. 1942;664-672.
- Ortega, et al. The problem of handedness reversal during the spiral growth of Phycomyces. J Theor Biol. 1974;47:317-332.
- Goriely A and Tabor M. Spontaneous rotational inversion in Phycomyces. Phys Rev Lett. 2011;106:138103.1-138103.4.
- Gamow RI and Bottger B. Phycomyces: Irregular growth patterns in stage IVb sporangiophores. J Gen Physiol. 1981;77:65-68.
- Kroeger JH, et al. Model for calcium dependent oscillatory growth in pollen tubes. J Theor Biol. 2008;253:363-374.
- Heath IB. Tip growth in plant and fungal cells. Academic Press, Inc., San Diego. 1990.
- Gierz G and Bartnicki Garcia S. Three-dimensional model of fungal morphogenesis based on the vesicle supply center concept. J Theor Biol. 2001;208:151-164.
- Zerzour R, et al. Polar growth in pollen tubes is associated with spatially confined dynamic changes in cell mechanical properties. Dev Biol. 2009;334:437-446.
- Guerriero G, et al. Sensitivity of Aspergillus nidulans to the cellulose synthase inhibitor dichlobenil: Insights from wall-related genes’ expression and ultrastructural hyphal morphologies. 2013;8:80038.