Short Report on Intravenous Medication
Department of Chemistry, National Institute of Technology, Warangal
- *Corresponding Author:
- Sonnaila SK
Department of Chemistry, National Institute of Technology, Warangal, India
Received: 06 June 2016 Revised:08/08/2016; Accepted: 15 August 2016
Visit for more related articles at Research & Reviews: Journal of Nursing and Health Sciences
Medication errors, Preparation errors, Observational study.
Now and again patients must get medication quickly. Different times, medicines must be given gradually and slowly yet constantly. In both of these circumstances, intravenous drug organization may be needed. Taking pills or fluids by mouth may not be sufficiently quick to get certain pharmaceuticals into the body. In a crisis setting, pharmaceutical must be retained rapidly. Additionally, chemicals in the stomach may separate certain fragile pharmaceuticals. Accordingly, these must be given specifically into the circulatory system.
Intravenous is a term which means “into the vein”. The administration of intravenous medication occurs when a needle is inserted into a vein and medication is administered along through the needle. In Intravenous medication, the needle is typically put in a vein close to the elbow, the wrist, or on the back of the hand. Distinctive sites can be utilized if essential.
IV administration is the most essential and most normal parenteral administration course. Intravenous treatment is a complex process generally obliging the planning of the drug in the clinical ranges before organization to the patient. There have been reports of deaths and damage taking after solution slips, for example, wrong medication, measurements, diluents, and cross contamination errors with intravenous treatment. The configuration of methodology and execution of the framework for planning and managing intravenous pharmaceuticals was thought liable to be affected by national variables, for example, enactment, medicinal services framework prerequisites, proficient models, college course curricula, and conveyance of instruction and training for health awareness staff.
An intravenous medication lapse is characterized as a deviation in planning of a medication from a specialist's doctor prescription, the clinics intravenous approach, or the manufactures directions.
The vast majority of the writing on MAE's to date has concentrated on oral medications controlled amid consistent medication rounds. A couple of cases of MAE's emerging from IV bolus dosages or discontinuous implantations have been accounted for. In any case, we have not possessed the capacity to discover any data depicting the prevalence of MAE's connected with constant IV imbuements which are typically supplanted by nursing staff, once the substance of past sacks have been imbued. This is not at all like oral/ IV bolus medicates and requires an eyewitness to be available at the purpose of arrangement.
In any hospital center nurses for the most part get ready and regulate intravenous medications recommended by specialists or doctors. Single site studies which carried out in few wards have reported errors in get ready and controlling intravenous medications of 13%-84%, a few studies utilized distinctive definitions and did not evaluate the seriousness of errors.
Despite the fact that the writing reports various studies on recognizing IV prescription mistakes in different clinics abroad, the information accessible on such circumstance in India is restricted.
Medical caretakers were seen by a solitary eyewitness for a greatest number of four times with a specific end goal to incorporate however many as diverse attendants as could be allowed. Amid the procedure of planning and directing IV medications nurses were seen by utilizing the perception list. The medical caretakers are mindful of the perception yet unconscious about genuine reason. The name of medical attendants, the quantity of perception by nurses and period of study were enrolled. Observations occurred on distinctive days of week and diverse times of day and night in every hospital ward. The spectator was available amid a present arrangement of movement, to speak to the variety of nursing hours in nursing practice.
The different types of errors were defined based on the classification by (Allan and Barker) and adapted to the data. Preparation errors included preparation of the wrong drug, the wrong dose, the wrong dosage form, the wrong preparation technique, omission errors and preparation of an unordered drug dose. Preparation error rates were calculated as percentage by dividing the sum of all recorded preparation errors by the sum of the prepared drug doses observed. Data’s were expressed as percentages and kept as 95% confidence interval.
Preparation errors included arrangement of the wrong medication, the wrong measurement, the wrong dose shape, the wrong readiness system, exclusion lapses and readiness of an unordered medication dosage. the error rates in preparation as percentage by dividing the sum of all recorded preparation errors by the sum of the prepared drug doses observed. Information's were communicated as rates and kept as 95% confidence interval.
