Amal Ahmed Mohammed AL-Ghamdi*
Department of Botany, King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia
Received Date: 26/02/2019; Accepted Date: 05/03/2019; Published Date: 11/03/2019
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Magnetic water, Nonmagnetized water, Raphanus sativus, Soil characteristics
At present, agriculturalists worldwide are seeking to develop environmental-friendly technologies based on physical and biological treatments to augment crop yield. The authors concluded that the use of magnetized water in irrigation systems was an ecologically friendly and safe technology and its application should be recommended in agriculture, specifically as dormancybreaking treatment. This refers to the passing of water through a magnetic field or device, leading to the alteration its properties [1-5].
The treatment of water with electro-magnetic fields changes some of characteristics, including its structure. The main properties of water that are altered include the way it bonds with molecules as well as its capacity to conduct electricity and dissolve salts. Additionally, properties such as pH and surface tension are reportedly altered when water is treated with magnetic fields. The quality as well as the quantity of crop produce can be improved by using magnetic water technology. Currently, evidence points toward the fact that magnetized water alters soil and harvest content by improving the mineral content of soil. These include minerals such as calcium, iron, manganese, magnesium, nitrogen, potassium, sodium, and zinc [6-10]. On the other had magnetic-treated water reduces soil sulphur content.
Magnetic field treatment is considered a safe and cost-effective method of increasing seed germination and emergence. Previous research has demonstrated that water irrigated with magnetic fields affect plant parameters such as seed germination, root sand seedling growth, chlorophyll content, and meristematic cell growth. In addition, magnetic water improved the movement of nutrients in soil, and plant uptake of iron, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. Another effect of magnetic water is its ability to increase the absorption of water from soil and the fertilizer efficacy (Figures 1-3). Other investigators reported that when water in saline irrigation water was magnetized, this efficiently caused soil desalinization. Consequently, the hydration of salt ions and colloids was decreased, and accelerated coagulation, salt solubility, and salt crystallization were subsequently increased [11-15].
The radish Raphanus sativus L. originated from Europe and Asia. The plant thrives at low temperatures, growing at high altitudes of 190–1240 m. The plant grows to a height of 30–90 cm, and has thick roots of varying sizes, shapes, and colors. Another species, Raphanus sativus, is cultivated worldwide. In some Middle Eastern cultures, this root vegetable is used locally to treat several diseases (including gallbladder stones, hepatic disorders, and prolapse of the rectum) as well as relieve symptoms of the gastrointestinal tract such as indigestion and gastric pain. In some areas, the leaves and roots of R. sativus have been used as anti-neoplastic, antimicrobial, and antiviral agents. The main aim of this work was to investigate the effect of magnetized water on the germination, morphological characteristics, and biochemical analysis of R. sativus [16-20].
Ten seeds from Raphanus sativus were placed in petri dishes (each measuring 9 cm in cross-section) that had two layers of what’s man No.1 filter paper. Replication was performed three times. Three milliliters of water were added into the petri dishes. Then another 3 ml of the treated liquid were added into the individual dishes. The petri dishes were observed daily for 7 days and equal amounts of water and magnetic water were poured into each petri dish as needed so that the seeds or seedlings would not wilt. Information pertaining to germination was documented daily for 7 days [21-25].
Characterization of Soil Physiochemical Properties
Approximately 3 kg of the soil on which R. sativus were cultivated was collected and assessed for its physicochemical properties. The pH of soil was determined (soil-to-water ratio, 1:2) with the help of a pH meter (PH-meter, STARTER 3100C, OHAUS). Soil electrical conductivity was measured EC-meter (EC-meter, STARTER 3100C, OHAUS). Soil percent moisture and organic matter was measured using oven (SOM) [26-30].
The formula below was utilized to compute the proportion of organic matter in the specimens (both plant and soil).
Using previously described procedures, soil and plant specimens were examined for their organic matter and water content. Soil and water moisture were determined using the following formula.
