Department of Physiotherapy, Northwestern University, Evanston, United States
Received: 15-Oct-2022, Manuscript No. Orthopedics-22-77323; Editor assigned: 17-Oct-2022, PreQC No. Orthopedics-22-77323 (PQ); Reviewed: 20-Oct-2022, QC No. Orthopedics-22-77323; Revised: 01-Mar-2023, Manuscript No. Orthopedics-22-77323 (R); Published: 08-Mar-2023, DOI: 10.4172/Orthopedics.6.1.003
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The condition fibromyalgia causes pain in the body muscles and soft tissues all over. It is a lasting (chronic) disorder. Neck, shoulders, back, chest, hips, buttocks, arms and legs may all be impacted. In certain cases, the pain is stronger in the morning and at night. The soreness can occasionally persist all day. Cold or wet conditions, depression and stress can all make the pain worse. Insomnia and a general hypersensitivity are further signs. Fibromyalgia is considered to be caused on by a combination of genetic and environmental factors while its chronic nature is unknown. Environmental influences could include trauma, stress on the head and specific infections. The disease is known as "central sensitization syndrome" and the pain seems to be caused by central nervous system activities.
Fibromyalgia is treated symptomatically and by a variety of medical specialties. Exercise that is both aerobic and strengthening is strongly advised by the European alliance of associations for rheumatology. Weak recommendations are made for meditative exercises including qigong, yoga, tai chi, psychotherapy, acupuncture and hydrotherapy. Antidepressants have been shown to enhance quality of life, while the use of medicine in the treatment of fibromyalgia remains debatable. Fatigue, sleep difficulty and chronic, widespread pain are the primary signs of fibromyalgia. In addition there may be visual symptoms, cognitive issues, musculoskeletal stiffness, environmental sensitivity, hypervigilance, sexual dysfunction and increased pain in reaction to touch (allodynia).
The primary symptom of fibromyalgia is chronic pain. One of the main symptoms according to the NHS is widespread pain which may feel like an ache, a burning sensation or a sharp, stabbing pain.
One of the characteristics of fibromyalgia is fatigue. Patients may feel worn out mentally or physically. Physical tiredness might be shown by a post exercise feeling of exhaustion or by a restriction in daily activity.
One of the main symptoms of fibromyalgia is sleeping issues. These include having trouble falling asleep or staying asleep, waking up during sleep and waking up feeling drowsy. In healthy individuals and those with fibromyalgia, objective and subjective sleep metrics were compared. When people with fibromyalgia measured objectively exhibited lower sleep efficiency and quality as well as longer wake times following sleep onset shorter sleep duration lighter sleep and higher trouble commencing sleep, and greater difficulty initiating sleep when measured subjectively. Sleep issues may make it more difficult for the body to repair damaged tissue by releasing less IGF-1 and HGH. People with fibromyalgia may experience less discomfort if their sleep is of higher quality.
Numerous fibromyalgia patients suffer with their cognitive abilities (known as "fibro fog" or "brain fog"). According to one study, subjective cognitive dysfunction affects roughly 50% of fibromyalgia patients and is linked to increased degrees of pain and other fibromyalgia symptoms. These issues are recognized by the American pain society as a significant aspect of fibromyalgia which is characterized by difficulty focusing, forgetfulness and disorganized or slow thinking. The majority of fibromyalgia patients roughly 75% report having serious issues with focus, memory and multitasking. According to a 2018 meta analysis, processing speed, memory and inhibitory control were the areas where fibromyalgia sufferers and healthy people differed the most. It is suggested that worsening pain affects cognitive processes through impairing attentional systems.
Patients with fibromyalgia exhibit hypersensitivity not only to pain but also to other stimuli like cold, loud noises, bright lights and scents. They have a reduced threshold for the agony of cold, according to a review article. There is evidence of an auditory hypersensitivity in other investigations.
Numerous chronic pain disorders and fibromyalgia usually coexist. These include temporomandibular problems, myofascial pain syndrome and chronic tension headaches. Four neurological conditions have been related to pain fibromyalgia: Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, post polio syndrome and neuropathic pain. The chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia substantially overlap and they may have similar pathogenetic pathways.
According to reports 20%-30% of people with rheumatic disorders also have comorbid fibromyalgia. It has been observed in patients with musculoskeletal conditions that are not inflammatory.
Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) and celiac disease are the two gastrointestinal conditions where the occurrence of fibromyalgia has been most extensively studied. Obesity and fibromyalgia have been connected. Overactive bladder is one of the disorders connected to fibromyalgia.