Blood clumps can form because of IV treatment, and deep vein thrombosis can be extremely unsafe. Clumps get to be stuck in imperative veins and reason tissue harm or passing.
Pharmaceuticals directed intravenously follow up on the body rapidly. Toxicity, symptoms, and unfavorably allergic responses will hence happen quick. A patient on IV prescription ought to be under perception at all times.
Before administration of any IV medications, a health care professional should follow the major six “rights” of medication administration. They are listed as follows
1. the right patient;
2. the right dose;
3. by the right route;
4. at the right time;
5. with the right medication;
6. Following up with the right documentation.
Now and then, an IV medication is given as a "push" or "bolus" dosage with a syringe specifically into the vein. All the more regularly, an IV "line" or peripheral venous catheter (PVC) is embedded for quick and safe access all over the time.
To embed a venous catheter, a needle is embedded into a vein, frequently close to the wrist. A slight thin plastic tube referred a catheter is then pushed over the needle. The needle is uprooted, and the tube remains. Different tubes can be associated with this one with an interfacing "hub" or "tap" that remaining parts outside the body.
At the point when an IV line is embedded an IV "drip" is typically started. A drip is a steady stream of clean fluid from a pack hanging over the patient. The fluid is regularly a saline (salt) arrangement. Different prescriptions can be added to this saline arrangement, and implanted into the blood gradually over the long haul. Infrequently a pump is appended to the IV line and pumps fluid into the catheter in a moderate, steady design.
For patients who are exceptionally sick or who are getting consistent IV treatment for chemotherapy or different reasons, a central line or central venous catheter may be embedded into a vein in the neck or midsection.
In the event that you feel anything bizarre while starting IV treatment, tell the wellbeing proficient treating you. Uneasiness and different sensations may be typical. In any case, they might likewise be an indication of an unfavorably susceptible response, harmfulness, or a muddling of treatment.
- OzlemErsoy and Omer Tasargol et al. Skin Necrosis in an ICU-Patient due to Accidental Extravasation of Parenteral Nutrition Solution via a Peripheral Intravenous Catheter - A Case Report. J AnesthClinRes . 2015;6:522
- Hassan Baallal et al. IntraspinalMalpositioned Central Venous Catheter. J Clin Case Rep . 2014;4:406
- Juan Luis GonzaacutelezLoacutepez et al. COSMOS Study Microbiological Results: Bacterial Colonization and Infection of Long-Term Peripheral Catheters. ClinMicrobiol . 2014;3: 144
- Teoh CW et al. Recombinant Tissue Plasminogen Activator is Safe and Effective in Increasing Haemodialysis Catheter Longevity in PaediatricHaemodialysis Patients. J NephrolTher . 2014;4: 161
- Marcello Fonseca Salgado Filho et al. Comparison between Ultrasound-Guided and Anatomic Landmark Puncture of the Right Internal Jugular Vein. J Cardiovasc Dis Diagn . 2013;1: 128
- Maria T. Mascellino et al. Candidaemia in Immune-Compromised Hosts: Incidence and Drugs Susceptibility. J ClinExpPathol . 2012;2: 131
- Amitabh Kumar et al. Folding Back of Central Venous Catheter in the Internal Jugular Vein: Methods to Diagnose it at the Time of Insertion?. J Anesthe Clinic Res . 2012
- Khalid Al Saran et al. Central Venous Catheter-Related Bacteremia in Chronic Hemodialysis Patients:Saudi Single Center Experience. J NephrolTher . 2011;1: 105
- KhaledSeidi et al. Nanomagnet-Based Detoxifying Machine: An Alternative/Complementary Approach in HIV therapy. J AIDS ClinRes . 2014;5: 304
- Peter Hansen et al. The Total Lymphocyte Count is a Factor When Using the CD4 Count to Guide HIV Therapy. J AIDS ClinRes . 2013;4: 205
- Nils Von Hentig et al. Personalizing HIV Therapy, Mission Impossible?. J AntivirAntiretrovir . 2013;5: 012
- AwewuraKwara et al. Towards Individualized HIV Therapy: Pharmacogenetic-guided Clinical Trials are Needed Now. J Pharmacogenomics Pharmacoproteomics . 2012;3:e116
- OzkanOnal et al. Trendelenburg position does not increase cross-sectional area of the internal jugular vein of the obese patients
- Mehdi Fathi et al. Post operative analgesia for cardiac surgery.
