Integrated Management of Cereal Cyst Nematode Heterodera avenae on Wheat Crop Under Centre Pivot Irrigation System in Tabuk, Saudi Arabia
Cereal cyst nematode (CCN), Heterodera avenae was reported on the wheat crop grown under centre pivot irrigation system in Gassim region in the mid of Saudi Arabia; soon after it spread out to other areas in Al-Kharj and Hael. The estimation of wheat yield reduction by the CCN in Saudi Arabia ranged 40-92% on sandy soil. CCN was observed at TADCO wheat pivots on Feb 2006. A field survey was carried out in the same month shown the presence of severe infestations of this nematode in small batches of total 14 pivots. It was not clear how this nematode pest was introduced to the kingdom of Saudi Arabia: apparently, it was introduced with the imported potato seeds. Soil samples were collected from the damaged areas in each pivot to determine the level of infestations with CCN. Integrated Cereal Cyst Nematode Management Plan was implemented which demonstrated a great degree of success and minimized the expansion of infested areas with CCN and minimized yield reduction to around 4.1% on the mean total wheat production at TADCO for the period 2006-2011. CCN management plan included: monitoring CCN infestations on yearly basis, the application of systemic nematocide on the infested spots of each pivot. Also, the application of granular NPK 14-38-10 and K2SO4 fertilizers, and the implementation of crop rotation mainly alfalfa by direct drilling using No- Till method for wheat sowing, use certified wheat seeds and Machinery Sanitation.
Wheat germplasms resistant to CCN were investigated using 29 genotype seeds samples of the 3rd Elite Bread Wheat from the CIMMYT nurseries, apparently, entry # 15 is resistant to CCN.
Ibrahim Naser*, Emiliano Olbinado, Rodrigo Hermogino and Karim Reda