Complication in Premature Deliveries
ABSTRACT Being a mother is one of the most beautiful bliss for any women. Pregnancy is that phase where a woman experiences different types of change in her body which results in her emotional, physical as well as hormonal changes. But with pregnancy comes the fear of well-being of both mother and the child. With today’s advancement in science, the delivery process has improved and advanced to a very great extent. But the complications have not been fully been subsided. Some of them are: • complications of episiotomy • gestational diabetes • hormonal imbalance • serious infection and disease Highlights: • short term complication • long term complication • Death
Pregnancy, Delivery, Complication, Hormonal change
Even though being pregnant is a joyous affair, most women are not able to enjoy. The reasons are simple and clear, i.e., complications related to their pregnancy. Though science has a brought a revolution in the medical field, but still the question- “Are the delivery complications has subsided”? Remains unanswered [1-15].
A full time pregnancy lasts about 40 weeks. But because of the labor contractions, delivery can be called as preterm delivery and the baby born is a premature baby at a higher risk of complication of prematurity such as immature legs, digestive problems or respiratory distress [16-21].
Pregnancy and Its Common Effect
The word associated with pregnancy is beautiful because of the growing fetus inside a mother womb. But with pregnancy come some of the common, embarrassing and downright annoying effects. Some of them are morning sickness, frequent urination, vaginal discharge, constipation, bleeding gum, gas and bloating, etc.
These symptoms are quite common during pregnancy but can be utterly embarrassing or annoying at a time [22-31].
A premature birth is that period where delivery takes generally 3 weeks before the baby is due. It takes places on 37th week of pregnancy. Uterine contraction or leaking of fluid from vagina is the symptoms of preterm labor. But in spite of improved medical facilities, Preterm birth is the most common cause of infant Death. The rate of preterm birth has increased from the year 1990s to 2010s [32-36].
•Signs and symptoms- Preterm labor induction and spontaneous preterm labor are the main causes of premature delivery. Heavy pressure in the pelvis, abdominal [37-54] or back pain or the vaginal bleeding [55-59] in the third trimester could be the signs of the preterm deliveries [60-65]. Sometime a liquid discharge from the vagina may indicate the premature rupture of the membrane that surrounds the baby which can sometime be infectious and fatal to both fetus and the mother, because of the absence of labor pain [66-72].
a) The smaller the days of period of pregnancy, the greater the risk of Death [73-76] and morbidity. The risk of death rate is very high in the first year of the premature baby life, among which most of them takes place in the first month itself.
b) Other risk is the permanent disability or risk of brain damage, even if the baby survives.
Short Term Complication [77-80]
Premature babies are accompanied by many short term complications such as:
•Breathing problems- An immature respiratory system leads to breathing problem in preterm babies when the lung lacks surfactant that allows the lung to expand and breathe normally.
•Heart problems- patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) and low blood pressure (hypotension) are the most common heart problem of the premature babies. Sometime the defect cures on its own and sometime if it is left untreated it can leads to huge amount of blood to flow through hearts and lung resulting in heart failure and other complications [81-84].
•Brain problems- The earlier the baby is born greater the risk of bleeding in the brain known as an intraventricular hemorrhage Mild hemorrhage is resolve with little short term impact but larger brain bleeding can leads to permanent brain injury.
•Immune system problems- An underdeveloped immune system, which is common in premature babies, can lead to infection, which can quickly spread to the bloodstream causing sepsis, a life-threatening complication.
Long Term Complication
Long term complication takes place when the short term complication remains undetected or unattended. Some of them are:
•Cerebral palsy- Cerebral palsy can be defined as a disorder of movement, muscle tone or posture which can be caused by infection, inadequate blood flow or injury to a preemie's developing brain either during pregnancy or while the baby is still young and immature.
•Impaired cognitive skills- Babies born prematurely are more likely to lag behind during various developmental phase. They may have to face learning disabilities or similar situations.
•Behavioral and psychological problems- Some babies tend to develop attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) [85-86] because of their premature birth.
•Chronic health issue- Babies born before due date are more prone to health issues like Asthma, Infections and Feeding problem. They are also at a higher risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) [87-90].
How to Manage these Complications?
In the recent year medical science has developed a lot bringing stabilization and prompt care in the delivery room for premature delivery.
•Neutral thermal environment is maintained to ensure the minimization of stress and optimizing the growth of the premature infant.
