Received date: 01/01/2019; Accepted date: 24/02/2019; Published date: 04/03/2019
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Written media such as books, magazines, and newspapers came into being after the invention of the printing industry and the line of footprint, and over time, their scope has increased. These media first appeared in the world of Islam more and more qualitatively, but unfortunately over time, their quality has diminished, but the same media in the Western world and Europe have a scientific richness derived from authentic books in Islam. With the advent of science and technology, the media has also expanded and enjoyed high quality. After the media, over the past two centuries, new media such as phones, tape recorders, gramophones and some other educational media have come up with slideshows. After the media, media such as television and radio and cinema was originally created in the Western world and Europe, which has been around for nearly a century around the world as the most important media and the most important media in education. Science and industry are still progressing alongside It has created important achievements in the emergence of some other media, which can be the emergence of the Internet and satellite and computer and gaming This is a very important application of today's trend.
Education, Media, Education, Development, Communication technology
Human beings have a strong need for social life and in dealing with others, and only in this way they meet their individual and social needs. From the very beginning, people have different ways of communicating and conveying their message to others has been used. From primitives, initial words and references to the use of the most advanced and, at the same time, the most sophisticated modern communications devices, such as media and communication devices that have been scant during the course of history, and in the present era of evolution they have become remarkable. Piaski, which are rejected by the media in various political, Social, economic, military and cultural. The audience of these messages is individuals and groups at various cultural, economic, and social levels that are scattered across different dimensions of social life . All The efforts of the mass media to achieve goals and purposes, which at the same time each have a kind of educational and educational background, because the media in such things as the development of the personality of people in different aspects, the establishment of communication between people of the community, helping people Society is helping people in the process of adapting to the changing world around them. Because the education system seems to be more than ever needed there are fundamental changes. Therefore, given the change in the attitude of the audiences' audience, their wishes and motivations for achieving goals and goals, these changes will change over time. On the other hand, despite the thoughts It seems that the various cultural skulls that have been invaded by the dominant media of the world in the field of education and training should use the same media to strengthen the foundations of education in order to adopt the skills of adopting facts and adopting social and family decisions Intelligent and timely manner in the realization of the real community of the community, with the level of thought and the oven The families of the families, the problems and problems caused by the superstitions are minimized and positive behaviors and potential positive measures are close to activity, and doubt that this is only a sufficient coverage of information and avoiding unilateralism and bombing the new healthy and practical ways of using the media. In this study, we have tried to use the available sources in order to explain the meanings and disadvantages of various media (visual-auditory-written, spoken, narrative, etc.) on the process of education And the upbringing of children and adolescents. Because the extent of the media in the current world and its direct impact on the social behavior of our students and our children requires a lot of research and research.
Media has been very limited in recent years, but with the passage of time and the advancement of science and technology, the media has expanded to include a vast territory. At first, written media was formed at an elementary level, and then other media emerged. It was the time when the book was considered to be the most important communication tool among the various nations of the world; the heavenly religions and prophets, these divine pilgrims, wrote their message with the book And its teachings began to the people, and the mission of some of these messengers came from books and revelations. Books like the Prophet's David (AS) and the Bible of Jesus (AS) and the Torah of Musa (AS) and the Holy Qur'an of the Prophet of Islam (pbuh) were examples of books and as the most important means of communication at that time, which played a very important role in educating the followers of each school Followed by the advancement of science in the field of mass media, and tools such as newspapers and magazines that have been added to the fruitful knowledge and education . Over the past two centuries, human beings have come up with relatively advanced media such as radio, and then increasingly developed media such as television and cinema, which played a very important role in educating and educating people. These instruments originally appeared in Western and European countries, which provided education to people. Today, these important media play a very important role in the field of education and training of families and peoples, and the scope of the media has not been limited to the same number. In the course of the past half century, media such as the Internet-computer and recently the very advanced satellite have been added to it. In this study, we will look at the positive and negative role of each media and its destructive factors, and the most important media in educating the people. We must be careful that we do not get involved with its destructive factors and do not force it to promise that with the slogan of the usefulness of science, do not lie to human science. Because anything that is produced may not be entirely positive and constructive, although it has positive factors! It should be informed about its negative factors and used it in an appropriate and correct way, in order to avoid distortion.
