Review on Toxicological Studies
Priyanka R1* , Challa HY2, Ram Vinod ND3
1MGR Medical University, Chennai, India
2School of Pharmacy, University of Wolverhampton, UK
3Sri Krishna Devaraya University, Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh, India
- *Corresponding Author:
- Priyanka R
Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis
MGR Medical University, Chennai, India
Email: [email protected]
Received date: 22/05/2016; Accepted date: 28/05/2016; Published date: 04/06/2016
Visit for more related articles at Research & Reviews: Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicological Studies
Toxicology, Carcinogenicity, Intravenous, Biological, Epidemiology
The role of Toxicology in any research work is similar to the epidemiology to provide relevant health effects data. Toxicology can provide cause-effect relationship for biological plausibility [1-5], and can create exposure-dose-response profiles. These toxicological studies are useful since epidemiological study can give statistical data of health outcomes and some metrics of exposure, but these epidemiological studies cannot establish cause-effect relationship between exposure and response [6-11].
Types Of Toxicological Studies
1. Acute Toxicity Study
2. Sub-Acute Toxicity Study
3. Chronic Toxicity Studies
4. Irritation Study
5. Allergic Sensitization
6. Reproductive Toxicity
9. Biocompatibility Study
10. Ecotoxicology Studies
11. Supplementary toxicity Studies
Acute toxicity study
This study gives the data in regards to the probable health risks which are prone to happen, if patients are exposed to a unit dose of a drug substance. This can resolve the level of utilization of that particular drug substance. It also plays main role as a basis for classification, labeling & original statistics on the process of toxic actions of a drug. There are various route of exposure for acute toxicity and which include Oral, Dermal, Inhalation, Intravenous, Intraperitonial, etc [11-26].
Sub-Acute toxicity study
This study gives a clear idea about harmful effects which are provoked by frequent exposure and elapsed effect which may cause by cumulative effect of the drug substances on the tissues or other biochemical procedures [27-31]. It also helps to provide the concentration of the intact usage of a drug substance or any medical compound. Routes of exposure for Sub acute toxicity are Oral, Dermal, Inhalation, Intravenous, Intraperitonial; etc. but the period of exposure may vary from 14 days to 90 days.
Chronic toxicity studies
Chronic toxicity study is done to explain the description of a drug substance in a mammalian species taking extended and repeated exposure [31-46]. The routes of administration are similar to which the human are exposed to that precise medical compound.
The surface impacts of a chemical on the skin and the mucous membrane is essential as a result of unexpected drug interaction is always a probability [46-58], thus to analyses any such kind of effects the methods include “Irritation to mucous membrane, Primary skin Irritation” are performed.
Repeated introduction of a test substance can initiate the immunological system that can be initiated by earlier introduction and the reaction might be portrayed by different external factors like erythema & edema. This study gives data in regards to the refinement of the immune system towards a specific compound [58-69].
Numerous chemicals can impact the fertility and reproduction, regularly in an insidous way with no obvious indications of toxicity. Fertility of males & females can be influenced or adverse effects for developing embryo or fetus may result because of the exposure of chemical substances [70-81]. Keeping in perspective the strength of mankind and in addition its progeny the Segmental and Two/Three Generation studies are conducted. These studies deal about basic reproductive performance of males & females, Teratogenicity, Effect on lactating dams and pups.
Carcinogenicity test is carried out to verify or examine any neoplastic lesions occurred due to any of the compound when exposed for a prolonged duration [81-86].
Adverse effects provoked by any drug substance on the genetic material of the cells i.e. DNA, or by modifying its composition or role validated by In- Vitro method of Ame's test and In-Vivo method of Rodent Dominant lethal study, Micronucleus study [86-91].
To confirm the harmful effects caused by any of medical devices as well the impacts by leachables, the accompanying studies are performed:
In-Vivo method: Systemic/Intracutaneous toxicity/Implantation
In-Vitro method: Cytotoxicity
Impacts occurred due to different chemical substances on the beneficial organisms in the nature can be examined by doing Bee toxicity, Fish toxicity, Toxicity to birds, Toxicity to Daphnia testes [91-93].
Supplementary toxicity Studies
There are some supplementary studies to examine the toxicity of drug substance or combined effects of various chemicals in toxicological studies. These studies include Neurotoxicity studies on Egg laying hens, Synergism & Potentiation .
