Metahelix Life Sciences Ltd, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
Received: 14/04/2015; Revised: 10/05/2015; Accepted: 02/06/2015
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Genetically Modified Crops, Herbicide, Molecular markers
Genetically modified crops derived from altering or manipulating organism’s gemome by using genetically engineered techniques . Since recent years rapid advancements of genetic engineering in the field of agriculture, the cultivating area increased with transgenic crops dramatically. Main reason for genetic transformation is to get plants with useful characteristics i.e. qualitative and quantitative characteristics, those are unachievable by conventional breeding. As of late reported that endorsed GM harvests are at present become on approximately 180 million hectares in more than 25 nations .
The anti GM crop society warning people against the use of transgenic crops, but the countries like USA, Argentina, Canada and Brazil that have been successfully cultivating and enjoying the benefits of transgenic crops. In India the only crop under trial is Bt-cotton . Cotton is a major fiber crop, which is cultivated largely and play a key role in the farming community. Now Bt cotton plays a key role in the forming community, and the farmers earning more by using Bt cotton. In a study the cultivation area increased due to Bt cotton in Adilabad district in Telangana (India) . In a study three famous Bt-cotton hybrids related to particular area were sown under two different spacing’s in different soils. They concluded that, spacing’s had significantly influenced quantitative characteristics . The novel cry1I quality will be an essential asset in developing hereditarily built microorganisms and transgenic plants for biocontrol of bug bugs and Bt based biopesticidal definitions, meaning to decrease the utilization of concoction insect poisons .
Control of weeds in maize fields by preor post crisis weedicides. Post crisis weedicides can be dealt with Herbicide resistant maize varieties i.e transgenic maize. However ceaseless utilization of herbicides on herbicide safe maize yield, created development of some weedicide safe weed biotypes . In a study on Sweet corn with pre emergence herbicides revealed that profitable green cob and fodder yield can be obtained by maintaining the crop weed free entire crop season . Non-target impacts of Cry1Ab x CP4 EPSPS and Cry1Ab+Cry3Bb1×CP4 EPSPS Bt transgenic new maize hybrids on slippery flower buds [Orius insidiosus (called)] was contemplated in Nebraska (Mead, C lay Center, and Concord) amid 2007 and 2008. This study demonstrated no unfavorable impacts of the new BT transgenic maize that included stacked resistance qualities on O. insidiosus contrasted with the non-Bt maize hybrids .
Globally salinity is a big problem to the cultivars, recent discoveries stated that the gene related to mannitol 1 phosphate Dehydrogenase enzyme extracted from a bacteria is working as salinity tolerant in maize . Portrayal of the molecules straightforwardly included in the method of activity of Cry poisons in Coleoptera will give the apparatuses important to expand the adequacy of Cry-based biopesticides against monetarily vital beetles .
As the crop productivity is decreasing drastically in rice, to feed the increasing population, we need to discover the abiotic stress tolerant rice varieties. This is the big challenge for plant molecular biologist . To overcome the Biotic and Abiotic stress problems in major crops, crop genome editing technology is only alternate technology . A few factual models and systems have been created and misused for contemplating the genotype x environment cooperation impacts, dependability of genotypes and their connections in varietal improvement process .
In Barley a gene which is responsible for a protein late embryogenesis abundant 3 (LEA3) is Hordeum vulgaris abundant protein (HVA1) has been proved in increase vegetative biomass and other characteristics associated with drought and salt tolerance . Soybean and soy determined products are expended worldwide for advantages got from their high protein and bioactive phenolic parts, to be specific isoflavones and phenolic acids. Soybean proteins are utilized as a part of human nourishments in a mixture of structures. Utilization of soybeans lessened the danger of disease, diminished danger variables for cardiovascular sickness, and decreased shots of other ceaseless ailments .In an analysis with soybean seeds, phenolic acids and isoflavonoids were examined by LCMS investigation. They inferred that minor varieties in proteins, isoflavonoids and phenolic acids exist in the middle of control and transgenic soybean seeds .
Molecular Markers plays an important role in selecting the novel genes. Marker assisted breeding utilizes the DNA markers to achieve effective selection. Marker assisted selection (MAS) is to select the genetic determinants of a particular trait of interest . At the same time, these methods don't appear to be exceptionally suitable for measuring the versatile hereditary assorted qualities of crops. In this way, differences examination ought to be taking into account useful genes or entire genome arrangements . In a study observed that male sterility observed by overexpression of Arginine Decarboxylase Gene in Tapetal Tissue . Despite the fact that the examination towards phytoremediation of explosives utilizing transgenic plants is moving as a part of the right bearing, established researchers experiences numerous issues, for example, predetermined number of known explosives-metabolizing proteins, moderately low action of the regular catalysts, powerlessness to present various qualities all the while in plants, and set number of plant species suitable for phytoremediation . Cover crops can help you spend less on inputs, as well as assemble a healthier, more alive soil, that will pay profits for a considerable length of time to come .
Some biopharmaceuticals are produced in some plants using Biotechnology tools. Recently a research team produced the recombinant human saliva secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor from tobacco leaves .The effect of this populace hereditary qualities part can be sanely used to handle hereditary differences techniques and by raisers for viable utilization of existing variety in different reproducing projects for empowering feasible hereditary enhancements for yield and quality in tobacco . Molecular markers plays an important role in genetic diversity studies especially in nursery plant production .
Tissue culture is one of the alternate method to improve the Quality and quantity of plants with in the short period of time. We can multiplicate or regenerate the plants via tissue culture . The strategy reported here for the recovery of the unmanageable product chickpea constitutes a proficient and reproducible tissue culture convention as an essential for productive utilization of hereditary techniques .It is possible to recreate some of the lost genotypes by synthesis of gene pool following hybridization and introgression breeding from cultivated and wild types . It has made very easy phenotyping and genotyping of agronomic traits by using QTL in crops .