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J.Arul Hency Sheela
Assistant Professor of Chemistry, Bharath university ,Chennai – 73, India
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The traditional medicine involves the use of different plant extracts or the bioactive constituents. Thistype of study provides the health application at affordable cost. Secondary metabolites are responsible for medicinal activity of plants. Hence in the present study phytochemical screening of some important medicinal plants was carried out. Qualitative phytochemical analysis of these plants confirm the presence of variousphytochemicals like Alkaloids,Flavonoids,Terpenoids,saponins,tannins,Glycosides and phenol. The results suggest that the phytochemical properties for curing various ailments and possess potential antioxidant and leads to the isolation of new and novel compounds.


Qualitative analysis, Metabolites, Alkaloids, Terpenoids, Glycosides.


Secondary metabolites are organic compounds that are not directly involved in the normal growth, development, or reproduction of an organism. Unlike primary metabolites, absence of secondary metabolites does not result in immediate death, but rather in long-term impairment of the organism's survivability, fecundity, or aesthetics, or perhaps in no significant change at all. Secondary metabolites are often restricted to a narrow set of species within a phylogenetic group Secondary metabolites often play an important role in plant defense against herbivoryand other interspecies defenses. Humans use secondary metabolites as medicines, flavorings, and recreational drugs. A primary metabolite has an important ecological function. Examples include antibiotics and pigments.




Secondary metabolites Test for Alkaloids
Dragendroff’s test: The extract is treated with few drops of dragendroff’s reagent. The Orange brown precipitate coloration is observed.
Wagner’s test: The extract is treated with few drops of Wagner’s reagent. The reddish brown precipitate is observed.
Mayer’s test: The extract is treated with few drops of Mayer’s reagent. The White or pale precipitate is observed. Test for Flavanoids
Shin coda test: The Ethanolic extract is treated with 5ml of alcohol and few drops of conc.HCl and magnesium turnings
Wolf am test for Isoflavanoids: The extract is treated with sodium amalgam and coc.HCl.The pink colour formation is observed. Test for Phenolic compounds Ferric chloride test: The extract is treated with 2ml of water and 10% aqueous ferric chloride solution. The Blue or green coloration is observed. Gelatin test: About 1% solution of gelatin containing 10% NaCl is added to the ethanolic extract. The white precipitate formation is observed Test for Tannins lead acetate test: The Ethanolic extract is treated with few drops of 1% lead acetate solution. The Yellow or red precipitate formation is observed. Ferric chloride test: The Ethanolic extract is treated with 2ml of FeCl3 solution. The Blue or Black precipitate formation is observed.
Test for Terpenoids .The Ethanolic extract is treated with 2ml of chloroform and 1ml of conc. H2SO4. The reddish brown color formation is observed. The Ethanolic extract is treated with 1ml of 2, 4- dinitrophenyl hydrazine in 2M HCl. The Yellow orange color formation is observed. The ethanolic extract of Clematis gouriana is subjected to GC-MS analysis. Test for lignin The Ethanolic extract add with phloroglucinol and 1 ml of colour formation is observed Test for saponins The ethanolic extracts add with sodium bicarbonate and shake well. honey comb froth formation is observed. Test for steroids The ethanolic extract added with 2ml of chloroform. And conc.sulphuric acid added to the sides of the test tube.


The medicinal plants appear to be rich in secondary metabolites, widely used in traditional medicine.The antiinflammatory, antispasmodic, antianalgesic andantidiuretic can be attributed to their high tannins, terpenoids and saponins. Exploitation of these pharmacological properties involves further investigation of these active ingredients by implementation techniquesof extraction, purification, separation, crystallization and identification.


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