Toxicity testing of new compounds is essential for drug development process. The preclinical toxicity testing on various biological systems reveals the species-, organ- and dose- specific toxic effects of an investigational product. The toxicity of substances can be observed by (a) studying the accidental exposures to a substance (b) in vitro studies using cells/cell lines (c) in vivo exposure on experimental animals .
Toxicological is a branch of science to address the potential hazardous effects of chemicals like Medicine, hunting, warfare, suicide, homicide. Toxicological tests are needful in drug development to prove the new drugs are safe by initial administration to human and then later by doing clinical trials. Toxicological study is accomplished using relevant animal models and validated procedures .
Toxicologist must know about the worldwide guidelines for safety assessment and in addition traditional and nontraditional toxicology models. The particular toxicology profile comprises of safety pharmacology, hereditary toxicology, acute and chronic toxicology, Sub chronic toxicology, pharmacokinetic studies, reproductive and developmental toxicology, and an assessment of cancer-causing potential [97-100].
Pharmaceutical Toxicology describes the system and requirements of pre-clinical safety strategies for new drugs. Medicinal toxicology strategy is to analyse, management and prevention of harming and other antagonistic effects because of prescriptions, occupational and ecological toxicants, and biological agents. Risk assessments can be made by comparison of toxic doses in test species with predicted therapeutic dose in man.
General Principles In Toxicity Studies
1. All studies conducted should comply with the good laboratory practice.
2. Studies should be conducted by well trained, experienced and qualified staff members
3. The equipment used to conduct the toxicological studies should be standardized and calibrated.
4. While doing the task related to toxicology method in laboratory, proper Standard operating procedures should be followed.
5. All the documents of toxicological reports should keep safely for minimum of 5 years after the product released into market.
Local toxicological studies are required when the drug administered by special route in humans other than oral route. There are various types of local toxicological studies like dermal toxicity studies, dermal photo-toxicity studies, vaginal toxicity studies, Rectal tolerance studies, Ocular toxicity studies, Parenteral drugs and Inhalation toxicity studies.
- Bandu R. Editorial: Drug Metabolism and Toxicology. J Drug Metab Toxicol. 2016;7:e133.
- Durisova M. Editorial: Drug Metabolism and Toxicology. J Drug Metab Toxicol. 2016;7:e131.
- Wikoff DS, Britt JK. The Role of Systematic Review in the Practice of Toxicology and Risk Assessment–An Appreciation for the Primary Tool in Evidence-Based Practice. Toxicol open access. 2016;2:110.
- Durisova M. The International Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. J Drug Metab Toxicol. 2016;7:e130.
- Durisova M. Mathematical Modeling Formation of 7-hydroxymethotrexate from Methotrexate in Patients Undergoing Treatment for Psoriasis with Methotrexate. J Drug Metab Toxicol. 2016;7:205.
- Trinh KX, Thuc PV, My CT, Markland FJr, Swenson S, et al. A Novel Anti-tumor Protein from Calloselasma Rhodostoma Venom in Vietnam. Anat Physiol. 2016;6:213.
- Dar SA, Yousuf AR, Balkhi MH. An Introduction about Genotoxicology Methods as Tools for Monitoring Aquatic Ecosystem: Present Status and Future Perspectives. Fish Aquac J. 2016;7:158.
- Kendall RJ. Wildlife Toxicology: Where We Have Been and Where We Are Going. J Environ Anal Toxicol. 2016;6:348.
- Durisova M. Model Based Description of the Pharmacokinetic Behavior of Pentobarbital in Fasted Male Volunteers after Oral Administration of 10 mg of Pentobarbital. Clin Exp Pharmacol. 2016;6:200.
- Saganuwan AS. Toxicology: The Basis for Development of Antidotes. Toxicol open access. 2015;1:e101.
- Demir E. Genotoxicology of Quantum Dots Used in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences. Hereditary Genet. 2015;4:151.
- Yadav S, Jauhari A, Singh N, Singh T, Srivastav AK, et al. MicroRNAs are Emerging as Most Potential Molecular Biomarkers. Biochem Anal Biochem. 2015;4:191.
- Bassett RA. Finger Pain out of Proportion to Exam: A Case of Occult Hydrofluoric Acid Toxicity. Med chem. 2015;5:152-153.
- Sassi A, Hassairi A, Kallel M, Jaidane M, Saguem S. HPLC Method for Quantification of Halofuginone in Human Ureter: Ex-Vivo Application. J Chromatogr Sep Tech. 2014;6:255.
