Department of Pharmacology, Karnataka college of Pharmacy, Bangalore-560064, Karnataka, India
Received: 21-Jan-2022, Manuscript No. JPTS-22-52084; Editor assigned: 25- Jan-2022, Pre QC No. JPTS -22-52084(PQ); Reviewed: 8- Jan-2022, QC No. JPTS -22-52084; Accepted: 11-Jan-2022, Manuscript No. JPTS -22-52084(A); Published: 18-Jan-2022, DOI: 10.4172/2322-0139.10.1.e001.
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Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) refers to a group of diseases impacting the heart and blood systems. Coronary Artery Diseases (CAD), such as angina and myocardial infarction, are instances of CVD (commonly known as a heart attack). Stroke, heart failure, hypertension, rheumatic heart disease, cardiomyopathy, irregular heart rhythms, congenital heart disease, valvular heart disease, cholecystitis, aortic aneurysms, peripheral artery disease, thromboembolic disease, and venous thrombosis are some of the other CVDs.
Cardiovascular disease; Heart; Cardiomyopathy; Blood systems; Coronary artery diseases
Depending on the disease, the underlying mechanisms differ. Dietary risk factors are thought to be responsible for 53 percent of CVD mortality. Atherosclerotic is seen in coronary heart disease, stroke, and vascular disease. High blood pressure, smoking, diabetes, obesity, high blood cholesterol, poor diet, excessive alcohol use, and poor sleep, among other things, can all contribute to this. High blood pressure is thought to be responsible for about 13% of CVD fatalities, with tobacco accounting for 9%, diabetes for 6%, lack of exercise for 6%, and obesity for 5%.
Rheumatic heart disease can develop from untreated strep throat. Up to 90% of heart attacks are thought to be preventable [1-4]. Improved risk factors such as excellent nutrition, exercise, avoiding tobacco smoke, and limiting alcohol intake can all help to prevent CVD. It can also be used to address risk factors such high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and diabetes. Antibiotics can help people with strep throat avoid developing rheumatic heart disease. The advantages of taking aspirin in otherwise healthy adults are controversial.
Except in Africa, cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death. In 2015, 17.9 million people died from Cardiovascular Disease (CVD), up from 12.3 million (25.8%) in 1990. CVD deaths are more common and have been growing in much of the developing world, while rates in most of the industrialized world have been dropping since the 1970s. Coronary artery disease and stroke are related to 80% of CVD deaths in men and 75% of CVD deaths in women [5,6].
The majority of cardiovascular disease affects people in their fifties and sixties. In the United States, 11% of persons between the ages of 20 and 40 have CVD, while 37% of persons between the ages of 40 and 60, 71% of people between the ages of 60 and 80, and 85% of those over the age of 80 have CVD. In the industrialized world, the average age of death from coronary artery disease is around 80, but in the poor world, it is around 68. In men, disease diagnosis typically happens seven to 10 years earlier than in women [7-10].
According to the American Heart Institution's 2017, Heart Attacks and Strokes Statistics Update, heart disease remains the leading cause of death in the United States and around the world. Because cardiovascular diseases are so frequent, a list of them might assist people to figure out the risk factors they or their loved ones may have.
Types of cardiovascular disease
• Arrhythmias are abnormal cardiac rhythms.
• Aortic stenosis and Muscular dystrophy are two diseases that affect the aorta.
• Congenital Heart Disease (CHD) is a type of congenital cardiac defect.
• Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) is a condition that affects the (narrowing of the arteries).
• Pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis.
• Chest pain has occurred.
• Heart failure is a common condition.
• Muscle disease of both the heart (cardiomyopathy).
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