Impact of Natural Short-Term Climate Forcings on Indiaâs Climate
Among several factors of climate, the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Sunspot cycles work on interannual to interdecadal scales and it is believed that while the El Nino–La Nina pressure seesaw of Pacific Ocean affects climate by altering global wind and rainfall patterns, the 11 years periodic variability of sunspot appearance bring changes in insolation and cloud formation. Thus, the role of these two climate forcings seems critical in pushing short term climatic variabilities. This paper attempts to know the impact of these two climatic phenomena on temperature and rainfall patterns at reginal scale, and for the purpose the study considers India as the case. Analysis reveals that temperature show a good correlation with sunspot activities, while the effect of ENSO cycle on country`s rainfall is not very clear. However, India’s coastal states record a notable rise in temperatures during El-Nino phase of ENSO phenomenon, and this may be the cause behind fragmented and uneven rainfall over the country during El-Nino years.