- Colombo ML. Some Observations on the Toxicology of Natural Products. J Pharmacovigilance. 2014; S1:e001.
- Abbassy A, Marzouk MA, Mansour SA, Shaldam HA, Mossa ATH. Impact of Oxidative Stress and Lipid Peroxidation Induced by Lambda-cyhalothrin on P450 in Male Rats: The Ameliorating Effect of Zinc. J Environ Anal Toxicol. 2014;4:218.
- Malik P, Mukherjee TK, Singh M. Biomedical Nanotoxicology and Concerns with Environment: A Prospective Approach for Merger with Green Chemistry Enabled Physicochemical Characterization. J Microb Biochem Technol. 2014;S9:001.
- Misra H, Kazo F, Newmark JA. Toxicology and Safety Determination for a Novel Therapeutic Dual Carbon Monoxide and Oxygen Delivery Agent. J Clin Toxicol. 2014;4:205.
- Tuladhar BS. Trends of Clinical Toxicology Cases in Nepal. J Forensic Res. 2014;5:217.
- Abraham G. Unpredictable Systemic Risks to Topical Drugs. J Drug Metab Toxicol.2014;5:e122.
- Mansour SA. Impact of Climate Change on Air and Water Borne Diseases. Air Water Borne Diseases. 2013; 3:e126.
- Hichem N, May ME, Laadhari N, Mrabet A, Gharbi R. Effect of Chronic Administration of Aluminum Trichloride on Testis among Adult Albino Wistar Rats. J Cytol Histol. 2013;4:195.
- Hughes C, Waters M, Obasanjo I, Allen D. Translational Developmental Toxicology: Prospects for Protective Therapeutic Obstetrical and Neonatal Interventions. J Neonatal Biol. 2013;2:122.
- León HD, Boué S, Peitsch MC, Hoeng J. Modulation of the Hepatic Lipidome and Transcriptome of Apoe-/- Mice in Response to Smoking Cessation. J Liver. 2013;2:132.
- Kunes M, Kuca K. TOXCON 2013–18th Interdisciplinary Czech- Slovak Toxicology Meeting (Meeting Report). Biosafety. 2013;2:114.
- Vuskovic M, Barbuti AM, Goldsmith-Rooney E, Glassman L, Bovin N, et al. Plasma Anti-Glycan Antibody Profiles Associated with Nickel level in Urine. J Proteomics Bioinform. 2013;6:302-312.
- Abulseoud OA, Ahmed AT, Nassi S, Vigen C. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone in Acute Psychiatric Patients with Positive Urine Toxicology Drug Screen: A Retrospective Study. J Alcoholism Drug Depend. 2013;1:119.
- Abbott LC. Selecting Optimal Animal Models to Investigate Environmental Toxicology. Poult Fish Wildl Sci. 2013;1:e102.
- Sheehan D. Next-Generation Genome Sequencing Makes Non-Model Organisms Increasingly Accessible for Proteomic Studies: Some Implications for Ecotoxicology. J Proteomics Bioinform. 2013;6:e21.
- Shams N, Said SB, Salem TAR, Abdel-Rahman RH, Roshdy S, et al. Metal-Induced Oxidative Stress in Egyptian Women with Breast Cancer. J Clinic Toxicol. 2012;2:141.
- Coppola M, Mondola R. Bromo-DragonFly: Chemistry, Pharmacology and Toxicology of a Benzodifuran Derivative Producing LSD-Like Effects. J Addict Res Ther. 2012;3:133.
- Heikal TM, Mossa ATH, Nawwar GAM, El-Sherbiny M, Ghanem HZ. Protective Effect of a Synthetic Antioxidant “Acetyl Gallate Derivative” Against Dimethoate Induced DNA Damage and Oxidant/Antioxidant Status in Male Rats. J Environ Anal Toxicol. 2012;2:155.
- Pradhan A, Tripathi CB, Mandal BK, Karn A, Subedi ND. Suicide: Attempts Methods and Causes in Cases Brought for Autopsy in Bpkihs, Dharan. J Forensic Res. 2012;3:166.
- Dixit S, Dwivedi PD, Das M. Simultaneous Determination of Sudan Dyes along with Dimethyl Yellow in Indian Curry Samples by Reverse Phase Liquid Chromatography. J Chromat Separation Techniq. 2012;3:150.