Standard procedures were utilized to measure the macro elements and microelements in the soil specimens using inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry (Model Optima 8000, PerkinElmer).
Morphological Measurements of the Plant
Three random vegetal samples were taken from each sample, and the following measurements were taken.
Root Length Determination
The length of the roots was measured in centimeters and recorded. For samples in each treatment group, the root lengths were measured three times, and the mean was calculated in centimeters.
Shoot Length Determination
The shoot lengths of the plants were measured in centimeters. For samples in each treatment group, the shoot lengths were measured three times, and the mean was calculated in centimeters.
Dry Root and Shoot Weight Assessment
Separate metal sheets containing shoots and roots of the plants were heated to 80°C. The heating was stopped when the weight of the samples remained constant, and the dry samples were weighed again. The measurements were documented in grams.
Fresh Root and Shoot Weight Assessment
Fresh root and shoot samples of the plant were collected and weighed (in grams). For samples in each treatment group, the root and shoots were measured three times, and the mean was calculated in grams.
Measurement of the Amount of Mineral Elements in the Plant
The concentration of mineral elements was determined after digestion of the plant samples. Shoots and roots were harvested separately, dried, and ground into a powder form. Next, two grams of the powder were placed in a digestion tube following the technique described the plant tissue samples were digested by inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry (Model Optima 8000, PerkinElmer) [31-35].
A paired t-test was carried out to determine any differences in N, P, K, Ca and Mg contents between non-magnetic and magnetic water on soil at α=0.05. A paired t-test was also used to determine differences in soil physicochemical properties (pH, organic matter and soil moisture) between the two different soil types irrigation with non-magnetic and magnetic water were also. Significance was set at an alpha level of 0.05. Statistix® Version 7.0 (Statistix Analytical Software, Tallahassee, Florida, US) was used to perform the analyses [36-43].
Impact of magnetized water on some soil properties: The results showed that the pH level of soil extracts treated with regular water tended to be acidic. The average pH of soil extracts treated with regular water was 6.04 compared to 7.68 for magnetically treated soils. This supports the finding of other investigators who reported that magnetic-treated water affected soil in a direct or indirect manner. When soil is irrigated with magnetized water, many of its properties are altered. The properties that have been reported to be altered due to the use of magnetic water include soil pH, phosphorus content, and extractable potassium. In our experiment, soil treated with magnetized water tended to be alkalinity. This was expected as magnetized water has a higher pH and lower surface tension. Consequently, in plants irrigated with magnetized water, it has been demonstrated that the water can cross plant cell walls, resulting in a more efficient transfer of nutrients needed by the plant for its. This finding suggests that in acidic soils, magnetized water can be used in irrigation systems to decrease the acidity.
In this study, the value of electric conduction for normal water was 0.067 ± 0.00 dismens/cm and pH soil was 6.04 ± 0.01. On the other hand, the electric conduction and pH values for soil irrigated with magnetic water whereas 0.142 ± 0.012 dismens/cm and 7.68 ± 0.19, respectively. In a previous report, a decrease in soil pH was achieved by irrigating with magnetized water; conversely, an increase in soil electric conduction and available phosphorus was observed anti-cancer magnetic therapy.
