All submissions of the EM system will be redirected to Online Manuscript Submission System. Authors are requested to submit articles directly to Online Manuscript Submission System of respective journal.

INCORPORATION OF RAJGIRA AND CINNAMON IN SOME INDIAN RECIPES WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO DIABETES MELLITUS

Richa Nimeshwari1, Ankita Gupta2* and Neeta Chopra3

1Nutrition Coach at Dietox Nutrition by Richa Agra, U.P, India

2Department of Food and Nutrition Institute of Home Science Dr Bhimrao Ambedkar University Agra, U.P, India

3Department of Food and Nutrition Institute of Home Science Dr Bhimrao Ambedkar University Agra, U.P, India

*Corresponding Author:
Ankita Gupta
Department of Food & Nutrition, Institute of Home Science, Dr.B.R.Ambedkar University, Agra, India.
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date: 15/12/2020; Accepted date:28/12/2020; Published date:26/02/2021

Visit for more related articles at Research & Reviews: Journal of Agriculture and Allied Sciences

Abstract

Rajgira (Amaranth) and Cinnamon (Cinnamomumzeylanicum) are cultivated all over the world. Both are very good source of dietary fiber but rajgira contains all the 9 essential amino acids needed by the body. It’s a very heart-healthy grain, containing soluble fibre and unsaturated fatty acids which helps to reduce blood cholesterol levels. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is described in Ayurveda as Madhumeha/Kshaudrameha, which literally means excessive urine with sweet taste like honey. The number of people suffering from Diabetes all over the world is increasing progressively. Ayurveda is oriented toward prevention, health maintenance and treatment of diseases. There are large number of drugs of herbal and mineral origin mentioned in ayurvedic texts, for the treatment of Madhumeha. Some herbal medications showing anti diabetic effects bring into being varying effects on the blood sugar levels with minimal side effects. The present study was conducted on “Incorporation of rajgira and cinnamon in some Indian recipes with special reference to Diabetes Mellitus”. In the present study rajgira flour and cinnamon powder was replaced/ incorporate in Pancake, Dosa, Batti, Methi Kabab, Kadhi, Baked Vegetables, Coffee, Paneer Tikka, Matar Chaat and Sprouts & Channa Bhel. A semi trained panel of 15 members was selected through Triangle Test for evaluation of the incorporated recipes. 9 point Hedonic Rating Scale and Composite Scoring Test was used for evaluation of the incorporated recipes. The data hence collected was coded, tabulated and analysed using various statistical techniques. The statistical measures used were Mean score, Standard Deviation, and Analysis of Variance. On the basis of scores all the rajgira and cinnamon replaced/ incorporated recipes were acceptable and there was no significant difference in all the rajgira and cinnamon incorporated recipes and any of these recipes will be acceptable to diabetic patient.

Keywords

Rajgira, Cinnamon, Diabetes Mellitus, Indian Recipes.

Introduction

Rajgira (Amaranth) or Ramdana, as it is popularly known in Northern India is a power house of nutrients. This grain migrated to India from America, and became an important part of our fasting ritual. Rajgira is the only grain which contains Vitamin C. Along with that it also has twice the amount of Calcium as milk, which helps in reducing the risk of osteoporosis, when included in one’s daily diet. The presence of amino acids in Rajgira makes it the perfect fasting grain. It is easy to digest and curtails hunger. Consumption of Rajgira during fasts keeps one satiated. The grain has bioactive compounds which make it anti-allergic. Plus, it is also suitable for diabetics because it helps in reducing hyperglycemia. Rajgira acts as a wonder drug too.