Regarding the value of education in the system of existence and its impact on different cultural and social spheres of families and society, it appears that the existence and generalization of the media in order to bring about change in the system of education is imperative and perhaps indispensable. Because lack of knowledge of the media for their use at different times by children and adolescents without the supervision and supervision of coaches and families will undoubtedly have undesirable effects which, in the case of simplicity and neglect, may be in We face a tragedy and education in the long run, but what is important is the current knowledge and knowledge In the area of education and training, the field of media activity can be predicted and evaluated. Although these areas seem complicated by the development of software and satellite communication tools, but what matters is the attention of educators and teachers, and especially families, to the undesirable effects of these media along with the educational and teaching asset and A wide range of different sciences . Let's try to introduce some media tools and their positive and destructive effects into logical and reasonable responses regarding the use or non-use of the media. Because there is an insight into the measurement of people and the means to change It is at the level of behavior that involves the exchange of information and the meaning of this information, which contributes to the differences in the field of communication, especially with the presence of different media, with the knowledge of the parties in order to establish a better relationship or reduce its quality. Important And the perilousness of thousands of Iranian teachers who are engaged in education for non-nursing and adolescents, like other teachers The world is about knowing the knowledge-information and concepts, skills, and, most importantly, transferring values that the child can discover in his lifetime as a useful and effective member for himself and a community, and in Taking into account the potential of their potential and taking them into practice . As gold is so deep in the earth, and it is raw, it has a price. However, as it relates to this element, its price The student is also in the first place as much as he is taught and educated, his higher human worth is higher. Will go away. In other words, we want to see how a teacher can transfer the text and subject of his lesson to students more effectively and efficiently, and in this transfer of audiovisual materials and equipment, and in particular educational technology, what role does it play in the academic achievement of the students of the game How can the teacher help with the teacher? Because the teacher can familiarize himself with the techniques and methods of teaching through the use of media and teaching materials to improve the transfer of learning to students, so this research is done by collecting Such information has been done. As a result, the information in this collection will be useful primarily for teachers teaching different sciences.
• Non-transparent visual materials - These materials include: types of images, books, (self-study, etc.), journals, study guides for charts, charts, maps, posters and cartoons
• Audible materials (audio only) - which include: audio tape (ring, cassette, page cartridge, radio, telephone and audio card
• Audible materials - Non-transparent visual (combinations of 1 and 2) which include books with tape or sheets and other printed materials accompanied by audible materials
• Transparent visual materials (slides, films, stripes, and transparent transparencies
• Audible material - Transparent visual (fixed) - which include the movie, speaker stripe, types of slides with a bar or page
• Audible materials - Animated Visions - Includes Moving Movies and Video
• Moving visual material, which is a silent animated film (with a caption or a letter)
• Three dimensions, which are: real objects, models, models and cut-ins
• Human resources and situations, which include inviting people, scientific research, role-playing, and so on
• Computers that include: Computer types and terminals with display tools.
• Satellites - Including all kinds of artificial moons and satellite communications and satellite TVs
• Media categorization - The classification of the media is mostly due to the fact that if media has a particular feature, it can serve a target that requires the same feature. For example, learning a task that requires the cleaning of the problem uses a media that uses a sense of sight, viz., Visual media .
McLuhan, in his index of "Mass Media" and several other works, puts hot media in front of cool communication devices. Accordingly, it is said that those funny stories are the same, the meaning of which is entirely present in the story quoted. Comes to stories whose meaning only becomes apparent when an attempt is made to understand it from the listener's area. Similarly, hot communication devices, such as the alphabet, print, radio and cinema, provide their messages in full, and they are just like red fangs that place their roles, while cold communication devices such as "speech" Picture alphabets, illustrated stories, moving pictures, phones and TVs that provide incomplete messages, and require a specific mental effort from the recipient .
