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Glenohumeral Arthritis: Exploring Non-Surgical and Surgical Treatment for Shoulder Pain and Stiffness

Haomin Yang*

Department of Orthopedics, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China

*Corresponding Author:
Dr. Haomin Yang
Department of Orthopedics, Capital Medical University, Beijing, China E-mail:

Received: 03-Mar-2023, Manuscript No. Orthopedics-23-92419; Editor assigned: 07-Mar-2023, Pre QC No. Orthopedics-23-92419 (PQ); Reviewed: 21-Mar-2023, QC No. Orthopedics-23-92419; Revised: 28-Mar-2023, Manuscript No. Orthopedics-23-92419 (R); Published: 04-Apr-2023, DOI: 10.4172/orthopedics.6.1.004

Citation: Yang H, Glenohumeral Arthritis: Exploring Non-Surgical and Surgical Treatment for Shoulder Pain and Stiffness. Orthopedics. 2023;6:004.

Copyright: © 2023 Yang H. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Glenohumeral arthritis is a condition that affects the shoulder joint, causing pain and stiffness. It is a type of osteoarthritis, which is the most common form of arthritis, and occurs when the cartilage that protects the bones in the joint wears away. However similar to the hip and knee, the loss of cartilage that characterizes shoulder arthritis typically leads to extreme pain, reduced motion, stiff joints and a significantly reduced quality of life. Although glenohumeral joint instability occurs frequently in the young athletes and others who are physically active are at significantly higher chance of injury. When compared to the general population, the rates of glenohumeral instability are up to 18 times greater in these high-risk populations. Chronic instability, degenerative joint changes, and long-term morbidity all become more common for people who experience glenohumeral joint instability.


The symptoms of glenohumeral arthritis typically develop gradually and worsen over time. The most common symptoms include:

•Pain or discomfort in the shoulder joint, especially when lifting or reaching.

•Stiffness in the shoulder joint, making it difficult to move the arm.

•A grinding or popping sensation in the shoulder joint.

•Weakness in the arm or shoulder.


Glenohumeral arthritis is caused by the breakdown of the cartilage that protects the bones in the shoulder joint. This can occur due to a variety of factors, including:

Age: As we age, the cartilage in our joints naturally begins to wear away, making us more susceptible to developing arthritis.

Injury: A previous injury to the shoulder joint, such as a fracture or dislocation, can increase the risk of developing arthritis.

Overuse: Repeated overhead movements, such as those performed in sports like baseball or tennis, can cause wear and tear on the shoulder joint.

Genetics: Some people may be more genetically predisposed to developing arthritis in their shoulder joint.


There are a variety of treatment options available for glenohumeral arthritis, depending on the severity of the condition. Some of the most common treatment options include:

Pain relief: Over-the-counter pain relievers such as acetaminophen or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can help alleviate pain and discomfort.

Physical therapy: Exercises and stretches can help improve range of motion and strengthen the muscles in the shoulder joint.

Corticosteroid injections: These injections can provide temporary relief from pain and inflammation in the shoulder joint.

Surgery: In severe cases where other treatments have not been effective, surgery may be necessary. Surgery options include arthroscopy, which involves removing damaged tissue from the joint, or joint replacement surgery, which involves replacing the damaged joint with an artificial one. While there is no guaranteed way to prevent glenohumeral arthritis, there are steps that can be taken to reduce the risk of developing the condition. Some of these steps include maintaining a healthy weight: Excess weight puts additional stress on the joints, increasing the risk of developing arthritis. Staying active: regular exercise can help keep the muscles and joints strong and healthy. Avoiding overuse: repeated overhead movements should be avoided, or performed with caution and proper form. Protecting the shoulder joint: wearing proper protective gear during sports and other activities can help prevent injury to the shoulder joint.