•Intense monitoring of their fluid and electrolytes because of the increased transdermal water loss.
•Proper health checkup of the babies are done to ensure or detect any type of complication which can be fatal in near future [91-101].
With increased medical advances, though the development is taking place, but in the same way there is an increase in the number of premature deliveries. With proper management and care the risk of complication has been reduced to a great extent but nevertheless it has not been eradicated.
- Nasu K,et al. Evaluation of postsurgical pain in single port versus three-port laparoscopic surgery for ectopic pregnancy: A preliminary study. GynecolObstet (Sunnyvale). 2014;4:260.
- Nkwabong E, et al. Outcome of pregnancy complicated by asymptomatic bacteriuria. GynecolObstet (Sunnyvale). 2014;4:259.
- Amdemichael R, et al. Maternal satisfaction with the delivery services in asselahospital, Arsi zone, Oromia Region. GynecolObstet (Sunnyvale). 2014;4:257.
- Lepage S, et al. Persistent right-sided umbilical vein and azygos continuity associated with ophthalmological and pulmonary malformations. Prenatal diagnosis of an exceptional case. GynecolObstet (Sunnyvale). 2014;4:256.
- Midwifery and women’s healthm August 29-31, 2016(11 Plenary Forums-1 Event) Hilton Atlanta Airport, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.
- Primary care September 19-20, 2016 (11 Plenary Forums - 1 Event) Phoenix, USA.
- Jumaa AS, et al. Biochemical and hormones study on diabetic nephrotic patients. Med chem. 2016;6:198-200.
- Shushpanova TV, et al. Treatment of alcoholic patients using anticonvulsant urea derivative influences the metabolism of neuro-active steroid hormones - The system of stress markers. J Addict Res Ther. 2016;7:271.
- SofyMR, et al. Stimulatory effect of hormones, vitamin c on growth, yield and some metabolic activities of chenopodium quinoa plants in Egypt. J Plant Biochem Physiol. 2016;4:161.
- Roy A, et al. Effect of different media and growth hormones on shoot multiplication of in vitro grown centellaasiatica accessions. Adv Tech Biol Med. 2016;4:172.
- Krishna MK, et al. Bio-physical changes in the Eastern Arabian sea due to ocean-atmospheric teleconnections. J GeolGeosci. 2014;3:165.
- Maruotti GM, et al. Improving number of antepartum computerized fetal heart monitoring testing in women with preeclampsia with severe features does not improve maternal or perinatal outcome but improve the incidence of caesarean delivery. J Preg Child Health. 2016;3:265.
- Israel LL, et al. Ultrasound-mediated surface engineering of theranostic magnetic nanoparticles: An effective one-pot functionalization process using mixed polymers for siRNA delivery. J NanomedNanotechnol. 2016;7:385.
- Tilahun T, et al. Prevalence and perinatal outcome of singleton term breech delivery in mizanaman general hospital, South West, Ethiopia; A three year retrospective hospital based study. J Women's Health Care. 2016;5:319.
- Yamada N, et al. Impact of skin lesions on morbidity and mortality in extremely premature infants in one tertiary center in southern Japan. J Neonatal Biol. 2015;4:179.
- Yehuala S, et al. Survival analysis of premature infants admitted to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in northwest Ethiopia using semi-parametric frailty model. J BiomBiostat. 2015;6:223.
- Mueller M, et al. Can machine learning methods predict extubation outcome in premature infants as well as clinicians? J Neonatal Biol. 2013;2:118.
- RoumiantsevS. Invasive mechanical ventilation in premature infants: where do we stand today? J PulmonResp Med. 2013;S13:002.
- MohamadO, and Yu SP. Plenty of pain in neonates: The mission to find a treatment for the complications of premature birth. J Pain Relief. 2012;1:e103.
- Eugene W. Pregnancy complications associated with elevated iron. J Preg Child Health. 2011;3:226.
- Chen X, et al. Spontaneous preterm delivery, particularly with reduced fetal growth, is associated with DNA Hypomethylation of Tumor Related Genes. J Preg Child Health. 2016;3:215.
- Ryan D and Black MJ. Preterm birth and/or factors that lead to preterm delivery: effects on the neonatal kidney. J Neonatal Biol. 2015;4:168.
- Andersen SB, et al. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in breast-milk and erythrocytes and neurodevelopmental outcomes in danish late-preterm infants. J Preg Child Health. 2015;2:160.