These analyses showed that the value of electric conduction for soil with regular water was 0.067 ± 0.002 dismens/cm, while that of soil irrigated with magnetic water was 0.142 ± 0.012 dismens/cm. There is evidence that the utilization of magnetic water results in a rise in soil electric conduction which is consistent with our findings. On the contrary, another investigator has shown that soil electrical conductivity decreased following the irrigation of sandy soil with magnetized saline water. Furthermore, the investigator documented a positive increase in electrical conductivity levels in soil irrigated with regular and that irrigated with magnetic water. It has been proposed that magnetic fields cause a decrease in the surface tension of water as a result of the breaking of hydrogen bonds, which allows rapid melting. Consequently, this causes an increase in the electrical conductivity of soil Table 1 show that there were significant differences in the soil elements between the two treatments, with the elements level being higher in the plants supplied with magnetic water than in those watered with non-magnetic water. According to research, evidence has demonstrated that magnetized water improves the property of soil by facilitating mineral element uptake and decreases the need for chemical fertilizers. Plants frown on soil irrigated with magnetized water are protected from heavy metals, including lead and nickel, as the water has been shown to inhibit the translocation of these metals from the soil into the plants . Conversely, magnetic water enhances the translocation of essential nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (Table 1) the amount of calcium differed in the soil extracts of plants watered with non-magnetic water and those supplied with magnetic water. Furthermore, there were significant differences in the soil magnesium content between the two treatments, with the magnesium level being higher in the case of plants irrigated with magnetized water. The average soil magnesium content was 13.05 ± 0.08 mg/L compared to 11.05 ± 0.13 mg/L for plants irrigated with regular-treated water. This is in line with the report, who found that the level of metals such as calcium, magnesium, and potassium, increased in plants supplied with magnetized water. Conversely, iron absorption decreased when plants were irrigated with magnetic water. The amount of potassium in the present research differed between the soil extracts of plants irrigated with regular water and those treated with magnetized water, with the amount being significantly higher in plants irrigated with magnetized water compared to that in the soil extracts of plants irrigated with regular water (6.47 ± 0.14 mg/L vs. 4.343 ± 0.24 mg/L in the soil extract of plants irrigated with magnetically treated water). In one experiment found that the levels of nitrogen, potassium, and phosphorus were increased in Guinea grass irrigated with magnetic water. On the contrary, the investigator found decreased levels of cadmium, lead, and sodium.
|Element||Magnesium mg/l||Calcium mg/l||Potassium mg/l||Phosophors mg/l||Nitrogen mg/l|
|Magnetic water||13.05 ± 0.08*||17.05 ± 0.88*||90.44 ± 0.82*||6.74 ± 0.14*||6.90 ± 0.06*|
|Regular water||11.05 ± 0.13||16.17 ± 0.09||88.18 ± 0.720||4.34 ± 0.242||4.620 ± 0.168|
A paired t-test showed significant differences between the means in the rows. Significance was considered at α=0.05
Table 1. Mean (± S.E) of elements analysis in the Mean (± S.E) of elements analysis in the non-magnetic and magnetic soil.
The amount of phosphorus element measured in the soil extracts was significantly different between the two treatment groups, with the content being higher in plants irrigated with magnetized water. The average phosphorus content in the soil extract irrigated with regular water was 4.620 ± 0.168 mg/L compared with 6.90 ± 0.06 mg/L for soil irrigated with magnetized water. The enhanced absorption of available soil phosphorus as well as the amount of extractable potassium has a positive impact on plant growth and yield, suggesting the importance of magnetic water in agriculture. In another study it was demonstrated that magnetic water treatment was associated with increased concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Furthermore, magnetic water has been shown to affect phosphorus and potassium desorption from soil-adsorbed phosphorus on colloidal particles complex. This promoted plant development due to the increased availability of these nutrients to plants.
Effect of Magnetized Water on Crop Quantity and Quality
Plant growth was positive over time. The results showed a significant difference in the harvest between the two plant groups. The height of plants irrigated with regular water was 14.133 cm, whereas those irrigated with magnetically treated water reached a height of 17.37 cm. The root length of plants irrigated with normal water was 2.467 cm compared to 3.53 cm for those irrigated with magnetically treated water. In a previous report, it was shown that when plants were treated with magnetic force before planting, their resistance to stress and other environmental factors increased. Other investigators reported that in the presence of magnetic fields, tomato seed growth was enhanced. In the same line, it was shown that magnetized water had a positive effect on seed germination and plant growth rate; the plants were also found to be more resistant to diseases and pests. Furthermore, some studies demonstrated an association between the use of magnetic fields and certain parameters such as seed germination, plant growth, and yield in pepper plants. Similar observations were also made in snap bean in which magnetic fields increased plant yield, whereas snow pea and chickpea plants showed improved growth when treated with magnetic fields. During the last two decades, there have been attempts to develop a cost-effective and simple method to enhance the germination of onion and a variety of food crops and seeds.