- Sofia Sofroniadou et al. Catheter-related blood stream infections; where are we standing?.
- MingYanHei et al. Catheter-related Infection and pathogens of umbilical venous catheterization in a neonatal intensive care unit in China.
- Matthew Ellison et al. Regional anesthesia in the parturient with Von willebrand’s disease.
- ArshiaGhaffari et al. Urgent-Start PD: How does it compare with urgent-start HD in the first year of dialysis?.
- MingYanHei et al. Catheter-related Infection and pathogens of umbilical venous catheterization in a neonatal intensive care unit in China.
- Mehmet Horoz et al. Development of high-output heart failure after correction of central venous occlusion.
- Jie Ding et al. Clinical and genetic features of Chinese families with autosomal recessive Alport syndrome.
- GerezFernandes Martins et al. The effect of trimetazidine in the ischemia-reperfusion injury in myocardial revascularization surgery.
- Eun Young Han et al. physical fitness and aerobic capacity of middle-school soccer players in OO Island.
- Raman Garipelly et al. Evaluation of Amlodipine induced Pedal Edema (Eape) study.
- Madhukar Reddy Patlolla et al. Drug-induced nephrotoxicity analysis in HIV therapy; case study using GOBIOM database.
- Amer Hayat Khan et al. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), Diabetes Mellitus and Tuberculosis a challenging scenario.
- Anwar Mulugeta et al. Genetic variability of CYP2B6 G516T and their impact in efavirenz based HAART: A metaanalysis.
- Jan Jacques Michiels et al. Complete Compression Ultrsonography, Clinical Score, Underlying Risk. J HematolThromboDis . 2015;3:193
- KonstantinosFilis et al. Mobilisation after Lower Limb Deep Vein Thrombosis and Post-Thrombotic Syndrome. J Nov Physiother . 2015;5: e137
- YogeshwaranElumalai et al. Comparison of Efficacy of Low Molecular Weight Heparin Versus Oral Anticoagulant in Indian Population for Prevention of Deep Vein Thrombosis in Total Knee Replacement. OrthopMusculSyst . 2015
- Pierpaolo Di Micco et al. Baseline Analysis on the Outcome of Patients with Deep Vein Thrombosis . . 2014
- Minki Jung et al. Perioperative Management of a Patient with Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia and Deep Vein Thrombosis: A Case Report. J AnesthClinRes . 2014;5: 447
- Angelika NF et al. Interrupted Inferior Vena Cava and Deep Vein Thrombosis - An Underdiagnosed Pediatric Disease. PediatTherapeut . 2014;4: 206
- Anastasia Dean et al. Management of Ilio-Femoral Deep Vein Thrombosis: A Hybrid Approach. J Vasc Med Surg . 2014;2:131
- Carla Ceriotti et al. Correlation between Deep Vein Thrombosis Location and D-Dimer Values: A Pilot Study. J Vasc Med Surg . 2014;2:129
- Metabolic and Inflammatory Proteins Differentially Expressed in Platelets from Unprovoked Deep Vein Thrombosis Patients. J Proteomics Bioinform Vol. 2014
- OluwaseyiBolorunduro et al. Lower Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis is Associated with Mortality among Patients Hospitalized with Congestive Heart Failure: Results from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality’s Nationwide Inpatient Sample. 2013
- Raj Ramakrishna et al. Combined Short Course Low Molecular Weight Heparin and Calf Compression Therapy in Prevention of Deep Vein Thrombosis after Total Knee Replacement: A Randomized Prospective Study. J HematolThromboDis . 2013;1:118
- Seyed Mohammad YousofMostafavi Pour Manshadi et al. New Concept about Perioperative Asymptomatic or Symptomatic Deep Vein Thrombosis Prophylaxis in Coronary Artery Bypass Graft. J ClinExpCardiolog . 2013;4:131e
- Interventional Radiological Techniques and Current Devices in the Management of Iliofemoral Deep Vein Thrombosis. OMICS J Radiology . 2013;2: 133
- Michael West et al. Does Deep Vein Thrombosis Usually Precede a Pulmonary Embolism. J Trauma Treat . 2013;2
- Harsh Agrawal et al. Deep Vein Thrombosis /Pulmonary Embolism in a Patient with Retroperitoneal Fibrosis: A Case Report. J Clin Case Rep . 2012;2:154
- Francis Brooks et al. Thromboprophylaxis in Spinal Surgery – Current UK Practice. J Spine . 2012;1:121
- Antonios G Angoules et al. Baker’s Cyst Rupture May Mimics Deep Vein Thrombosis. Emergency Medicine . 2012;2:e108
- Rahul Kurapati et al. Catastrophic anti-phospholipid syndrome causing non-ST elevation myocardial infarction.
