All submissions of the EM system will be redirected to Online Manuscript Submission System. Authors are requested to submit articles directly to Online Manuscript Submission System of respective journal.

Physiological Bond between Mother and Unborn Baby

Sandhya Sree M*

Nagarjuna University, Guntur, AP, India

*Corresponding Author:
Sandhya Sree M
Nagarjuna University, Guntur, AP, India
[email protected]

Received: 19 May 2015 Accepted: 03 June 2015

Visit for more related articles at Research & Reviews: Journal of Nursing and Health Sciences


Motherhood, Pregnancy, Baby, Therapy


The time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman is called Gestation or pregnancy. First trimester last date of period to the 13th week, second trimester 14th to 27thh week and the third trimester 28th to 42 weeks [1-15]. In each and every trimester mother and unborn baby undergoes certain physical changes. Psychological changes are also seen in mother because of certain hormones alterations during pregnancy [16-20].

Pregnant women should take a well-balanced diet. Balanced diet includes Fruit and vegetables, Starchy foods (carbohydrates), Protein (meat (but avoid liver), fish, poultry, eggs, beans, pulses, nuts), Dairy, Foods that are high in sugar or fat, Healthy snacks, Preparing food safely, Healthy Start vouchers. Restriction to some food items is one more concern during pregnancy [21-25]. Mega doses of certain vitamins like vitamin A and vitamin C cause birth defects, research on these restricted food items is still under study. Nourishment to the unborn baby is linked with the mother’s nourishment. So mother should completely avoid alcohol, smoking and caffeine. Most of the Women at early stages are unaware of pregnancy and they take alcohol which further leads to fetal alcohol syndrome, stunted growth and hyperactivity. Pregnancy is classified into three trimester each trimester three months long [26-30].

Physician generally confirms by Urine Test. Women can predict there pregnancy with few signs & symptoms like if they miss period, bloating, nausea, spotting, soreness of nipples, frequent urination, backache, headache, mood swings, food aversions and food cravings [31-35].

The physician recommends certain scan during pregnancy to study the unborn baby health. Commonly performed scans are ultrasound and intra vaginal scan. Sonographer generally performs this and interprets the image of fetus [36-40]. Blood test is also done after confirmation of pregnancy to diagnose and prevent possible complications during pregnancy [41-45]. Once such major complication found with blood group, Women with Rh negative and man with Rh positive conceive a baby there are chances complications [46-50]. The blood test screening for hemoglobin level, rubella, syphilis or hepatitis B, HIV/AIDS and almost all possible infections of organs are detected so that proper precautions are started to protect unborn from mother infections [51-61].

In second trimester, Maternal Serum Alpha-Fetoprotein (MSAFP) and multiple marker screening, to check the possibility of Down syndrome or a neural tube defect such as spina bifida, it can be even determined by ultrasound [62-75].

In third trimester, ligaments loosen to prepare for labor and this causes some sort of discomfort in pelvis [75-95]. The extra weight makes mother feel pressure on her back, sometimes spotting can be seen, a sign of a serious problem, including placenta previa. Braxton Hickscontractions, mild contractions immediately notified to the physician to take special care [96-120]. By the end of pregnancy, breasts enlarge as much as 2 pounds. A substance called colostrum, leak from mother nipples which nourish baby in first few days after birth [121-130].

Pregnant women generally complaint of headache. Complication during pregnancy are Bleeding, Severe Nausea and Vomiting, Baby’s Activity Level Significantly Declines, Contractions Early in the Third Trimester, Your Water Breaks, A Persistent Severe Headache, Abdominal Pain, Visual Disturbances, and Swelling During Your Third Trimester, Flu Symptoms. Headaches are generally classified into Tension Type Headaches (TTH), Migraine, and Cluster Headache [131-140].

The complications severity sometimes cannot be clearly distinguished by the pregnant women because they are almost similar to symptoms and discomforts of pregnancy. One such misleading complication is Mild nausea, is a discomfort and symptom of morning sickness but severity in it is hyperemesis gravidarum [140-150].


An autoimmune disorder that occurs in genetically predisposed people, gluten ingestion leads to small intestine damage. Researchers have found that Women with doctor-diagnosed celiac disease are more likely to miscarry or deliver preterm than women with no history of the condition. Even mothers with sickle cell disease (SCD) are six times more likely to die during or following pregnancy and have an increased risk for stillbirth, high blood pressure, and preterm delivery [151-160].

Postnatal care is important to children with low birth weight and mothers infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). But many parents skip as they cannot bear the cost of postnatal care [161-170].Thyroid hormone levels during pregnancy are to be properly monitored specially in women with preexisting hypothyroid or hyper thyroid disease, and many who are under the therapy of synthetic hormone levothyroxine need to boost their doses early in pregnancy under the prescription of Midwife [171-180].Teenage mothers usually deliver Low birthweight baies with infant and childhood disorders. A higher rate of infant mortality is seen with such conditions [180-204]. Pregnant women of age 35 have normal pregnancies. More chances of infant with a genetic disorder, such as Down syndrome.


Pregnancy involves many physiological changes in mother, some physical and psychological changes. Though many women knew some changes are painful they all feel like motherhood is gift of nature. During pregnancy utmost care is to be taken to the unborn baby to give a healthy birth to baby, at the same time even mother should be taken care because mother health and unborn baby health are interlinked to each other.

If any abnormal symptoms are seen immediately mother should be kept under the supervision of physician. Healthy diet and prescribed vitamin supplements are to taken by the mother to maintain health of unborn baby and mother. Never take treatment from an unqualified medical practitioners it is highly dangerous to the unborn baby and mother. At the end of third trimester mother should always be assisted by one guardian to attend her in hospital when labor begins. There are two types of deliveries one caesarean and the other vaginal birth. Vaginal birth for the first time mothers takes almost 14 hours and for the subsequent almost 8 hours. Caesarean is mostly done to mothers with high risk during delivery or to save the life of mother or the baby. But in most of the caesarean cases the mother develops many abnormal physiological changes.