Media is a means of communication. This word is in the language of Anglo-Saxon 1, which means the overall flow of transmission through communication devices. The Technical Committee of Technical Terms in France at its meeting on November 24, 1971, accepted the word media in the sense of communication devices and carriers. The word in the definition of the carriers the message is called the message center and message center.
"Gain" defines the educational media as: (Media is a combination of things used to convey communication or other learning impulses to the learner).
The term "learning" or "education" is used by the media to distinguish between learning by the media and learning from direct experience. This term was first used by Bruner Waxon.
Hashem Naimati defines the educational media as:"All the facilities that can create conditions in the classroom that can help students learn new information and behaviors with full understanding." Davis is classified by the media based on the importance of attending the learning and teaching process, which is as follows:
• Optional media means the media where teachers, if available, have the necessary funds if Tend to work.
• Essential Media: Teach the teacher to realize their desired goals. The funding required and the time required to use these media is required. Jean Caseno, on the role of communicative devices in the formation of social behavior, believes that radio and television, the press and the advertisement, in two different ways, can provoke us to implicit participation, and, in the main statement, they are likely to believe our beliefs To change. The first is the irresponsible temptation of the mass media that engages us in some way .
For example, many intellectuals, after swearing that they never bought a television, finally surrendered to the insistence of their family members and bought television, thereby changing their position and playing a role other than what they previously pretended they got. Or if someone subscribes to a newspaper that does not match his thoughts, then he has been able to break the barrier against the opposing beliefs that he has made in his mind.
Second, the flood of information flowing through the mass media is gradually drowning the whole of society, and people who do not want to be in this atmosphere of information will feed on this information and they will gradually become involved in the affair, and this Discuss information for others. Even if only some of them believe it, they still have to get involved with the political issues of the day. All these factors, albeit subtle and ambiguous, affect our behavior. But their effect is so quiet and superficial that it can not be thought of as violent. Mass media or mass media shake off the traditions of the past and create new values and provide new types of music, show and political ideas to them. Today, it is certain that every person or any village that has access to the radio or the press has a more recent perspective all over the world, is more progressive and adopts new roles faster than those who do not have access to these devices. According to him, mass communication devices can not directly change the way people think, and the diffusion of any type of thought or practice in the second world community depends on the discussions and dialogues that face-to-face .Mass Media and Society
As it was said, the means of mass communication are the product of human thought and hence excited by society and influenced by it. But after they have been found and used, they can be healthy, calming or harmful, in accordance with the manner in which they are used. What first of all affects the organization of these media is state or private. A communication device in such a situation can take the role of cultural leadership instead of simply following the demands of the people. The privateity of these media, without any control from the state and the society, lacks any cultural dimension and even makes it dangerous within the material society. These media link the "mass production" with "mass consumption," and in pursuit of this goal, is "remote human guidance." The "remote government" of their "subversion" and "massification" of humans use they do. All of these actions will make the new man, in spite of the fact that he consumes all human beings throughout history, needs himself every day and goes on to become more and more. From a political point of view, each candidate can refer to the communications organization for victory in the election, and even guarantee victory, provided that according to his personal characteristics, he pays particular attention to the Baha'i. Economically placing commercial advertisements in a timely manner important news, although it leads to more profit for the organization, leads to the exploitation of human beings and the exploitation of them illegally. Exercise of subconscious commercial ads is a violation of the freedom of human beings. Pornography with pornographic images generates a general moral hazard, and also requires communication in the form of dissipation of thoughts, brain trampling and, finally, the elimination of the mental balance of human beings. In our country, before the TV advertising revolution, there was an unknowing imitation of western propaganda that was not consistent with the culture and traditions of the people.
Like many of the material and spiritual manifestations of the West, it was very unexpectedly and increasingly accelerated into the traditional cultural arena of the country, which led to the emergence of a "pseudo-modernist culture of falsehood." Interestingly, the same lifestyle and Western glamorous products were also widely consumed by the public. After the revolution, it was forbidden for several years, but from the mid-1970s onwards a tiny stream of television advertising that turned into a huge flood had long hours of day and night on television, which, in most cases, interconnected and It also does not fit the audience's needs and needs. For example, to advertise the benefits of a travel checker, a "Jackpot" machine bank, a casino gambler in the West Casinos! Along with a Western song that is in vain and ridiculous money, it is said that it has nothing to do with the official and customary culture of the society as well as with the content and message of propaganda, and according to the writer, the use of the society as much as possible in the non-rational way And becomes chaotic .