- Manuela Stoicescu et al. Diagnosis traps in a rare hematologic disease: Original case report.
- Ruth Kleinpell et al. New international guidelines for sepsis care: Implications for critical care nursing.
- RinkuMajumdar et al. A novel role of protein S in regulating thrombosis, independent of activated protein C.
- Tal BurstynCohen et al. New challenges in anticoagulation therapy: Protein S.
- Muhammad Umair Khan et al. Foix-Alajouaninesyndrome : Report of a case with spinal cord.
- Clifford Bowens et al. Perioperative Optimization for the Geriatric Hip Fracture Patient.
- Ayhan H et al. Above-knee versus below-knee graduated compression stockings for deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis after arthroplasty surgery.
- Ibrahim Natalwala et al. in post-surgical orthopaedic patients process approach. Proceedings of . DVT
- Friedman N Deborah et al. Randomized Controlled Trial of Short Course Intravenous Therapy for Cellulitis and Erysipelas of the Lower Limb . . 2014
- SaadAbdelRahmanSheta et al. Intranasal premedication in dental sedation.
- Malone M et al. Outcomes and cost effectiveness of outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) in patients with diabetic foot infection. . OPAT
- Zahra Hosseini et al. Adherence to Anti Retro Viral Therapy: A Qualitative Study of Facilitators and Barriers among HIV/AIDS Patients in Iran. J AIDS ClinRes . 2015;6: 449
- Haringkansson A and Medvedeo A et al. Role of Medication and Background Variables in Dropout from Opiate Withdrawal Treatment – A Retrospective Chart Review. J Alcohol Drug Depend . 2015;3:199
- Joseph A Oluyemi et al. Factors Influencing the Practice of Self-Medication among Bankers in Selected New Generation Banks in Ilorin Nigeria. Int J Econ ManagSci . 2015
- Muhammad Adnan et al. Evaluation of Self-Medication Practices and Awareness among Students in Al Qassim Region of Saudi Arabia. ClinPharmacolBiopharm . 2015;4:133
- Mark A Malesker et al. IV Acetaminophen: Assessment of Medication Utilization Evaluation Data in Peri-operative Pain Management. Surgery . 2015;10: 4
- Pramod B Mahajan et al. Will Pharmacogenomics Take the Pain Out of Pain Medication?. J Pharmacogenomics Pharmacoproteomics . 2015;6:e142
- SirichaiChayasirisobhon et al. Efficacy of Neuromodulation Therapy with Vagus Nerve Stimulator in Patients with Drug-Resistant Epilepsy on Unchanged Antiepileptic Medication Regimen for 24 Months Following the Implant. J NeurolNeurophysiol, . 2015;6:268
- Masakazu Ishii et al. A Cyclooxygenase 2 Gene Polymorphism is a Risk Factor for the Complication of Medication Overuse Headaches in Patients with Migraines. J NeurolDisord . 2015;3: 206
- Gail Ironson et al. Doctor-Patient Relationship: Active Patient Involvement . . 2015
- Jhansi Rani Konduru et al. Review on Adverse Drug Reactions. AdvPharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf . 2015;4:R005
- Binny Thomas et al. Medication used in Nausea and Vomiting of Pregnancy - A Review of Safety and Efficacy. GynecolObstet . 2015
- SangeetaTanna et al. LC-HRMS Analysis of Dried Blood Spot Samples For Assessing Adherence to Cardiovascular Medications. J BioanalBiomed . 2015
- Pernille Dam et al. Safe and Effective Use of Medicines for Ethnic Minorities - A Pharmacist- Delivered Counseling Program That Improves Adherence. J Pharma Care Health Sys . 2014;2: 1