There has been an interesting report of the effect of magnetized water on the total germination rate of seeds. In the report, found a 100% germination rate six days after the cultivation of seeds treated with magnetized water. On the contrary, a lower germination rate (83% nine days after cultivation) was reported for seeds irrigated with regular water (control). Results from these reports suggest a variation in the energy content in seeds, which may explain why germination will not occur in all of the seeds. In fact, magnetically treated water is more readily absorbed by seeds. Proper treatment of seeds with magnetic force caused a 1.1–2.8 fold increase in germination rates.
It was demonstrated in young and chickpea seeds that when a static magnetic field was applied, their germination rate was significantly higher; also increased were the growth, shoot and root growth rate. Other investigators showed that magnetic force also affected different parameters of plant growth, such as seed germination, root growth, seedling growth rate, and chlorophyll levels. According to magnetic fields (100 MT) enhanced growth Vicia faba seedlings.
In the present report, when plants were supplied with magnetic water, they reached a height of 17.37 cm compared to 14.133 cm for those irrigated with regular water. The stem length of plants supplied with regular water was 11.667 cm compared to 13.83 cm for those supplied with magnetized water. This increase in the height and stem length of plants irrigated with magnetic water can be explained by the increased ability of the plants to absorb magnetically treated water more than regular water. Due to their increased capacity to absorb water, the plant tissues are supplied with more energy and, as a result, generally grow faster than those irrigated with regular water. After studying how magnetized water affected hibiscus plants, these investigators concluded magnetized water increased the productivity of these plants. Another experiment conducted on lentil plants showed that plant growth was significantly increased following irrigation with magnetized water. A similar report was made about on the irrigation of chickpea plants with magnetized water. In the report found an increase in height and number of pods in the plants; they also reported greater seed yield in plants irrigated wit magnetic water compared to controls also reported an increase in height and productivity of wheat plants irrigated with magnetically treated water. Magnetic force seemed to have the same effect on tomato plants when it was applied to the seeds and water used to irrigate the seeds and seedlings.
Our finding regarding the effect of magnetically treated water in increasing root length has been reported elsewhere. In one such study reported that irrigation with magnetic water was associated with an increase in root growth. Furthermore, they found that irrigation with magnetized water had a positive effect on the defense system of plants and enhanced photosynthesis. Thus, the quality and output of plants is improved by using magnetically treated water, which causes an increase in root growth.
Findings from this study also showed that the wet and dry weight of plants supplied with magnetized was higher than those supplied with plain water. Specifically, the wet weight of plants watered with magnetized water was 1.053 g/pot, whereas that of plants irrigated with regular water was 0.99 g/pot.
The dry weight of the plants in the two plant groups were also significantly different, with those irrigated with magnetically treated water having a higher dry weight. The shoot dry weight of the plant samples treated with magnetized water was 4.547 g/ pot compared to 4.32 g/pot for those treated with regular water. These findings are similar to those observe who reported a that both the wet and dry weight of the roots of plant samples treated with magnetic water was higher compared to those irrigated with regular water. These findings have also been observed when a pulsed magnetic field was applied to soy bean plants; in their report found an increase in soy bean plant parameters when the plants are subjected to a pulsed magnetic force.
Previously, it was reported that seedlings irrigated with magnetic water were healthier and more vigorous as a result of the effect of enhanced nutrient absorption brought about by the use of magnetic water. Tomato plants were also noted to absorb more nutrients when irrigated with magnetized water.
The obtained results confirm that magnetically treated water is essential in improving soil properties. Additionally, the treatment of soil with magnetic water increased plant growth and development and, consequently, plant production. This is potentially useful in agriculture, as inexpensive magnetic energy can be utilized to enhance soil characteristics and increase plant yield.