- Ponizovskiy MR. The Detailed Description Mechanisms of the Herbs Extracts Operations in the New Method Cancer Disease Treatment via the Rearrangement of Metabolism from Pathological Development into Normal Development. J Clin Trials. 2012;2:124.
- Salmi A. Fentanyl Patch... The Bad Use. J Clin Toxicol. 2015;5:266.
- Sundararajan S, Blatz AM, Dearborn DG, Varnes AW, Bearer CF, et al. Toxic Metal Contamination of Banked Blood Designated for Neonatal Transfusion. J Clin Toxicol. 2015;5:267.
- Moon KY, Lee PH, Kim BG, Park MK, Jang AN. Claudin 5 Transcripts Following Acrolein Exposure Affected by Epigenetic Enzyme. J Clin Toxicol. 2015;5:268.
- Cheng MC and Chou HY. Bupropion-Induced Psychotic Mania: Risk Factor, Clinical Course and Dosage. J Clin Toxicol. 2015;5:269.
- Bartova L, Dold M, Rieder NP, Heiden AN, Kasper S. Ultra-High-Dose Long-Acting Injectable Aripiprazole in Chronic Refractory Schizophrenia: A Case Report. J Clin Toxicol. 2015;5:270.
- Pedroso JA, Citterio F. Cyclosporine Therapy for Kidney Transplant: What is New for an Old-Fashioned Therapy?. J Clin Toxicol. 2015;5:272.
- Bates E, Wallace DR. Differential Effects of Organic and Inorganic Mercury on Phenotypically Variant Breast Cancer Cell Lines. J Clin Toxicol. 2015;5:273.
- Bentur Y and Lavon O. Acute Inhaled Xylene Poisoning Confirmed by Methylhippuric Acid Urine Test. J Clin Toxicol. 2015;5:274.
- Liu W, Hong Wx, Zhang Y, Ren X, Li P, et al. Dynamic Change of Serum Proteomics of Occupational Medicamentosa-like Dermatitis Induced by Trichloroethylene. J Clin Toxicol. 2015;5:275.
- Borges JB, et al. Polymorphisms in Genes Encoding Metalloproteinase 9 and Lymphotoxin-Alpha can Influence Warfarin Treatment. J Pharmacogenomics Pharmacoproteomics. 2015;6:143.
- Ishii M, et al. A Cyclooxygenase 2 Gene Polymorphism is a Risk Factor for the Complication of Medication Overuse Headaches in Patients with Migraines. J Neurol Disord. 2015;3:206.
- Vattam KK, et al. Importance of Gene Polymorphisms in Renal Transplant Patients to Prevent Post Transplant Diabetes. J Diabetes Metab. 2014;5:463.
- Qiu Y, et al. Intracellular Adhesion Molecule-1 K469E Gene Polymorphism and the Risk of Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Meta-Analysis. Immunome Res. 2014;10:82.
- Jahromi M, et al. Critical Association Study of Olfactory Receptor Gene Polymorphism in Diabetic Complications. Immunome Res. 2014;10:79.
- Rod A, et al. ESR1 and FSHR Gene Polymorphisms Influence Ovarian Response to FSH in Poor Responder Women with Normal FSH Levels. Endocrinol Metab Synd. 2014;4:141.
- Das D and Haloi A. Vitamin B12 Gene Polymorphisms and Chronic Diseases. J Nutr Disorders Ther. 2014;4:149.
- Younes AKH, et al. Lack of Association between Catalase Gene Polymorphism and Susceptibility to Vitiligo in an Egyptian Population. Pigmentary Disorders. 2014;3:124.
- Khalil O, et al. Does Resistin Gene Polymorphisms +299 (G>A) Participate in Insulin Resistance in Egyption non-Obese Type 2 Diabetes? Int J Genomic Med. 2014;2:117.
- Liu Z, et al. The Association Study of PRKG1 Gene Polymorphism and Salt-Sensitive Hypertension among the Essential Hypertension in Beijing. J Hypertens. 2014;3:162.
- Rinaldi C, et al. PON I and GLO I Gene Polymorphisms and Their Association with Breast Cancer: A Case-Control Study in a Population from Southern Italy. J Mol Biomark Diagn. 2014;5:170.
- Berkinbayev S, et al. Apolipoprotein Gene Polymorphisms (APOB, APOC111, APOE) in the Development of Coronary Heart Disease in Ethnic Groups of Kazakhstan. J Genet Syndr Gene Ther. 2014;5:216.