- Mark Gudesblatt et al. Outcomes of a Switch to Fingolimod to Treat Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis: A Patient Subgroup Post Hoc Analysis. J MultScler . 2012
- BouyouAkotet MK et al. Performances of SD Bioline Malaria Ag-P. . 2014
- T GangadharaGoud et al. A Study on Self Medication among College Students. Medical and Health Sciences . 2014
- Monali A Shah et al. A Potent Pre-Medication in Periodontal Surgical Procedures - Ketorolac Tromethamine 10mg: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Dental Sciences . 2014
- Tony L. Brown et al. Psychoactive Medications as Independent Risk for Heat Injury in Emergency Medical Service Workers. Int J EmergMentHealth . 2015
- Dupouy Jean Patrick et al. Effect of Sublingual Nitro-Glycerine Premedication On Image Analysis of Using 256 Multidetector Computed Tomography Coronary Angiography. OMICS J Radiol . 2014
- Barnett AH et al. Systematic Review and Network Meta-analysis to Compare Dapagliflozin with other Diabetes Medications in Combination with Metformin for Adults with Type 2 Diabetes. Intern Med . 2014;S6: 006
- Andrea Branvold and Maria Carvalho et al. Pain Management Therapy: The Benefits of Compounded Transdermal Pain Medication. J Gen Pract . 2014;2: 188
- Gelaw BK et al. Non Adherence and Contributing Factors among Ambulatory Patients with Anti Diabetic Medications in Adama Referral Hospital. AdvPharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf . 2014;3:169
- Chuixian Zhou and Junhui Zhao et al. Dexmedetomidine versus Midazolam as Premedication in Anesthesia: A Meta-Analysis from Randomized Controlled Clinical Trials. J AnesthClinRes . 2014;5: 457
- Alban Caporossi et al. An Experience Feedback Committee for Improving Medication Process Safety: An Observational Study in a Hospital Pharmacy Department. J Pharma Care Health Sys . 2014;S1:010
- Thomas Macharia et al. Antiretroviral Toxicity Leading to a Medication Change in Multiple HIV Clinics in Resource Limited Settings. J AntivirAntiretrovir . 2014;6: 111
- Inga JoacutenaIngimarsdoacutettir and Gerhard Wikstroumlm et al. Life Threatening Acute Heart Failure in Two Young Adults Treated with Antidepressant Medication. J Pharmacovigil . 2014;2:154
- Edna C. Diacuteaz Sierra et al. Clinical and Behavioral Impact of Pharmaceutical Care Services in Community Pharmacies in Puerto Rico. J Pharma Care Health Sys . 2014;S1:001
- Ana M Palacio et al. Improving Adherence to Cholesterol Lowering Medications among Minority Populations in Florida: A Randomized Trial. J ClinTrials . 2014;4: 189
- Jonas De Wolf et al. Evolution of Drug Utilization in Nursing Homes in Belgium. ClinPharmacolBiopharm . 2014;3:124
- Caroline R BorjaOliveira et al. Alcohol-Medication Interactions: The Acetaldehyde Syndrome. J Pharmacovigil . 2014;2:145
- Eileen Weinmann et al. A Simple Solution to Safeguarding Sedation Medications. Occup Med Health Aff . 2014;2:177
- Jie Fu et al. Research Advances on the Treatment of Myoclonus-Dystonia Syndrome. J NeurolNeurophysiol . 2014;5:228
- AlbenaacuteNunesSilva et al. Exercise-Induced Inflammatory Response: To Use or Not use Anti-Inflammatory Medication . J Sports Med Doping Stud . 2014;4: 142
- Hana Morrissey and Patrick Ball et al. Medication Errors: Medication Orders with Error-Prone Abbreviations. J NursCare . 2014;3:196