Mass Media and Family Media
Mass media, especially television, gave the next and the next to the family, and the other family is not only a place for rest and eating, but also an organization that can be taught. Watched the world and satisfied its cultural demands. In the era of communications, the walls of the house have plummeted and the waves of television, radio and satellite have penetrated it. The introduction of mass communication devices, especially TV, has reduced the response and interaction of family members with each other and their attention to the external focus of the TV, and its contents. In the past, when television and radio and other mass media were not found abundantly, people sat at night and used classical literary books such as Ferdowsi's Shahnameh, or they used the companionship of the leaders of religion and society. They were the people's intellectual power supply. But today, in spite of television or video or satellite, people in each house are collectively watching television and media and discussing it .
Mass Media and Social Stratification
Mass media, in addition to massive changes in the family, at the community level and in the community, have also provided conditions for the promotion of superior social situations. Cinema, radio and television create a distinct class called "stars", which is a bridge between the human world and the human world being played or dreaming. These devices are not a star phenomenon but they support the stars. They make them somewhat holy and they give their faces some popularity. According to their author, they have a high rank in the art world. But they may be human beings in their personal and family life. Like Robert Micham, a successful Hollywood star who, with a harsh and harsh scene to play rough roles in cinema, had many successes in the field of cinema, but was not successful in his private life and created scandals many times .
Mass Media and Cultural Development
The core factor of cultural development can be creativity and renaissance based on the social contributions of individuals. Today, few people consider the only economic-material development to be sufficient for the development of society. Growth should be in order to meet all the needs and aspirations of the community. The goal of cultural growth and development should be to prepare individuals to face the rapid transformation of technology and the economic system. Also, the general concept of cultural development is to help individuals to acquire the personality and originality and virtue necessary for full acceptance of life. The mass media is in fact a technology system that distributes cultural and news data. The news goes to the concept of fresh and transient events in the face of culture, which is a lasting and lasting reality! But the culture flowing from the mass media is different from what is called "classical culture" or "elite culture". The classical culture or elite culture is based on the black hole of different levels of society and is the main source of nutrition, tradition and formal education system. Such a culture leaked out of the media is a heterogeneous and disconcerting culture. This culture, called "mass culture", is composed of unsustainable and inadequate cognitive data. Of course, not just the general people who feed on such a culture, but also the elites of society are immersed in this culture. But their encounter with the mass culture is different. That is, they absorb the primary elements of emotion, and take their thoughts from this culture, which are published by the mass media, and create new effects. Thus, we see that mass media play two major roles in the cultural change of today's societies. On the one hand, mass culture is published and, on the other hand, is the source of nutrition for the elite of society, for the purpose of innovation and innovation. In other words, the mass media is the ring of connecting the big environment or the whole society to a small environment and one of the main factors of renaissance and creativity, and as a result of the factor of mobility and leading to cultural development .
Contrary to the industry, the new means of communicating itself and its calm and steady state was at the core of its society. The developing world is facing a hurried and rushing attack from the outside world. Due to the superiority of oral culture on written culture, literacy among popular masses is still not popular, and the high literacy rate does not exceed the level of primary education. People are more interested in keeping traditions and lyrics than writing and research; while in the West, written culture has also given way to computer and electronic culture. On the other hand, attention is drawn to two developed developing worlds, and from the point of view of communication sciences, they show their inequality. One of the indicators of this inequality is the concentration of information and news in the industrialized and developed countries and the multitude of mass media. As of today, four industrialized countries of the United States, France, Britain and Russia owning the world's largest news centers also have many communication media between development Economic, social and media use.