- Lopes JM, et al. Neonatal morbidities in late-preterm infants compared with term infants admitted to an intensive care unit and born predominantly by cesarean section. J Preg Child Health. 2016;3:237.
- Katz SJ, et al. The influence of dosage and timing of caffeine administration on neurodevelopmental outcome of very preterm infants. NeonatPediatr Med. 2015;1:105.
- Louthrenoo O, et al. Neurodevelopmental outcome of late preterm infants at 12 months of age. Clinics Mother Child Health. 2015;12:202.
- Kotiya P and Zhu X. Effects of early and late parenteral nutrition on clinical outcomes in very low birth weight preterm infants: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Neonatal Biol. 2015;4:191.
- Aguiar T, et al. Nasal bilevel versus continuous positive airway pressure in preterm infants: a randomized controlled trial. J Clin Trials. 2015;5:221.
- UlasTugcu A, et al. Partial exchange transfusion for hyperviscosity and necrotizing enterocolitis after complication of intravenous immunoglobulin in a late preterm infant: case report and review of the literature. PediatTherapeut. 2013;3:156.
- Aly FF and Murtaza G. Massage therapy in preterm infants. PediatTherapeut. 2013;3:155.
- Yamashiro Y and Nagata S.Application of probiotics to ameliorate Ill conditions from, preterm infants to the elderly people. J Prob Health. 2013;1:112.
- Resch B. Vaccination of preterm infants. J Neonatal Biol. 2014;3:e107
- Manohar PS, et al. “Human milk component (HMC) therapy”: a novel treatment for gut maturation of preterm infants. J Neonatal Biol. 2014;3:157.
- AlmawaziniAM,et al. Is Oral ibuprofen better than intravenous indomethacin for medical closure of the patent ductusarteriosus in preterm infants?.PediatTherapeut. 2015;5:231.
- Romick-Rosendale LE, et al. A potential biomarker for acute kidney injury in preterm infants from metabolic profiling. J MolBiomark Diagn.2012;S3:001.
- Ben X, et al. The benefits of expressed maternal milk and donor breast milk for preventing necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants: systematic review and meta- analysis. J Nutr Disorders Ther. 2012;2:110.
- Batton BJ, et al. Maternal demographics and extremely preterm infant mortality in the United States. J Neonatal Biol. 2013;2:113.
- PeteanTrindade CE and Souza Rugolo LMS. Selenium and vitamin A and E in the nutrition of very low-birth weight preterm infants. J Neonatal Biol. 2013;2:116.
- Degirmencioglu H, et al. Intractable feeding intolerance and abdominal distention in a preterm infant: an unusual side effect of diazoxide. PediatTherapeut. 2013;3:149.
- Kondo M. NPC-11 Phase III trial concerning apnea of prematurity in japanese neonates: a study of safety, efficacy and pharmacokinetics. Pharm Anal Acta. 2016;7:458.
- Garg PM, et al. Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC): a devastating disease of prematurity. J Neonatal Biol. 2015;4:202.
- Manfredini VA, et al. Metabolic bone disease of prematurity: A review of minerals supplementation and disease monitoring. J Neonatal Biol. 2015;4:187.
- Gutiérrez-Padilla JA, et al. (2015) Propofol for procedural anaesthesia during laser treatment of retinopathy of prematurity in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). J Neonatal Biol. 2015;4:180.
- Modrzejewska M, et al. Early experience with diode laser combined with systemic steroid therapy for severe stages of retinopathy of prematurity. J Steroids Horm Sci. 2014;5:148.
- Lai AKW, et al. Stem cell therapy for retinopathy of prematurity. Anat Physiol. 2013;3:126
- Alabbasi KH, et al. Maternal variables as potential modifiable risk indicators of preterm labor in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. J Preg Child Health. 2015;2:166.
- Regmi MC, et al. Progesterone for prevention of recurrent preterm labor after arrested preterm labor- a randomized controlled trial. GynecolObstet. 2012;2:125.
- Teimoori B, et al. Efficacy and safety of progesterone versus magnesium sulfate in the management of preterm labor: a randomized study. Gynecol Obstetric. 2011;1:105.
- McKinnon EL, et al. Intra-abdominal synovial sarcoma presenting as hemoperitoneum: a case report and review of the literature. J Med Surg Pathol.2016;1:130.