- Michael A Veronin et al. Patient-centered Health Care Delivery Uniting MTM, EHRs and Patients: Opportunities for Pharmacists. J Pharma Care Health Sys . 2014;1: 3
- Jonathan Evans et al. Non-Union of a Tibial Stress Fracture in a Young Female Taking Bisphosphonate Medication. J OsteoporPhysAct . 2014;2: 124
- Shanaz Mohammad Gaphor and Mustafa Jamel Abdullah et al. Medical Status and Medication Use in Patients Attending Shorish Private Dental Specialty in Sulaimani City. J Interdiscipl Med Dent Sci . 2014
- Maura D Iversen et al. Development and Results of a Motivational Interviewing Program for Health Education to Facilitate Osteoporosis Self-Management. J OsteoporPhysAct . 2014;2: 116
- ShiroHoshida et al. Analysis of the Difference in the Pressure-Natriuresis Relationship Based on the Class of Medication Using Spot Urine Tests in Hypertensive Patients. J Hypertens . 2014;3: 154
- Elena Villamanan et al. Impact of Computerized Physician Order Entry on Medication Prescription Errors in Patients Hospitalized in a Chest Diseases Ward. Pharm Anal Acta . 2014;5: 298
- Joseph O Fadare et al. Medication Adherence and Patients Satisfaction among Psychiatric Outpatients in a Rural Nigerian Tertiary Healthcare Facility. J Psychiatry . 2014
- Robert J. Douglas et al. Medication, Dietary Supplement, and Alcohol and Tobacco Use in Sub-Elite Australian Rules Footballers – A Snapshot. J Sports Med Doping Stud . 2014;4: 136
- Todd D Molfenter and Roger L Brown et al. Effects of Physician Communication and Family Hardiness on Patient Medication Regimen Beliefs and Adherence. General Med . 2014;2:136
- Huang LL et al. The Erosivity Potential Of Common Pediatric Over-The-Counter Medications And Its Reduction By Remineralising Agents. Dentistry . 2014;4: 241
- Gail Webber and BwireChirangi et al. Please Do Not Forget Us” - Views of Women, Nurses, and Traditional Birth Attendants on Community Distribution of Medications to Prevent Postpartum Hemorrhage and Sepsis: A Qualitative Pilot Study in Rural Tanzania. J Women's Health Care . 2014;3: 168
- Sur M Lucia et al. Malignancies Associated with Treatment of Rheumatic Diseases - to be or not to be. J BioequivAvailab . 2014
- Rachel Gross et al. Increased Education is Associated with Decreased Compliance in an Urban Multi-Ethnic Lupus Cohort. J Clin Cell Immunol . 2014;5: 215
- Bobbie G PaullForney et al. A Physician-Directed Commercial Low Calorie Diet with Intensive Behavioral Modification Decreases Metabolic Syndrome and Medication Use. J Obes Weight Loss Ther . 2014;4: 221
- Ruth E. MacRedmond et al. Fluticasone Induces Epithelial Injury and Alters Barrier Function in Normal Subjects. J Steroids HormSci . 2014;5: 134
- Badran EF et al. Intravenous Milk Infusion; Rare Medication Error. PediatTherapeut . 2014;4: 201
- FrejaBarisic et al. Prevalence of Ocular Surface Disease in Patients with Glaucoma using Topical Antiglaucoma Medications. J ClinExpOphthalmol . 2014;5: 334
- XueQinHao et al. Telmisartan Protect Broiler Chickens from Pulmonary Arterial Remodeling Induced by Low Ambient Temperature. J ClinExpCardiolog . 2014;5:300
- Gabriel E. Marquez et al. Eye Drop Self-medication: Comparative Questionnaire-based Study of Two Latin American Cities. J ClinExpOphthalmol . 2014;5: 330