Mass media such as print, line, book, press, telephone, radio, theater, television, cinema, the Internet and satellite are the product of human thought. Hence, they are caused by the community and affected by it, and they have a significant effect on communication. Contrary to expectations, these devices are not neutral phenomena, they create a new era and affect all the pillars of society. The manifestation of human technological advancement. And they have the most cultural impact on the society, and on the eve of the entry of the community into the third millennium, they have thrown the societies towards the future. This means the emergence of habits fresh, the development of global culture, changes in behavior and mood of people and finally the smaller the planet and neighbors of different nations together have an influential role and said Marshl McLuhan transform into the world a global village share they are proud .
Mass Media Types
First media - In the face-to-face communication of the person, the message is transmitted to the other by movements, behavior, behavior, and speech. And oral culture.
Second media - All the literature and the press, such as writing, letter, leaflet, advertisement, newspaper, newspaper, magazine, book, posters, offspring, etc., are from these media and by that the concept can be transmitted in written form. And the culture of writing.
Third media - Electronic media, including radio, television and satellite, are the media, which in turn are a technological leap in communication industries and create a visual and auditory culture and usually have a one-way process.
Fourth media - Two-way electronic media that acts as feedback, interactive, and multimedia. Such as CB radio in the United States, which allows different drivers in a radius of five to fifteen miles that communicate with each other. Establish .
A new interpretation used by American sociologists for the concept of Media Mass. The word, which consists of the Latin root (means) and the English correction of mass or mass, is literally a means by which they can be made with individuals not individually, with separate groups, but with large or mass congregations People have accessed equally. Today, these kinds of devices are: newspapers, radio, television, cinema and announcements, and there is a wide disagreement over the choice of the concept of mass media among scientists. Hence, some of it is called mass communication tools or important information tools or social communication tools or collective-sector techniques. In sum, these concepts, in spite of some apparent differences, are semantically close to each other. Obviously there are messages in the distribution of messages, newspapers, radio, television, which have many common points. Undoubtedly, there is an irrefutable solidarity between radio, television and press that distinguishes them from cinema or announcements. It is therefore best to classify these phenomena as a kind of press or as they say Mass communication devices. The French Academy also issued a license to use such a new meaning, relying on the amazing combination of these two words (Mass Media). Therefore, in the definition of mass communication, we can say that mass or vertical communication of information transmission with such devices (newspapers, books, waves, radio and television, etc.) is carried out for an unlimited number of people at high speed. The features of this connection are: unfamiliar and scattered messengers; return; high speed of action; multiplying the message of superficial and unstable communication .
The importance and role of Radio and Television 1 is one of the most important media against other media such as the Internet and satellite and computer. Radio and television are complementary, and both play a key role in educating the people. Radio broadcasts the programs of good and ethical and scientific, religious and religious in the form of poetry - music - stories - scientific and cultural news throughout the day to educate people, and always like the university to educate all people, both children and young people. Old and young is busy. Today, the Voice of the Islamic Republic of Iran, as the most important national media in the production of various programs in various fields, teaches and educates people. Radio has been invented for nearly a century and nowadays there are even radio stations in remote rural areas.