Cinnamon (Cinnamomumzeylanicum) is a small, tropical, evergreen tree most noted for its bark, which provides the world with the commonly known spice, cinnamon. Sri Lanka is the native country of Cinnamon. Cinnamon is a powerful spice that has been used medicinally around the world for thousands of years. It is still used daily in many cultures because of its widespread health benefits, not to mention its distinctly sweet, warming taste and ease of use in recipes.[1]

Cinnamon is loaded with antioxidants-it contains large amounts of highly potent polyphenol antioxidants which protect the body from oxidative damage caused by free radicals. It has anti-inflammatory properties-the antioxidants in cinnamon have anti-inflammatory effects, which may help lower the risk of disease. It can improve some key risk factors for heart disease, including cholesterol, triglycerides and blood pressure, lowers blood sugar levels and has a powerful anti-diabetic effect and has been shown to reduce fasting blood sugar levels, having a potent anti-diabetic effect at 1 to 6 grams per day.

It may also have beneficial effects on neurodegenerative diseases as it has been shown to lead to various improvements for alzheimer’s disease and parkinson’s disease in animal studies. cinnamon extracted from cassia varieties are thought to help fight against HIV-1.[2]

Methodology

Material and Method

Rajgira(Amaranth seeds) and Cinnamon sticks were procured from the local market of Agra, India. Rajgira Grains were cleaned and dried properly and made powder by using mixer grinder. Powder was stored in air tight container for future use. Cinnamon was cleaned, dried and roasted properly and made powder by using mixer grinder. Powder was stored in air tight container for further use.

journal-agriculture-chart

Fig: Flow chart elucidating the experimental design

Recipe selection by initial trials: Initially steamed, boiled, shallow fried and baked recipes were selected. Replacement of cereals in recipes was done with rajgira flour but it was observed that steamed and boiled recipes were not acceptable as compared to baked and shallow fried recipes. Therefore pancake, dosa, batti, methi kabab and kadhi were selected as final recipes for sensory evaluation. Incorporation was also done with cinnamon powder in different recipes. It was observed that baked and shallow fried recipes were more acceptable. Therefore baked vegetables, coffee, paneer tikka, matar chaat and sprouts & channa bhel were selected as final recipes for sensory evaluation.

Recipe Name Ingredient Amount
Methi 
Kabab
Serving size- 2 pieces
  • Kale Channe (Boiled)
  • Dahi
  • Rajgira Flour
  • Methi (Finely Chopped)
  • Onion
  • Capsicum
  • Green Chillies
  • Carrots
  • Salt
  • Red Chilli Powder
  • Chaat Masala
  • Sauf Powder
  • Cumin Seeds Powder
1cup
1/2 Cup
1/2cup
1/2 Cup
1 small
1
2
1
To Taste
1 t
1 ½  t
1 t
1t
Palak
 Kadhi
Serving Size- 1 bowl
  • Rajgira Flour
  • Curd
  • Palak (Finely Chopped)
  • Salt
  • Ginger Chilli Paste
  • Cumin Seeds
  • Curry Leaves
  • Dry red chilli
1/2 Cup
1cup
1/2 Cup
To Taste
1 t
1t
6-7
1-2
Dosa
Serving Size- 1piece
For Batter
  • Urad Dal
  • Rajgira Flour
  • Sour Curd
  • Ginger Chilli Paste
  • Salt
For Filling
  • Paneer
  • Chopped Onion
  • Green Chilli
  • Chopped Fresh Coriander
1/2 Cup
1/2 Cup
1/2 Cup
1 T
To Taste 50grm
1
2
1/2 T
Beetroot   Pancake
Serving Size- 1
  • Rajgira
  • Urad Dal
  • Curd
  • Beetroot (Chhoped)
  • •Onion Chopped
  • Green Chillies
  • Carrot
  • Salt
1/2 Cup
1/2 Cup
1/2 Cup
1/3 Cup
1
2
1
To Taste
Stuffed  Batti
Serving Size- 2 pieces
      For Dough
  • Rajgira Flour
  • Besan
  • Salt
For Stuffing
  • Matar Boiled
  • Methi  Chopped
  • Onion
  • Chilli
  • Ginger
  • Jeera
  • Salt
  • Chaat Masala
1/2 Cup
1/2 Cup
To Taste 1/2 Cup
1/3 Cup
1
2
½
½  t
To Taste
1t