- Anne Kuusisto et al. medication-documentation-in-nursing-discharge-summaries-at-patient-discharge-from-special-care-to-primary-care. J NursCare . 2014;3: 147
- SangeetaTanna and Graham Lawson et al. Cardiovascular Drug Medication Adherence Assessed by Dried Blood Spot Analysis. J Anal Bioanal Tech, S. 2014;S12: 006
- Namrata Paul et al. Comparative Evaluation of Oral Transmucosal Fentanyl Citrate and Nasal Transmucosal Midazolam Spray as Premedication in Children. J AnesthClinRes . 2014;5: 379
- Jarrod Williams et al. The Effect of D-Tagatose on Fructose Absorption in a Rat Model. J DevDrugs . 2013;2:111
- WeiTi Chen et al. Engagement with Health Care Providers Affects Self- Efficacy, Self-Esteem, Medication Adherence and Quality of Life in People Living with HIV. J AIDS ClinRes . 2013;4: 256
- Kim PGM Hurkens et al. A Survey on Medication Reviews in Older Patients: Substantial Variation in Daily Practice. J Gerontol Geriatric Res . 2013;2: 133
- et al. Early response or nonresponse of schizophrenia symptoms to antipsychotic medication is a predictor of long-term outcome. Afr J Psychiatry . 2009;
- et al. Early response or nonresponse of schizophrenia symptoms to antipsychotic medication is a predictor of long-term outcome. Afr J Psychiatry . 2009;
- VuoristoMyllysSalla et al. Predictors of Self-Reported Adherence to Naltrexone Medication in an Outpatient Treatment for Problem Drinking. J Addict Res Ther . 2013;4: 159
- J Eaton et al. Ensuring access to psychotropic medication in sub-Saharan Africa. Afr J Psychiatry . 2008;
- AG Parrish et al. Impact of tertiary and quaternary service funding processes on medication selection in the SA essential drugs programme. Afr J Psychiatry . 2008;
- Charles Anane et al. The Impact of a Comprehensive Medication Counseling and Education on Rehospitalization and Mortality of Advanced Heart Failure Patients in Ghana. J Cardiovasc Dis Diagn . 2013;1: 123
- Megan Huebner et al. A Pilot Study Evaluating the Effect of Daily Education by a Pharmacist on Medication Related HCAHPS Scores and Medication Reconciliation Satisfaction . J Biosafety Health Educ . 2013;1:105
- S Mall et al. Using a treatment partner and text messaging to improve adherence to psychotropic medication: a qualitative formative study of service users and caregivers in Cape Town, South Africa. Afr J Psychiatry . 2013
- TakatoHiranita et al. Role of the sRs for Development of Medications. J Alcohol Drug Depend . 2014;2:e109
- Amy Wang and Timothy Nguyen et al. New Anticoagulation Medications for Atrials Fibrillation. J DevDrugs . 2013;2:e123
- et al. Medication Safety in Hospitals: Avoiding Medication Errors in the Medication use Process. AdvPharmacoepidem Drug Safety . 2013
- Tomohiro Kumada et al. Modified Atkins Diet and Low Glycemic Index Treatment for Medication-Resistant Epilepsy: Current Trends in Ketogenic Diet. J NeurolNeurophysiol . 2013;S2:007
- Amer Hayat Khan et al. Medical Management of Post-Operative Abdominal Infection: A Case of Well Management and Appropriate Medications. Trop Med Surg . 2013;
- Abdalla M ElMowafy et al. Antioxidant Medications: Facts, Myths and Prospects. Biochem Anal Biochem . 2013;2: e137
- Halimi A et al. Fixed Apparatus Medication of a Skeletal Class II Open Chomp Malocclusion with HypomatureAmelogenesis Blemished: Case Report. J Nov Physiother . 2013;3:137