The voice of the various provincial centers in the clouds of each broadcasting center in a conceptual language produces and distributes various programs to the province, which is in a way similar to a school that teaches and in some way educates people, and voice and television as two national media in Iran and the world are engaged in activities that have retained their position against other media. The image of the Islamic Republic of Iran has 7 active channels, which in the various channels, especially Channel One-Four and the network of the Qur'an by distributing and producing the various programs mentioned above at the beginning of the discussion mentioned education and training people. Sound and TV as a national medium with the production and distribution of video films and informative, useful and scientific cartoons in a way to educate and educate people. Today, everybody sees that all channels of the Islamic Republic of Iran through the national media as well as the voice of the Islamic Republic are spreading the words of Allah Majid three times a day, and the motto of Tawhid means Azan with well-sounding voices, which somehow strengthens the religious spirit As a result, it is the religious education of the people, and in the recent years, such as Imam Ali (AS) and the film Yusuf (AS) in recent years, he has somehow trained people, and is currently producing such films as: Musa Prophet (PBUH) and Or the film and the bride of Imam Hussein (AS) are producing educational programs for the Muslim people of the guests of the Islamic Iran Is the. The movie, Mohammad Rasool Allah, which has been broadcast for 3 hours, is one of the educational educational films among foreign and Iranian films in the Siamese, or the Iranian Samandaran film has many moral and educational aspects that are available in video clips sales centers. . Today, the sound and the television, and especially the imma, which deals with many human senses. It is important to educate sound and sound people who, after about a century of their coming, are still in a good position and are not rivaled. Today's remote villages and towns throughout Iran. Television in each house has its own family members, especially children and adolescents, as a magic box and provides children and teens about 4 to 6 hours a day, even from the school and university level. It is also higher and everyone has been knocking at his feet. The image of the Islamic Republic of Iran has provided a great deal of service to the people over the course of 30 years. Before the revolution, these two national media served the aliens and destroyed the morale of the people and destroyed morality. Fortunately, these two national media were under the control of the leadership and representatives of the parliament , The judiciary continues to operate under its constitution and engages with committed, educated artists in Islam.
Voice and music as two media writers in Iran play an important educational role among countries around the world, especially in the Muslim world, although in some productions these two national media also have defects or inadequacies, but the virtues The production of these two media is more than its disadvantages, because the culture of the Iranian people is the true culture of Islam and the Qur'an. Therefore, its sound production is derived from divine themes. And Islam as the most important humanist religion during the close to fifteen centuries of mutual services between Islam and Iran by Shahid Motahari, the author of the book, is one of the most significant works of the Iranian believers towards the divine religion of Islam, and numerous writers and artists in Iran and the Muslim world And even in the West talk about Islam and write important works on educating and educating people. But the books, one of the media which, despite the fact that it passed through its three hundred years ago, has overcome and overwhelmed the educational and educational role of voice and television, and the voice and the television, dating back to one hundred years ago, All media have been abducted in Iran and the Muslim world and the West, and have always played the most important role among the major media in the world, such as strong and equipped satellites and the Internet and computer or video, and has also been featured as two national media among other media. And their role is not dimmed. In Iran, in general, and in Islamic countries, in particular, the broadcasting has played an important role in the education of all people. By presenting religious and genuine Islamic programs in the fields of family formation with different programs of life, or Iranian table and special conversation With specialist physicians and various scientific experts and religious figures, the question and answer questions of the judgments by these teachers, each of which in some way deals with the education of people, especially young people.
Before the changes that have taken place in education over the last century, it can be seen that the goal is not just to give the person the ability to respond to the book as a medium, but to educate (and to educate), and to develop the power of all The tool is free of charge. The tool is not just a textbook, it is a read-only piece of publications and audio and visual devices. Today's student in advanced countries goes to the workshop and laboratory to complete his learning and is practically equipped with tools. And the application of technology. Therefore, if we want our children to be productive and to reach the stage of self-sufficiency, we should not only endorse a medium. Even if the textbook is written by the most authoritative authors based on the most suitable programs and published using the best and most complete methods. There can be no way that other media can play an effective role in teaching, learning, and teaching, while neglecting work-based learning. Theory and practice, whether they are interconnected. The theory has an important role in its application. Indeed, practice and application are essential for the emergence of the theory. At present, schools are often educational media and educational technology. That is the goal of all involved in education. Of course, the goal of all educators is to push schools to use educational teaching technology. Possibilities in this area are not enough. The use of educational technology requires cost and sufficient credit for how to use it. Japan has been able to seize global markets with the best use of technology and media and technology. Today, the first word in the world is those who are technologically and technologically advanced. As we can safely say, technology can provide more educated, individualized, more rigorous training, since the educational equipment and equipment are tangible, Thinking and creating concepts will help the apprentice to understand and understand rather than keep things through insight and understanding that they are best at learning. Today, the use of the traditional teaching method is rejected in the classroom. Therefore, this practice is usually effective It does not bring the necessary. For teaching efficiency, it is usually recommended to use TV and audiovisual media.