- Banerjee BD, et al. Assessment of Toxicogenomic Risk Factors in Etiology of Preterm Delivery. Reprod Syst Sex Disord. 2014;3:129.
- Zhao J, et al. Analysis of TNF-ß, IL-10, and IL-1 Cluster Gene Polymorphisms and Clinical Risk Factors on Acute Renal Graft Rejection. Intern Med. 2013;3:129.
- Toraldo DM, et al. Frequency of Human Leukocyte Antigens, Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 and Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Gene Polymorphisms in Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome with or without Pulmonary Artery Hypertension. J Sleep Disorders Ther. 2013;2:131.
- Mormile R and Vittori G. Endometriosis and Susceptibility to Cancer: The Dark Side of IFN-? Gene Polymorphism? J Cancer Sci Ther. 2013;5:289-290.
- Dholariya S, et al. TP53 Gene Polymorphism in Epithelial Ovarian Carcinoma Patients from North Indian Population and its Pro/Pro Variant is Potentially Contributing to Cancer Susceptibility. J Genet Syndr Gene Ther. 2013;4:145.
- Shajithanoop S, et al. The Serotonin Receptor 2a (Ser 2a) Gene Polymorphism and its Association with Obesity and Dyslipidemia in Semi Urban Subjects of Coimbatore, South India. J Obes Weight Loss Ther. 2013;3:178.
- Cheema BS, et al. RAS Gene Polymorphisms and Renal Responsiveness to RAS Inhibition Therapy in Type 2 Diabetic Asian Indians. J Pharmacogenomics Pharmacoproteomics. 2013;4:114.
- Leu JIJ, et al. The p53 Codon 72 Polymorphism Modifies the Cellular Response to Inflammatory Challenge in the Liver. J Liver. 2013;2:117.
- Jin W, et al. Association of Bone Morphogenic Protein Receptor IA (BMPIA) Gene Polymorphism with Ossification of Posterior Longitudinal Ligament (OPLL) of the Cervical Spine in a Chinese Han Population. J Spine. 2013;2:131.
- Shah VN, et al. Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Gene Polymorphism and the Risk of Diabetic Neuropathy in Asian Indian Patients with Type 2 Diabetes. J Diabetes Metab. 2013;4:243.
- Zar T, et al. Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis Associated Seronegative Antiphospholipid Syndrome. J Nephrol Therapeut. 2012;2:123.
- Addala L, et al. P53 Codon 72 Gene Polymorphism and Risk of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma in South Indian Population: A Case-Control Study. J Cancer Sci Ther. 2012; 4:188-192.
- Zhang N, et al. Epidemiological Study of AGT Gene Polymorphism among Chinese Subjects with Primary Hypertension. Adv Pharmacoepidem Drug Safety. 2012;1:110.
- Blum K, et al. Neuropsychiatric Genetics of Happiness, Friendships, and Politics: Hypothesizing Homophily (“Birds of a Feather Flock Together”) as a Function of Reward Gene Polymorphisms. J Genet Syndr Gene Ther. 2012;3:112.
- Jurado J, et al. Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Gene Polymorphism as a Genetic Biomarker of Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy: Longitudinal Prospective Study. J Neurol Neurophysiol. 2011;2:121.
- Toy WC, et al. Adiponectin Gene Polymorphisms and Type 2 Diabetes among Singaporean Chinese Adults. J Diabetes Metab. 2011;2:152.
- Muawia S, et al. Association of CD40 Genotyping and its Protein Expression with Airway Inflammatory Diseases. J Mol Biomark Diagn. 2011;2:115.
- Miranda-Vilela AL and Lordelo GS. Role of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (Mthfr), Glutathione S-transferases (Gsts M1 and T1) and Haptoglobin (Hp) Gene Polymorphisms in Susceptibility to Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (Cml). J Hematol Thromb Dis. 2013;1:103.
- Muthuswamy S, et al. Co-existence of CFTR and SPINK1 Gene Mutations in an Idiopathic Chronic Pancreatitis Case. Gene Technology. 2015;4:116.
- Chung C. Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors for EGFR Gene Mutation-Positive Non-Small Cell Lung Cancers: An Update for Recent Advances in Therapeutics. J Pharmacovigilance. 2015;2:155.
- Cai ZX, et al. APC, FBXW7, KRAS, PIK3CA, and TP53 Gene Mutations in Human Colorectal Cancer Tumors Frequently Detected by Next-Generation DNA Sequencing. J Mol Genet Med. 2014;8:145.