- Baracs J, et al. Open treatment of abdominal wall hernias: mesh repair is superior to suture repair and onlay mesh is better than sublay mesh – five-year multicentric, prospective, randomised clinical trial. Surgery Curr Res. 2016;6:270.
- Blackburn P, et al. Abdominal wall varices in pregnancy-a case report and review of the literature. J Preg Child Health. 2016;3:266.
- Dionysis T, et al. Serum amylase, lipase and urine amylase as predictor factors for outcomes of the children with blunt abdominal trauma. J PerioperCrit Intensive Care Nurs. 2016;2:121.
- Tajika M, et al. Familial mediterraneanfever E148Q/P369S/R408Q exon 3 variant with severe abdominal pain and PFAPA-like symptoms. J Clin Case Rep. 2016;6:790.
- Cakir OO, et al. Visceral fat volume is a better predictor for insulin resistance than abdominal wall fat index in patients with prediabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Intern Med. 2016;6: 220.
- Rubido Valle CD, et al. Ovarian steroid cell tumor associated to endometrial hyperplasia and presenting as postmenopausal vaginal bleeding. GynecolObstet (Sunnyvale) 2015;5:316.
- GorchynskiJ, et al. Sexually transmitted diseases do not discriminate; first trimester vaginal bleeding is not always a threatened abortion. Family Med Medical Sci Res. 2013;2:110.
- Bourne PA and Hudson-Davis A. Psychiatric induced births in Jamaica: homicide and death effects on pregnancy. J Forensic Anthropol .2016;1:108.
- NgamjariyawatA, et al. Co-culture of insulin producing human endoc-bh1 cells with boundary cap neural crest stem cells protects partially against cytokine-induced cell death. J Stem Cell Res Ther. 2016;6:343.
- Oscar C and Ramon B. Molecular autopsy in unexplained sudden death. J Foren Path. 2016;1:e102.
- Leonardo Calò. A new electrocardiographic marker of sudden death in brugada syndrome: the s-wave in Lead I. Arrhythm Open Access. 2016;1:108.
- Zosel A and Stanton M .Death following ingestion of clitocybe species mushroom. J ClinToxicol. 2016;6:308.
- Mavrogeni S, et al. (2016) Ventricular tachycardia and sudden cardiac death in connective tissue diseases: can cardiovascular magnetic resonance play a role? Rheumatology (Sunnyvale). 2016;6:198.
- Maeda K. Fetal heart rate changes are the fetal brain response to fetal movement in actoardiogram: the loss of fhr variability is the sign of fetal brain damage. J Preg Child Health. 2016;3:219.
- Gambhir PK and Pai AV. Visual perceptual training combined with left hand somatosensory stimulation for reading in acquired right brain damage: a pilot study. Int J Neurorehabilitation. 2015;2:147.
- Heeba G, et al.Nanomedical approach to monitor the central role of NO/ONOO- imbalance in ischemic stroke brain damage – the effects of statins and heme oxygenase-1. J NanomedNanotechnol. 2014;5:215.
- Lin YW, et al. Cinnamophilin inhibits neutrophilic respiratory burst and protects against ischemia-reperfusion brain damage. Pharmaceut Anal Acta. 2013;4:272.
- Maeda K. CP prevention by early delivery before fetal brain damage in the loss of FHR variability, even in Non-hypoxia. J Health Med Informat. 2013;4:137.
- Ralapanawa DMPUK, et al. Fatal massive pulmonary hemorrhage in dengue infection. epidemiology (Sunnyvale). 2016;6:251.
- Mak AKH, et al. Suprachoroidal hemorrhage with delayed rebleeding as the first presentation of bullous pemphigoid associated acquired hemophilia. J ClinExpOphthalmol. 2016;7:565.
- Fink N, et al. A double edged sword-anticoagulation treatment in a patient with mechanical prosthetic mitral valve complicated by brain hemorrhage. J Cardiovasc Dis Diagn. 2016;S1:007.
- Yu Y and Qi X. Hypertrophic olivary degeneration after pontine hemorrhage: a case report. J Clin Case Rep. 2016;6:762.
- Walsh KM, et al. Transient paraparesis from a traumatic lumbar intrathecal hemorrhage. a case report and literature review. J NeurolDisord. 2016;4:254.
- Romero FR and Zanini MA. Tyrosine kinase and mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway on cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Brain DisordTher. 2016;5:205.
- Maeda K. Strategies to reduce infantile cerebral palsy. J Preg Child Health. 2016;3:263.
