Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Received: 11-Jan-2022, Manuscript No. Orthopedics -22-52074; Editor assigned: 14-Jan-2022, PreQC No. Orthopedics -22-52074; Reviewed: 25-Jan-2022, QC No. Orthopedics -22-52074; Accepted: 28-Jan-2022, Manuscript No. Orthopedics -22-52074 (R); Published: 04-Feb-2022, DOI: 10.4172/ Orthopedics.6.1.005.
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Vertebral osteomyelitis is a bacterial-caused bone infection. It is most commonly detected in the vertebrae of the spine, but it can also migrate to the spinal and intervertebral disc regions. Osteomyelitis is a rare condition that mostly affects small children and the elderly but it can affect anyone at any age. Acute and chronic osteomyelitis is the two types of osteomyelitis. A wound or a contaminated Intra Venous (IV) needle can introduce Staphylococcus aureus bacteria into the body, causing acute osteomyelitis. Tuberculosis, AIDS, and other immune-compromising conditions can cause chronic osteomyelitis.
Back stiffness that is severe, chronic and/or increased by movement are all symptoms of vertebral osteomyelitis. Osteomyelitis can infect any part of the spine, including the cervical (neck), thoracic (spine back), lumbar (low back), and sacral (low back) portions (sacrum). Depending on the severely injured level of the spine, pain may radiate (e.g., sciatica) or migrate to other areas of the body (e.g., arm, leg). Abnormal symptoms such as numbness and burning may be caused by nerve and/or spinal cord compression. Difficulty in walking, lack of manual dexterity, extreme weakness, paralysis and/or bladder or bowel difficulties are all serious nerve-related signs of weakness that require immediate medical help. Swelling, fever, sweating, weight loss, vomiting, weakness, and/or malaise are some of the other physical signs (an overall feeling of discomfort). If you have signs of osteomyelitis, you should get medical help immediately. It's critical to see your physician immediately to avoid nerve damage that could be severe and life-altering (such as paralysis).
The site of the infection, any bone abnormalities or modifications, and loss of intervertebral disc height may all be visible on an x-ray. To further evaluate your soft spinal tissues, including your spinal nerves, your doctor may arrange a CT or Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scan. A method termed percutaneous needle aspiration (through the skin needle biopsy) may be used to gather a sample of the infection if an abscess is present. In most cases, spinal infections can be managed without surgery. IV antibiotics are administered in the hospital or at an outpatient facility, and they can be continued at home for up to 6 weeks. Oral antibiotics may be required for a period of time. Analgesics and spinal bracing are two options for pain relief. Infection drainage methods, debridement, excision of infected bone, and spinal restoration may all be used in the treatment of vertebral osteomyelitis.
Spinal instrumentation and fusion are surgical techniques that cure spinal deformities and give the spine long-term stability. These operations connect and stabilise the area of the spine (such as the vertebral body) has been injured or removed. Rods, screws, interbody devices, plates, and other devices may be used to support the spine during instrumentation. The patient's own bone (external fixator) and/or allograft (donor bone), as well as other bone graft types, may be used in the fusion. The process of fusion is when new bone forms around and into the surgical site, finally healing and connecting the spine together.