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COMMON DERMATOLOGICAL DISEASES

Badure Santosh*1 and Sarangi TK2

1Department of Biotechnology: Aurora's Technological and Research Institute. Hyderabad, Telangana

2School of Biosciences and Technology, VIT University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India

*Corresponding Author:
Badure Santosh
Department of Biotechnology
Aurora’s Technological and Research Institute
Hyderabad, Telangana
Email: santoshbadure13@gmail.com

Received: 10/05/2015 Accepted: 08/06/2015

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Keywords

Dermatology, Skin, Hair, Nails, Rashes, Itching

Introduction

Dermatology is the branch of medicine concerned with the examination, treatment, and prevention of diseases of the skin, hair, nails, oral cavity and genitals. Our hair and nails are actually part of our living skin cells. Living skin cells produces both the hairs and nails. They protect us from outside elements and help us with needed functions such as scratching an itch or picking up small objects.

Disease of the Skin, Hair, and Nails

Skin is the largest and most visible organ in the body, important to us in many ways. An average surface area of about two square yards is generally covered by skin.

It provides an essential barrier by keeping inner organs of the body covered and separated from the outside world.

As we know skin is a best sensory organ giving us the sensation of touch, maintaining body function to keep us alive by regulating body temperature, protecting our bodies from microbes and aiding in our metabolism.

Our hair and nails are actually part of our living skin cells. Hairs and nails serve as an additional protection for the outside of our bodies.

To live healthy life it is essential to maintain a healthy skin, hair and nails.

Common skin diseases are described below:

Acne

Acne is a skin condition that occurs when skin cells, oil and bacteria clog a hair follicle. These clogged pores inflame and rupture, they appear as "pimples" which are often seen on the face, neck and shoulder area which compromise the circulation with their growth and enable the accumulation of dead skin cells. It may appear in the form of a blackhead or white head [1-4].

It is better to look for a professional and well experienced dermatologist in case of a skin disorder [5].

It is good to have a thorough check up and proper medical supervision under the medical experts as early as possible when any kind of mild skin order takes place to avoid adverse results and live healthy [6-8]. Skin disorders can be prevented or treated on an earlier onset of disease under proper medical care [9].

Measles

Measles is a highly contagious disease caused by a measles virus. Measles are also termed as rubeola, morbilli, etc. [10-12].

It is an infection that mainly affects children. These virus lives in the mucus of the nose and throat of people. This infection spreads on Physical contact, sneezing and coughing, etc. [13-16].

In addition, the virus can live outside the body as infected droplets of mucus can remain active and can be passed on by touching for around two hours. For example, on surfaces like door handles [17,18].

Few symptoms of this contagious disease are as fever, sore eyes, diarrhea, vomiting, etc. In maximum cases, patients gets recovered naturally as the immune system makes antibodies during the infection to fight off the virus and then provide lifelong immunity [19,20].

Psoriasis

Psoriasis is a long-term (chronic) skin abnormality in the white blood cells that causes skin cells to grow too quickly, resulting in thick, white, silvery, or red patches of skin [21-25].

This abnormality of skin leads to the appearance of symptoms such as thickening, inflammation, scales and lesions on the skin. Psoriasis can occur on nearly any part of the face, body and even on nails. Till now the reason for psoriasis cause is unknown but it can be controlled under proper medical care [26-31].

Eczema

Eczema is an inflammation of the skin which can occur in any part of the body in any age of people. Eczema is also termed as Dermatitis [32-34].

Eczemas are excessive immunological reactions of the skin to common allergens. The most common eczema is the atopic dermatitis. Symptoms vary and can include, itching, redness, oozing, blistering, scaling, crusting or thickened skin [35-39].

Vitiligo

Vitiligo is a chronic skin disorder in which skin loses its pigment [40-43].

This happen because the melanocytes get destroyed and white patches appear on the skin. These melanocytes are responsible for the pigment of skin [44-47].

This skin pigment cells when come in contact with chemical either die or unable to function. Other cause of vitiligo is unknown. [48-52]

Scleroderma

Scleroderma is a group of rare chronic connective tissue disease that involves the hardening and tightening of the skin and connective tissues, generally classified as one of the autoimmune rheumatic diseases [53-55].

Connective tissue supports the skin and internal organ. Scleroderma is non-contagious, non- infectious, non- cancerous [56-58].

