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Insights on Post-Stroke Depressive Symptoms and Psychosocial Factors

Sheryl Lucie*

Department of Medicine & Advanced Technology, University of Helsinki, Yliopistonkatu 4,00100 Helsinki, Finland

*Corresponding Author:
Sheryl Lucie
Department of Medicine & Advanced Technology
University of Helsinki
Yliopistonkatu 4,00100 Helsinki, Finland

Received: 01 November, 2022, Manuscript No. jnhs-23-86124; Editor Assigned: 02 November, 2022, Pre QC No. P-86124; Reviewed: 15 November, 2022, QC No. Q-86124; Revised: 20 November, 2022, Manuscript No. R-86124; Published: 27 November, 2022, DOI: 10.4172/JNHS.2022.8.11.53.

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Stroke is the second leading cause of death and the leading cause of serious, long-term incapacity worldwide. Every year, approximately 15 million people suffer from stroke and are at risk of developing depression. One-third of stroke survivors experience post-stroke depressive symptoms. Patients who have increased Post-stroke depressive symptoms have less practical independence, poor cognitive healing, a lower quality of life, and a higher mortality rate. Stroke survivors use social support to cope with stress and protect themselves from the negative consequences of terrible stroke outcomes. This research sought to investigate the effect of perceived social help (emotional and informational, tangible, affectionate, and excellent social interaction), stress stage, and practical independence on depressive symptoms in stroke survivors. A cross-sectional observational research design was carried out in outpatient settings and rehabilitation facilities. The psychometrically valid gadgets were completed by a comfort pattern of 135 stroke survivors. The majority of the pattern displayed slight or mild depressive symptoms (26% and 29%, respectively).


Post-stroke • Stroke survivors • Psychiatric diagnoses


The mean rating for perceived social help in the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey was 77.53 (SD=21.44). A negative relationship was discovered between depressive symptoms and the overall rating of social help (r=.65, p.01). All of the social help subcategories have been found to be negatively associated with depressive symptoms. Hierarchical a couple of linear regression confirmed that social help, pressure stage, and literacy were related to depressive symptoms (=.31, p.001; =.45, p.001; and =.16, p=.01, respectively) and partially mediated the relationship between depressive symptoms and practical independence. Post-stroke depressive symptoms are not uncommon among stroke survivors. Social assistance may also improve fitness by protecting people from the devastating effects of stroke and enhancing their healing. Future research is needed to investigate how associated interventions improve career social help and reduce depressive symptoms in stroke survivors.

Stroke is a devastating disease that results in permanent incapacity. The psychosocial fitness of stroke survivors is just as important as their physical fitness and cognitive function. Globally, the approximately 15 million people who have a stroke each year are at risk of developing depression. Depression following a stroke is the most common stroke-related emotional disorder. According to a recent medical announcement published by the American Heart Association and American Stroke Association, depression after stroke is a dynamic phenomenon that frequently affects up to one-third of stroke survivors, with depressive symptoms occurring frequently within the first 12 months. According to the most recent meta-analysis, 33% of stroke survivors experience an episode of melancholy within the first 12 months of experiencing a stroke, and 25% and 23% experience an episode of melancholy one to five years and after five years of experiencing a stroke, respectively.

Depression is a common occurrence among stroke survivors in Saudi Arabia, with rates ranging from 17% to 63.3%. However, a lack of current epidemiological research within the Saudi population may also understate its prevalence and incidence. Stroke survivors suffer terrible physical and emotional consequences. Post-stroke depressive symptoms (PSDSs) have an impact on patients' rehabilitation and delay healing if they are not identified and treated early. Most stroke survivors who increase PSDSs have fewer daily activities, poor cognitive healing, a delayed return to social sports, a lower quality of life, and an increased mortality. The risk factors for post-stroke depression have been extensively researched and proposed in the literature. Prior records of melancholy, stroke severity, practical dependence, and cognitive impairment are the most frequently suggested threat elements.

Literature Review

Furthermore, stroke is a difficult life event that necessitates strong coping strategies, and social and personal circle of relatives support are protective factors against severe stroke outcomes, including PSDSs. Stroke survivors frequently experience declines in social assistance and social networks. Strokes disrupt personal relationships, and survivors are unable to maintain their pre-stroke roles or communicate effectively. According to research, a lack of social and family support is linked to an increased risk of PSDSs in stroke patients, whereas adequate social support improves quality of life and increases practical dependence. Northcott discovered that stroke survivors who received little social assistance suggested higher PSDS fees and longer durations than their friends who received adequate assistance. Furthermore, survivors of stroke with PSDSs have reported insufficient perceived social help, poor social participation, low quality of life, and bodily incapacity, despite the fact that sufficient social help and self-efficacy are protective factors for PSDSs as well as predictors of PSDS resolution [1-3].