- Mohanty P, et al. Effect of neuromuscular electrical stimulation on gluteus maximus and quadriceps in cerebral palsy children with crouch gait. J NeurolDisord. 2016; 4:272.
- Li GF, et al. Effects of plantar vibratory stimulation on posture control in children with cerebral palsy. J Health Med Informat. 2016;7:234.
- Kumar C and Ostwal P. “Comparison between task - oriented training and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation exercises on lower extremity function in cerebral palsy-a randomized clinical trial”. J Nov Physiother. 2016;6:291.
- MahrousAlshareef DM, et al. Factor v leiden mutation as a novel marker in children with cerebral palsy. Immunome Res. 2016;12:107.
- Ben-Pazi H, et al. Baclofen treatment for pain in nonfunctional children with cerebral palsy - a brief report. J PediatrNeurol Med. 2016;1:108.
- Azam AM, Efficacy of stomatognathic alignment exercise program on mouth opening limitation improvement in spastic myogenic temporomandibular disorder of hemiparetic cerebral palsy children. J Nov Physiother. 2015;5:279.
- Weusten LH, et al. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and co-morbidity in old age. J GerontolGeriatr Res S. 2016;5:006.
- Naik A, etal.Effect of rajyoga meditation on intelligence quotient of attention deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. J Yoga PhysTher.2016;6:242.
- Alamuti E, et al. Comparison of child and parent cognitive behaviour therapy on reduction of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in children. J Child AdolescBehav.2016;4:285.
- Raif SG, et al. Electroencephalographic findings in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. J Child AdolescBehav. 2016;4:276.
- Tockhorn A, et al. Atomoxetine for the treatment of adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a cost-utility analysis in Spain. Pharmacoeconomics. 2015;1:104.
- Kirstie L. Haywood, et al. The psychosocial outcomes of cardiac arrest: relevant and robust patient-centred assessment is essential, resuscitation. 2014,85:718.
- Ming-ChienTsou, et al. Mouthing activity data for children aged 7 to 35 months in Taiwan. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2015,25:388.
- KaterinaKotzampassi, et al. Candida albicanscolonization on an intragastric balloon. Asian J EndoscSurg. 2013;6: 214.
- Antonia M. Nelson, A comprehensive review of evidence and current recommendations related to pacifier usage.J PediatrNurs. 2012;27:690.
- LuizCezar da Silveira, et al. Biofilm formation by candida species on silicone surfaces and latex pacifier nipples: AninvitroStudy. J ClinPediatr Dent. 2009;33(3):235.
- Young-Ran Lee, et al. Health habit, perceived health status and physical health status of young korean and korean-chinese women: a comparative study. J Korean AcadNurs. 2015;26(3):312.
- Ram Kumar Adhikari, et al. Health-seeking behaviors and self-care practices of people with filarial lymphoedema in Nepal: A Qualitative Study.J Trop Med. 2015;1.
- AusaneeWanchai, et al. Complementary and alternative medicine and lymphedema,seminars in oncology nursing. 2013;29:41.
- DusaneeSuwankhong, et al. Seeking help chaowbaan ways in southern Thailand, Aust J Prim Health. 2012;18(2):105.
- DusaneeSuwankhong, et al. Existing roles of traditional healers (morbaan) in southern Thailand, J Community Health. 2011;36:438.
- Jin-HyangYang, et al. Qualitative research investigating patterns of health care behavior among korean patients with chronic hepatitis B, J Korean AcadNurs. 2009;39:805-817.
- Tamirat A, et al. Attitude and practice about malaria in maji district, bench maji zone, southwest ethiopia. J Trop Dis. 2016;4:217.
- Nakeel MJ, et al. A sero-epidemiological survey of brucellosis, q-fever and leptospirosis in livestock and humans and associated risk factors in kajiado county-Kenya. J Trop Dis. 2016;4:215.
- Kangbai BJ. Regression modelling and analysis of cell phone-based syndromic surveillance data for ebola in Sierra Leone. J Trop Dis. 2016;4:214.
- DiMarco MA, et al. Improving oral health of young children: an interprofessional demonstration project. Pediatr Dent Care. 2016;1:113.
- Tarimo DS and Cosmas R. Use of olysetinsecticides treated nets and changes in insecticide concentration over time in kinondoni district, dares salaam, Tanzania. Malaria Contr Elimination. 2016;5:149.