In many people, scleroderma not only harms the skin but it also affects adversely other internal parts of the body-such as internal organs, digestive tract and the blood vessel. Scleroderma affects women more often than men [59-62].

Warts

Warts are caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) and can spread to other areas or to other people. Warts are caused by viruses that are present on any skin surface of the body [63,64].

Sorts of warts include flat warts, common warts, plantar warts, etc. [65].

Weakness in our immune system allows the virus to take hold when the virus touches a part of the skin that is broken [66].

They are most common and occur around the nails, fingers and on the back of the hand. Warts grow in groups of 20 to 100 and can occur anywhere on the face and body. Plantar warts lie below the skin’s surface and often form a cluster [67].

Folliculitis

Folliculitis is a common skin condition in which an inflammation of the hair follicles begins, which are the small pouches in the skin from which hairs grow.it is usually caused by a bacterial or fungal infection Where hair follicles are irritated and can become inflamed or infected [68,69].

it looks like small red bumps or white headed pimples around hair follicle and these infection can spread to any part of the body where hairs are present generally such as beard area, arms, backs, buttocks, legs ,etc. and turns into non healing, crusty stores [70,71].

Pyoderma

Pyoderma can be described as any skin disease that is pyogenic (has pus). The term pyogenic is used to describe the involving or relating the production of pus. For example: pus containing skin infection such as impetigo caused by staphylococcus or group A streptococcus bacteria [72].

Pyoderma is caused by the infection of bacteria. The infection can occur in the superficial or under deep layers of the skin, and can be caused by the effect of various groups of bacteria. Pyoderma can bear resemblance to many other skin conditions but often causes crusting, scaling, reddening, scratching and staining of the skin. It can affect any area of the skin but commonly occurs on the torso, particularly where the hair is scarce [73,74].

Skin lesion

A skin lesion is a part of the skin that has an abnormal growth or any change in the normal character of your skin. Skin lesions may result from a wide range of causes, as harmless small scrape or as severe as skin cancer. We can divide lesions into two categories 1.Benign lesion; 2.malignant lesion. Skin lesions can be singular or multiple, limited to one specific area of your body or distributed widely in any part of the body.

These lesions are kind of lumps or bumps on your skin, such as skin tags, moles, etc.

Skin lesions can be removed from body by using medical procedures under the supervision of medical experts [75].

Cellulitis

Cellulitis is a common bacterial infection of the skin having the capacity to develop a severe disorder underneath the soft tissues. It happens when bacteria invade broken skin and start to unfurl rapidly to other segments of the body [76,77].

The result is an infection, which may cause swelling, burning, pain, or heat. Cellulitis appears as a swollen, burning area of skin that feels very high temperature and sensitive to pain [78,79].

It can spread rapidly to other parts of the body but it is a non-contagious disease which doesn’t transmits from one person to other [80].

Moles

Moles are small colored spots made up of cells called melanocytes grows on the skin. These melanocytes are pigment cells responsible for color of the skin. Most of the moles are harmless and rarely cancerous. In most of the cases moles disappear as you age. Nevi is the medical term for moles [81,82]

Pruritus

Pruritus can be defined in a simple word as “itching” or in simple sentence "the unpleasant skin sensation frequently often accompanied by scratching”. Generally Pruritus results from food allergy, dry skin, drug reaction, etc. [83-85].

Pruritus is a medical term for itch [86-88].

Milia

Milia are tiny white bumps commonly found on the skin of people of all ages.it is a type of tiny skin cyst filled with a protein called keratin (a substance produced by the skin),keratin becomes enmesh beneath the outer sheet of the skin, forming a tiny cyst [89-92].

An individual milium (the singular of milia) is formed at the base of a hair follicle or sweat gland. Milia can be categorized into two categories as Primary milia and secondary milia [93].

Milia are very small, raised, pearly-white or golden bumps on the skin. They are most often seen on the skin around the eyes and eyelids, forehead, chest, etc. [93].

Anthrax

Anthrax is a life-threatening infectious disease caused by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis. These bacteria produce spores that can spread the infection and it affects mostly animals. It is not contagious but, most forms of the disease are lethal, and can be transmitted through contact or consumption of infected meat. Humans are affected by anthrax when they get in contact with infected animals or on consuming animal products such as meat, etc. [95-100].

References