On a daily basis, healthcare professionals, particularly nurses, provide direct assistance to stroke survivors, and social assistance enables patients to cope effectively with the stress associated with stroke consequences. Social assistance improves healing and complements fitness. As a result, nurses must be aware of the impact of social help on patient health outcomes and work to facilitate this help. A clear understanding of the phenomena of PSDSs and social help provides insights and assists healthcare providers in identifying patients at high risk who will most likely profit from help-primarily based totally interventions. This, in turn, may result in improved quality of life, shorter hospital stays, lower healthcare costs, and lower mortality. The purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of perceived social help (emotional and informational, tangible, affectionate, and excellent social interaction), stress stage, and practical independence on depressive symptoms in stroke survivors.

A cross-sectional study was carried out to collect information about PSDSs, social help, pressure stage, and practical independence in Saudi stroke survivors. Individuals from King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Sultan Bin Abdulaziz Humanitarian City, and Ministry of Health Hospitals in Saudi Arabia were chosen to use a comfort sampling system in outpatient settings and inpatient rehabilitation centres. Eligibility requirements included being a stroke survivor who was 18 years old and capable of sufficiently recognising and conversing in Arabic. People with conditions such as cognitive impairment, dementia, aphasia, and persistent psychiatric diagnoses (other than preexisting depression) that may limit their ability to complete a survey were excluded [4,5].

The neurologist and nursing staff members added that the study looked at certified people during medical follow-up at outpatient clinics and rehabilitation sessions. Those who agreed to participate met with the researcher and completed psychometrically valid instruments that assessed the presence of depressive symptoms, availability of social help, level of stress, and degree of practical independence.


Data was collected from October 24, 2017 to January 31, 2018. All of the participants volunteered to take part in the studies and provided signed informed consent. This examination was approved by New York University's institutional review board. IBM SPSS Statistics software (IBM Inc., Armonk, NY, USA) was used to conduct the research. Descriptive information has been used to explain the pattern and the gadgets used in this examination. Means and standard deviations have been used to investigate the demographic variables of age and time since stroke [6-8]. Frequencies have been used to investigate demographic variables such as gender, nationality, literacy level, employment status, income, melancholy records, and PSDSs 10. PHQ-9, MOS-SSS, pressure stage, and practical independence have been measured using means, standard deviations, medians, and stages. The PSDS incidence of 45% observed in this study was higher than the 29% incidence observed in a meta-analysis through (95% CI). A high frequency of PSDSs within the first 12 months after stroke in nearly one-third of stroke survivors, followed by a decline.

However, the superiority fee observed on this examination was within the range of previous research performed in Saudi Arabia. This disparity in the superiority fee is due to a variety of factors. One example is this look at broad topics from rehabilitation centres and outpatient clinics. In this study, individuals from outpatient clinics had a significantly lower rate of mental counselling than their rehabilitation centre counterparts. This examination is littered with numerous barriers that merit discussion. Because of the mediation effect, the finding associated with the affiliation between PSDSs and practical independence should be interpreted with caution. Furthermore, the findings of this study should be investigated using a larger sample of stroke patients with a representative sample of topics from rehabilitation centres. Furthermore, the individuals were recruited from large establishments in Saudi Arabia's city areas, which may not include people from suburban and rural areas with more limited scientific resources.

Because of the use of comfort sampling, there is a risk of selection bias in this study. Furthermore, this research focused on stroke survivors who had their stroke within the previous 12 months and excluded subjects in the advanced stage, who may additionally increase PSDSs. There are additional obstacles associated with the information series strategies employed. Depression records information was gathered through player self-reporting to questions about previous depression diagnosis, antidepressant use, and depression counselling.


When questions about depression are asked, cultural ideals should be taken into account, as stigma-related issues may also cause respondents to deny or avoid sharing information about depression and antidepressant medications. Stroke is a devastating ailment that outcomes in everlasting incapacity and influences the psychosocial fitness of survivors of stroke, that's as vital as their bodily fitness and cognitive functions. The findings of this take a look at help that numerous elements, along with loss of social help, excessive pressure stage, and coffee practical independence, are related to PSDSs with inside the Saudi populace. Future studies is needed to increase and check interventions to enhance social help amongst caregivers and decrease PSDSs.



Conflict of Interest

Authors declare no conflict of interest.


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