Industrial Waste Water Research Lab, Division of Applied & Environmental Microbiology, Enviro Technology Ltd., Ankleshwar, Gujarat, India
Received Date: 14/12/2017; Accepted Date: 18/12/2017; Published Date: 23/12/2017
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Bioremediation, Technology, Environment, Soil, Bacteria
Bioremediation is the use of microorganisms, plants or biological enzymes to achieve hazardous Bioremediation means the utilization of microbes, plants or biological enzymes to attain hazardous waste treatment . The treatment can focus on different types of media with different possible targets. Bioremediation in situ, bioremediation in the sub superficial layer is easily accessible to the environment compared to ex situ bioremediation. Bioremediation can be applied in situ an unsaturated zone or in saturated soils and groundwater. Local bioremediation technology was originally developed as a less costly and more efficient alternative to the standard pumping and treatment methods used to clean the soil and water contaminated with organic chemicals, but since then it has spread and toxic metals. On site bioremediation has the potential to offer benefits, such as the total destruction of contaminants, lower risk for employees in the workplace and lower/ operational teams costs One way to classify bioremediation in situ is the type of metabolism. Two categories of high level metabolism are aerobic and anaerobic. The objective of metabolism for bioremediation in situ will depend on pollutants of interest. Some contaminants break down aerobically, some are anaerobic and some contaminants can be biodegradable in aerobic or anaerobic conditions. Another way to classify bioremediation in situ is the degree of human intervention. On-site accelerated bioremediation is at an end of the scale where there is a high degree human intervention [2-4]. With on-site accelerated bioremediation, substrates or nutrients was added to the subway to stimulate the growth of a specific bacteria consortium. Generally, Target bacteria are cultures of natural but enriched bacteria that are very effective at degrading them to introduce a contaminant in particular in a layer of water, which is called bio actualization. An accelerated bioremediation is used in situ where it is desirable to increase the speed biotransformation rate of contaminants, which may be limited by lack of requirements nutrients, electron donor or electron recipient. The type of adaptation required depends on the objective metabolism for this contaminant. Aerobic bioremediation on site may only require oxygen such as an electron acceptor, while an anaerobic bioremediation in situ in general requires the addition of an electron donor and possibly an electron acceptor . Particularly chlorinated solvents usually require the addition of carbon substrate to stimulate reductive depletion. The purpose of accelerated bioremediation is to increase biomass by polluting the amount of biomass aquifer layer, thereby achieving effective biodegradation in adsorbed and dissolved impurities On the other hand, natural attenuation on the scale is a method of using bioremediation without significant humanitarian efforts. Natural damping is a versatile approach, the only one component is the degradation/transformation of household microorganisms without human intervention. Characterization of the site, possible assessment of natural damping and long-term monitoring includes the necessary measures to carry out the natural attenuation. The mapping determines the degree of contamination, scale characteristics, water geochemistry and the nature of the biological reactions of the water supply. This characteristic information can be used to determine the potential of natural care in order to avoid the accumulation of pollutants from those receivers. Analytical and / or numerical models can be used to estimate the fate of the impurities in a single line evidence for supporting natural depletion. Long-term observation is used to evaluate item transport of pollutants compared to forecasts. There may be several evaluations repeat so that more information is collected and the system is better understood. If the accelerated bioreferens are used for -saturated or natural damping, in particular site depends on the characteristics of groundwater, chemical concentrations, the development of the project and the economy of each option. The rate of degradation impurities tend to be slower in the natural damping scenario than in the active bioreactor, because the concentration of bacteria is much higher in accelerated bioremediation and speed the measure is proportional to the amount of biomass. Natural deterioration usually takes longer. On-the-spot accelerated bioreemics usually offer faster solutions, but they have invested a lot more on materials, equipment and labor.
1. Organic pollutants can be converted to completely harmless substances.
2. Accelerated in-situ bioremediation can provide volumetric treatment where both dissolved and sorbent contaminants are treated.
3. Treating underground in situ with accelerated bioremediation can often be faster than pumping and handling processes.
4. In situ bioremediation often costs less than other recovery opportunities.
5. The Bioremediation Forum's treatment area may be larger than other repair techniques as the treatment moves by the tire and can reach areas that otherwise were unavailable.
6. In situ vs. technology usually produces small secondary waste.
7. In-situ vs. technology reduces the permeability of pollutants by different means.
8. In situ vs. technology reduces human exposure to contaminated materials.
1. Depending on certain locations, some impurities may not completely change into harmless products.
2. If biotransformation stops in the intermediate compound, the intermediate may be more toxic and/or more mobile than the starting compound.
3. Some pollutants cannot be biodegradable.
5. Accelerated in situ bioremediation is based on the distribution of appropriate changes, so it may be difficult to implement completely in low permeability or heterogeneous waterfalls.
6. Heavy metals and toxic concentrations of organic compounds can inhibit the activity of the original microorganisms.
7. In situ bioremediation requires a population of a normally adapted microorganism that may not develop with recent leakage or gloom.