- Wasim M and Fakhar N. Leptin Gene Mutations in Morbidly Obese and Severely Lean Individuals from Punjab, Pakistan. J Obes Weight Loss Ther. 2014;4:233.
- Tayyab M, et al. Distinct Gene Mutations, their Prognostic Relevance and Molecularly Targeted Therapies in Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML). J Cancer Sci Ther. 2014;6:337-349.
- Bourthoumieu S, et al. aCGH may be useful in Case of Dominant Disorders known to be caused by Gene Mutations: Two Case Reports. J Mol Genet Med. 2014;8:115.
- Zemani-Fodil F, et al. Factor 8 Gene Mutations and Risk of Inhibitor Development in Hemophilia A Algerian Patients. J Pharmacogenomics Pharmacoproteomics. 2014;5:124.
- Kobayashi K and Hagiwara K. Treatment Guideline for Advanced NSCLC Based on Driver Gene Mutations. J Genet Syndr Gene Ther. 2014;5:212.
- Nassiri I, et al. Co-occurrence: A Gene Reference Resource for Coincidental Patterns of Gene Mutations in Human Cancers. J Proteomics Bioinform. 2013;6:197-201.
- Cooper DN. Exploring the Role of Genomic Architecture and the Local DNA Sequence Environment in Mediating Gene Mutations Underlying Human Inherited Disease. J Genet Syndr Gene Ther. 2012;3: e113.
- Kolnik M, et al. Prevalence of Mefv Gene Mutations and their Association with Clinical Phenotypes in 102 Caucasian Children with Henoch-Schonlein Purpura. Hereditary Genet. 2012;1:112.
- Magd MAE, et al. Effect of SNPs in Prolactin Promoter on Milk Traits in Egyptian Buffalo. J Adv Dairy Res. 2015;3:128.
- Mezzavilla M and Ghirotto S. Neon: An R Package to Estimate Human Effective Population Size and Divergence Time from Patterns of Linkage Disequilibrium between SNPS. J Comput Sci Syst Biol. 2015;8: 037-044.
- Pawlak-Adamska E, et al. Tagging SNPs in the Excision Repair Cross-Complementing Group 4 (ERCC4) Gene Increased Risk of Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma (CSCC) and Modulate the Disease Outcome. J Carcinog Mutagen. 2014;5:172.
- Iskakova AN, et al. Allele Frequency and Genotype Distribution of 9 SNPs in the Kazakh Population. J Pharmacogenomics Pharmacoproteomics. 2014; 5:129.
- Al-Haggar M. SNPs as Co-morbid Factors for Drug Abuse and Ischemic Heart Disease. Gene Technology. 2014;3:107.
- Yan B, et al. Signaling Networks of Activated Oncogenic and Altered Tumor Suppressor Genes in Head and Neck Cancer. J Carcinogene Mutagene. 2013;S7: 004.
- Romeika JM and Yan F. Recent Advances in Forensic DNA Analysis. J Forensic Res. 2013;S12:001.
- Chahin H, et al. Epigenetic Therapy in Malignant and Chronic Diseases. J Pharmacogenom Pharmacoproteomics. 2013;4:118.
- Liu J, et al. Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry for the Measurement of Global DNA Methylation and Hydroxymethylation. J Proteomics Bioinform. 2013;S2:005.
- Szilagyi K, et al. Exploring DNA Methylation of MYLK as a Contributor to Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Disparities. J Pulm Respir Med. 2013; 3:e127.
- Su J, et al. Advances in Bioinformatics Tools for High-Throughput Sequencing Data of DNA Methylation. Hereditary Genet. 2012;1:107.
- Kashyap S and Solanki A. Pulmonary Manifestations of Scrub Typhus: Wisdom May Prevail Obstacles. J Pulm Respir Med. 2015;5:251.
- Malhotra L, et al. The Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Management of Pancreatic Cancer. J Gastrointest Dig Syst. 2015;5:278.
- Utkin YN, et al. What Animal Models of Parkinsonism Tell us About the Distinct Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors Involved in Pathogenesis? J Alzheimers Dis Parkinsonism. 2015;5:181.
- Vaillant AAJ, et al. Autoimmunity in Neurological and Psychiatric Disorders: Participation of Antibodies and Cytokines in the Immunopathogenesis of these Diseases. Immunome Res. 2015;11: 089.