Table1 Recipes of rajgira flour

Recipe Name Ingredient Amount
Baked  Vegetables
Serving Size- 1 bowl
  • Cauliflower
  • Peas
  • Carrot
  • Capsicum
  • Beans
  • Onion
  • Hung curd
  • Paneer
  • Salt
  • Chaat masala
  • Cinnamon
  • Chilli powder
50 grm
30 grm
1
1
20grm
1
1cup
30 grm
To Taste
1 ½ t
4 grm
½ t
Coffee
Serving Size- 1 cup
  • Milk
  • Coffee Powder
  • Cinnamon
  • Sugar
1cup
½ t
4gm
1 t
Matar  Chaat
Serving Size- 1 bowl
  • Green Matar Boiled
  • Onion
  • Tomato
  • Salt
  • Cinnamon
  • Chaat Masala
  • Lemon juice
1 cup
1
1
To Taste
4gm
1 ½ t
1T
Paneer  Tikka
Serving Size- 4 pieces
  • Paneer
  • Capsicum
  • Tomato
  • Onion
  • Curd
  • Black Pepper
  • Salt
  • Cinnamon
  • Chaat Masala
250 grm
2
2
2
½ cup
½ t
To Taste
4grm
1 ½ t
Sprouts & Channa Bhel
Serving Size- 1 bowl
  • Bhuna Channa
  • Sprouted Moong & Month Dal
  • Chopped Onion
  • Chopped Tomato
  • Chilli
  • Salt
  • Cinnamon
  • Jeera Powder
  • Chaat Masala
  • Lemon Juice
  • Chutney
½ cup
½ cup 1
1
2
To Taste
4gm
½ t
1 t
1 T
1 T

Table2 Recipes of cinnamon powder

[3]has suggested that the person who serves a panellist should be in good health and should not be suffering from conditions that might interfere with normal function of taste and smell. A semi trained panel of 15 members was selected through Triangle Test for evaluation of the incorporated recipes. 9 point Hedonic Rating was used for evaluation and acceptability of the recipes. The collected data was coded, tabulated and analysed using various statistical techniques. The Statistical measures used were Mean, S.D and ANOVA for analysis of acceptability scores.

Result and Discussion

Evaluation of cereal/pulse recipes replaced with Rajgira: The evaluation of the recipes was conducted on a 9 point Hedonic Rating Scale, among the evaluation recipes Rajgira Pancake overall attribute was rated with the highest mean score of 8.8 by the panel members followed by Dosa, kabab, batti and kadhi. The mouth feel was liked very much and scored highest among all the attributes of the recipes.

journal-agriculture-pulse

Cereal/Pulse replaced with rajgira in selected Indian recipes

Recipes Colour
  (Mean±SD)
 Appearance
(Mean±SD)
Texture
(Mean±SD)
Mouthfeel
(Mean±SD)
After
Taste
(Mean±SD)
Overall  acceptability
(Mean±SD)
Total
Mean
Pancake 8.9 8.7 8.7 8.9 8.7 8.8 8.8
Dosa 8.8 8.5 8.0 8.8 8.7 8.8 8.6
Kabab 8.6 8.4 8.5 8 7.6 8.4 8.2
Batti 8.4 8.5 8.1 8.1 8.0 8.4 8.2
Kadhi 8.0 8 8.1 7.6 7.6 8.2 7.9

Table 3: organoleptic evaluation of selected Indian recipes prepared by replacement with Rajgira

Table 4 shows the calculated value of F as 1.9 which is less than the table value of 5.63 at 5% level with degree of freedom (d.f.) being V1 = 4 and V2 = 70 and hence could have arisen due to chance. This analysis supports the null-hypothesis of no difference in means. Therefore it can be concluded that there is no difference between the rajgira incorporated recipes and any of them can be consumed by patients suffering from diabetes.