- et al. Driving, Opioid-maintenance, and Co-medications: A Comprehensive Assessment of 22 Cases. J Alcoholism Drug Depend . 2013;1:113
- SimaAjami and FatemehAmini et al. Reduce Medication Errors with Clinical Decision Support Systems. J Inform Tech Soft Engg . 2013;S7: e001
- NyashaTirivayi et al. Clinic-Based Food Assistance is Associated with Increased Medication Adherence among HIV-Infected Adults on Long-Term Antiretroviral Therapy in Zambia. J AIDS ClinRes . 2012;3: 171
- Milap C. Nahata et al. Impact of Pharmacokinetics on Dosage Requirements and Medication Safety in Pediatric Patients. J Drug MetabToxicol . 2012
- Michael Silbermann et al. Availability of Pain Medication for Patients in the Middle East: Status of the Problem and the Role of the Middle East Cancer Consortium . . 2012;
- ParaskeviTheofilou et al. The Effect of Sociodemographic Features and Beliefs about Medicines on Adherence to Chronic Kidney Disease Treatment. J Clinic Res Bioeth . 2012;3:134
- Lindsey Asti et al. Acetaminophen and Expired Medication Storage in Homes with Young Children. J ClinToxicol . 2012;2: 130
- AmadeoPesce et al. Medication and Illicit Substance Use Analyzed Using Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry . . 2012;
- AmadeoPesce et al. Analytical Considerations When Monitoring Pain Medications by LC-MS/MS. J Anal Bioanal Tech, S. 2014;S5: 003
- AshfaqAkram et al. Perception of Final Year Dental Students on Pattern of Medication for Pulpitis. Dentistry . 2013;3: 159
- et al. Drug Interaction in Psycho-Oncology: A Retrospective Glance over the Polymedication and Comorbidities in a Portuguese Psycho-Oncology Service .AdvPharmacoepidem Drug Safety . 2012;
- Helen Smith et al. Understanding Patients’ Experiences of Hayfever and its Treatment: A Survey of Illness and Medication Cognitions. J Allergy Ther . 2012;S5-008
- Thomas F. Kresina et al. International Expansion of the Use of Pharmacotherapies for the Treatment of Opioid Dependence. Clinic Experiment Pharmacol . 2013;S5:001
- NimmiAthuraliya et al. Continuity of Medication Management: Is Transition a Barrier?. Prim Health Care . 2012;2: e105
- BeyazitZencirciKasimZaferYuksel and YakupGumusalan et al. Effectiveness of Acupuncture with NSAID Medication in the Management of AcutDiscogenic Radicular Pain: A Randomised, Controlled Trial. J Anesthe Clinic Res . 2012;3:203
- EmadHammouda et al. Addressing Medication Literacy in Diabetic Geriatrics. J Diabetes Metab . 2012;3:184
- Linka Griswold et al. Medication Adherence:An Important Uncontrolled Variable in Clinical Trials. AdvPharmacoepidem Drug Safety . 2012;
- et al. Caffeine Medication Error in Newborn Inducing Therapeutic Inefficiency: A Case Report. J Clinic Case Reports . 2012;2:112
- Shoshana J. Herzig et al. Atrial Fibrillation at Discharge in Older Cardiac Surgery Patients: A Prospective Study of Prevalence and Associated Medication Utilization. J Clinic Trials . 2012;2:106
- Benjamin Boutrel et al. Hypocretin/Orexin Receptor Antagonism and the Promise of Anticravingmedications: Myth or Panacea?. J Addict Res Ther . 2011;S4
- Yulian Zhao and Paul R. Brezina et al. Therapeutic Medications and Male Fertility. J Fertiliz In Vitro . 2011;1:e104
- Gemma Caterina Maria Rossi et al. Effect of Glaucoma Medications on Quality of Life Examined by Generic and Vision Specific Instruments. J ClinExpOphthalmol . 2010;1: 106.