All submissions of the EM system will be redirected to Online Manuscript Submission System. Authors are requested to submit articles directly to Online Manuscript Submission System of respective journal.

A Review Article on Zika Virus

Venkatesh K1* and Ram Vinod ND2

1AITAM, Vizag, Andhra Pradesh, India

2Sri Krishna Devaraya University, Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh, India

*Corresponding Author:
Venkatesh K
Aditya Institute of Technology
Vizag, Andhra Pradesh, India
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date: 28/07/2016; Accepted date: 01/08/2016; Published date: 05/08/2016

Visit for more related articles at Research & Reviews: Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicological Studies


Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that was initially recognized in Uganda in 1947 in monkeys through a method that observed yellow fever. It was later distinguished in people in 1952 in Uganda and the United Republic of Tanzania. The explosions of Zika virus disease have been recorded in Africa, the Americas, Asia and the Pacific. From the 1960s to 1980s, human diseases were found around Africa and Asia, regularly accompanied by mild sickness. The primary substantial outbreak of illness occured by Zika infection was reported from the Island of Yap. In the month of July, 2015 Brazil describes a partnership between Zika virus infection and Guillain-Barré disorder. In the month of October 2015 again brazil country announced an union between Zika virus infection and microcephaly (Figure 1) [1-5].


Figure 1: Zika Virus

The explosive widespread of Zika virus infection happening throughout the South America, Central America, and the Caribbean (Figure 2) and possibly threatening the United States is the latest of four unpredicted entries of vital arthropod-borne viral infection in the Western Hemisphere from past 20 years [5-20].


Figure 2: Zika virus affected countries.

The most widely recognized indications of Zika virus disease are fever, rash, joint agony and red eyes (Figure 3).


Figure 3: Zika virus Symptoms

Suffering areas: Back portion of eyes, joints or muscles

Entire body: Tiredness, High fever, chills, loss of appetite, or sweating

Also common: Eye redness, cerebral pain, skin rash, or vomiting

Case Finding

We recognized 185 instances of suspected Zika virus disease. Among these, 49 (26%) were affirmed and 59 (32%) were predictable cases Acute-stage serum tests were gathered within 10 days after the onset of sickness from 45 of the 49 individuals with affirmed infection (92%), and Zika virus RNA was identified in 15 of these 45 patients (33%). No dengue virus RNA was recognised in any of the 137 acute-stage serum sample solutions tested (45 of these 137 patients affected confirmed Zika virus disease, 51 had probable disease, and 41 had suspected disease) [21-28].

The date of indication onset among patients with confirmed or predictable disease extended from April 15 to July 14. The number of cases peaked in late May and died down toward the beginning of July. The median age of patients with confirmed or predictable disease was 36 years (range, 1 to 76); among these 76 patients 66 of these patients (61%) were female [29-40].

The general attack rate for affirmed and plausible Zika virus disease observed among patients exhibiting to health care services was 14.6 per 1000 Yap inhabitants [41-51]. The attack rates vary from 3.6 per 1000 population in both of the Kanifay and the Gilman municipalities to 21.5 per 1000 population in Tomil region. The sex-specific attack rates were 17.9 per 1000 females and 11.4 per 1000 males. Cases happened among all age groups, yet the frequency of affirmed and probable Zika virus disease observed by medical services was most elevated among persons 55 to 59 years old.

How Are You Tested For Zika

There are two approaches to test for Zika Virus disease. One test searches for pieces of the virus’ genetic code in individuals with dynamic diseases. But after the body clears the infection, which takes around 2 weeks after indications show up, that test won’t work [51-56].

On March 18, the FDA approved most advanced version of this test that can recognize whether a person has dengue, chikungunya, or Zika, as opposed to doing three unique tests. The new form will be sent to qualified labs, the CDC says [57].

Around 80% of people affected with Zika don’t have indications, numerous individuals don’t know when they were affected and would not be desirable for this test [58,59].

Another test conducted for proteins called antibodies which are produces or generated by the immune system to act against the virus. It can find out antibodies in the blood up to 3 months after a person got infected [60-70].

Protective Measures

If you plan to travel in affected areas, maintain distance by utilizing mosquito repellent from mosquito bites for the full day. Additionally, wear full-sleeved shirts and long jeans or laboratory dress code, both inside and outside. The mosquitoes that spreads Zika are aggressive daytime biters often frequently discovered inside, which we’re not used to in the U.S.

Indeed, even those individuals who don’t know that, they have Zika can spread the disease. Weaver suggested to people who have travelled to affected areas should be checked properly against mosquito bites when they return home, particularly in the first 10 days [71-85].

It is essential to cover, void or clean potential mosquito reproducing sites in and around the houses like cans, drums, pots, drains, and utilized tyres. Groups should support nearby government endeavours to decrease mosquitoes in their territory. Health care officials may also instruct that sprinkle of insecticides be carried out.


There’s no treatment, however Adalja says many people with indications do well with over-the-counter drugs for aches and pains. The infection generally runs its course within a week or somewhere in the vicinity [86-93].

Zika virus disease is normally mild and requires no particular treatment. People affected with Zika virus should get plenty of rest, drink enough liquids, and treat agony and fever with basic medications. If symptoms increase more, they should go for medical care and proper counsel. Present there is no vaccine available for Zika Virus disease.