Source of
variation
 Sum of square
(SS)
  Degree of freedom (DF)  Mean
square
(MS)
  f- ratio  Critical value of
 F (At 5%)
Between Sample 376.8 (5-1) = 4 94.2  94.2/22
= 4.2NS
F(70.4)=
5.63
Within sample 1542.9 (75-5)= 70 22.0    
Total 1919.7        

NS = insignificant at 5% level

Table 4: Variance table for selected Indian recipes prepared by replacement with Rajgira

Table 5 Shows the nutritive values of Rajgira replaced recipes. Kabab has the highest energy with 384.5 kcal calories per serving followed by Dosa, Pancake, Batti and kadhi. Kabab had highest protein 21.1 gm per serving.

Recipe Energy
(kcal)
 Pro-
 tein
(gm)
Carbs
(gm)
Fat
(gm)
Fiber
(gm)
Ca
(mg)
Fe
(mg)
Vit
A
(ug)
Vit
 B1
(mg)
 Vit
B2
(mg)
Vit B3
(mg)
Vit B9
(mcg)
 Vit C
(gm)
Kabab  384.5  21.1  67.9 5.3 3.9 853.2 6.17 1416.5 0.33 0.37 2.24 37.15 29
Kadhi 279 13.55 29.4 12.5 2.6   935.5  3.74 5657.5 0.23  0.2 1.59 22 3
Dosa 336.7 17.7 45.5  10.9 3.3 604 4.43 430.3 0.29 0.29 0.82 31.02 8
Pancake 334.7 13.3 61.3 4.9 4.8 391 7.6  115.2 0.42 0.89 1.59 33.8 4.5
Batti 312 16.8 28.7 2.05 5.45 451.7 11.1 701 0.62 0.38 2.79 11 32.5

Table 5: Nutritive value of Rajgira replaced recipes

Evaluation of the incorporated recipes of cinnamon: The evaluation of the recipes was conducted on a 9 point Hedonic Rating Scale and it was seen that the Matar Chaat was extremely liked in all the attributes with a score of 8.7 followed by Baked Vegetables, Paneer Tikka, Sprouts & chana bhel and coffee. Baked Vegetables has the highest score in overall acceptability.

journal-agriculture-coffee
 
Recipes Colour
  (Mean±SD)
 Appearance
(Mean±SD)
Texture
(Mean±SD)
Mouthfeel
(Mean±SD)
After
Taste
(Mean±SD)
Overall  acceptability
(Mean±SD)
Total
Mean
Matar
Chaat
8.9±0.24 8.9±0.24 8.8±0.34 8.3±0.67 8.8±0.4 8.8±0.34 8.7
Baked Vegetables 8.4±0.87 8.2±1.06 8.4±1.08 8.6±0.8 8.5±0.50 8.6±0.60 8.4
Paneer
Tikka
8.4±0.8 7.9±0.85 7.9±1 8.5±0.5 8.4±0.61 8.5±0.5 8.3
Sprouts & channa Bhel 8.4±0.61 8.4±0.8 8.2±1.34 8.2±1.51 8±1.09 8.4±1.53 8.2
Coffee 8.4±0.80 8.2±1.04  8.4±0.8 7.8±1.46  7.7±1.47 8.2±0.70 8.1

Table 6: organoleptic evaluation of cinnamon incorporated in common Indian recipes

Table 7 shows the calculated value of F as 1.9 which is less than the table value of %.63 at 5% level with degree of freedom (d.f.) being V1= 4 and V2 = 70 and hence could have arisen due to chance. This analysis supports the null-hypothesis of no difference in means. Therefore it can be conclude that there is no difference between the rajgira incorporated recipes and any of them can be consumed by patients suffering from diabetes mellitus

