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Neuroplasticity : Types and its Applications

Gudisi Ram Kumar*

Department of Science, Mvgr College of Engineering, Vizianagaram, India

*Corresponding Author:
Gudisi Ram Kumar
Department of Science, Mvgr College of Engineering, Vizianagaram, India

Received: 29-Aug-2023, Manuscript No.neuroscience-23- 115893; Editor assigned: 31-Aug-2023, PreQC No. neuroscience-23-115893(PQ); Reviewed: 14-Sep-2023, QC No. neuroscience-23- 115893; Revised: 21-Sep-2023, Manuscript No.neuroscience-23-115893(R); Published: 29- Sep -2023,DOI:10.4172/neuroscience.7.3.006

Citation:  Ramkumar G. Neuroplasticity :Types and its Applications .Neuroscience.2023;7:006

Copyright: © 2023  Ramkumar G. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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The capability of neuronal networks in the brain to alter through development and rearrangement is known as neuroplasticity, sometimes known as neural plasticity or brain plasticity. It occurs when the brain is rewired to function differently from how it did previously. These alterations might be subtle, like new connections made along individual neuronal pathways, or more systematic, such cortical remapping or neural oscillation. Other types of neuroplasticity include compensatory masquerade, cross-modal reassignment, homologous area adaptation, and map expansion. Circuit and network modifications brought on by learning a new skill, knowledge acquisition, environmental factors, practice, and psychological stress are examples of neuroplasticity. Neuroscientists long believed that neuroplasticity only appeared in children, however studies conducted in the later part of the 20th century revealed that many adults also exhibit neuroplasticity.

Precursor types of neuroplasticity

There is no all-encompassing theory that encompasses various frameworks and systems in the study of neuroplasticity, according to Christopher Shaw and Jill McEachern (eds), in "Toward a theory of Neuroplasticity". However, neuroplasticity is frequently defined by researchers as " The capacity to make adaptive changes relating to the organization and operation of the nervous system." Likewise, structural neuroplasticity and functional neuroplasticity are two different forms of neuroplasticity that are frequently explored.

Building block neuroplasticity

It's common to think of structural plasticity as the brain's capacity to modify its neural connections. Based on this kind of neuroplasticity, new neurons are continuously created and integrated into the central nervous system throughout the lifespan. The structural changes of the human brain are currently being studied by researchers using a variety of cross-sectional imaging techniques, such as Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). This kind of neuroplasticity frequently investigates how different internal or external stimuli affect the brain's structural remodeling. Changes in the brain's synaptic strength or grey matter distribution are regarded as examples of structural neuroplasticity. More research is being done on structural neuroplasticity in the realm of neuroscience today.

Functional neuroplasticity

The ability of the brain to modify and adjust the functional characteristics of neurons is referred to as functional plasticity. Four recognized processes—homologous region adaptation, map expansion, cross-model reassignment, and compensatory masquerade—can result in functional plasticity. A cognitive task is transferred from a damaged portion of the brain to its homologous area through homologous area adaptation. Similar functional changes typically affect youngsters more than adults. Changes may take place as a result of prior activity (activity-dependent plasticity) to learn a memory or as a result of neuronal injury or malfunction (maladaptive plasticity) to make up for a pathological occurrence. In the latter scenario, functions from one area of the brain move to an additional area dependent on the need to restore behavioral or physiological activities.


The adult brain does not have all of its neural pathways "hard-wired" in place. Cortical and subcortical remodeling of neural networks in response to training and injury has been observed frequently. The cerebral cortex is one of many interconnected brain areas that are implicated in the dynamic, experience-dependent reorganization of synaptic networks Neuroscience research is currently focused on understanding the precise mechanics of how this process takes place at the molecular and ultrastructural levels. Numerous theories of brain function, like the general theory of mind and neural Darwinism, are also based on the idea that experience can affect the synaptic arrangement of the brain.

There is proof that adult rodent brains undergo neurogenesis, or the birth of new brain cells, and that these alterations can last far into old age. The hippocampus and olfactory bulb provide the bulk of the evidence for neurogenesis, but studies have also suggested that other regions of the brain, such as the cerebellum, may be involved. The amount of rewiring brought about by the integration of new neurons in the established circuits is unknown, and it's possible that this rewiring is functionally redundant.