Source of variation  Sum of square (SS)   Degree of freedom (DF)  Mean square (MS)   f- ratio  Critical value of  F (At 5%)
Between Sample 376.8 (5-1) = 4 94.2  94.2/22 = 4.2NS F(70.4)= 5.63
Within sample 1542.9 (75-5)= 70 22.0    
Total 1919.7        

NS = insignificant at 5% level

Table 7: Variance table for cinnamon incorporated in selected Indian recipes

Table 8 shows the nutritive values of cinnamon incorporated recipes. Paneer Tikka is highest in calories with score 961 of kcal and 4.61 gm dietary fiber per serving followed by sprouts & channa bhel, baked vegetables, matar chaat and coffee, whereas, coffee scores least in all the attributes of the recipes

Recipe Energy
(kcal)
 Pro-
 tein
(gm)
Carbs
(gm)
Fat
(gm)
Fiber
(gm)
Ca
(mg)
Fe
(mg)
Vit
A
(ug)
Vit
 B1
(mg)
 Vit
B2
(mg)
Vit B3
(mg)
Vit B9
(mcg)
 Vit C
(gm)
Matar Chaat 137.8 8.52 26.79 0.21 7.76 77.7 2.4 97   0.29 0.9 1.1 - 10.2
Baked  Vegetables 355 21.29 39.76 17.1 6.34 1031 5.20 913.5 0.12 0.79 1.4 8.3 18.4
Paneer Tikka 961 68.76 51.9 68.86 4.61 426.8 4.6 5476 0.28 0.21 1.35 3.3 6.2
Sprouts & channa Bhel 377.4 30.63 68.89 0.93 8.93 486 7.72 87.2 1.7 0.487 0.19 1.94 -
Coffee 41.84 2.71 8.79 0.16 2.76 172.1 0.2 - - - 0.1 - 0.2

Table 8: Nutritive value of cinnamon incorporated recipes

Summary and Conclusion

India has today become the diabetic capital of the world with over 20 million diabetics and this number is likely to increase to 57 million by 2025. Change in eating habits, increasing weight and decreased physical activity are major factors leading to increased incidence of type 2 diabetes. Herbal therapy for diabetes has been followed all over the world successfully. Herbs are used to manage type I and type II diabetes and their complications. Rajgira and Cinnamon are good source of calcium, protein and dietary fiber. Also it contains antioxidants, hence good for diabetic patients.

In the present study, an attempt was made to prepare rajgira and cinnamon recipes for Diabetic patients. In this study, cereal/ pulse flour was replaced with rajgira flour and cinnamon powder was incorporated in commonly consumed Indian recipes Mean score, Standard Deviation and ANOVA were used for evaluation of the scores of acceptability trials of the recipes.

On the basis of overall acceptability scores of all Rajgira replaced recipes Pancake was the most accepted recipe among all the recipes followed by Dosa and Kabab. Least accepted recipe was kadhi. The range of mean score for all the attributes was 8.8 to 7.9.

The calculated value of f (ANOVA) was 4.2 which is less than the tabulated value of 5.63 at 5% level of significance. This analysis supports the null hypothesis of no difference in sample means. Therefore, the difference in sensory attributes of Rajgira recipes was insignificant and any of them will be acceptable to diabetic patient.

On the basis of overall acceptability scores of all cinnamon incorporated recipes matar chaat and baked vegetables were most accepted recipes among all the recipes followed by paneer tikka and sprouts & channa bhel. Least accepted recipe was coffee. The range of mean score for all the attributes was 8.7 to 8.1.

The calculated value of f (ANOVA) was 2.2 which was less than the tabulated value of 5.63 at 5% level of significance. This analysis supports the null hypothesis of no difference in sample means. Therefore, the difference in sensory attributes of Cinnamon recipes was insignificant and any of them will be acceptable by diabetic patient. It was concluded that Rajgira and Cinnamon can be successfully incorporated in selected Indian recipes as a very good source of dietary fiber and all the 9 essential amino acids, thus proving beneficial for Diabetic patients.

References

https://lechoixdeslibraires.com/