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Survey on Obesity Related Health Issues

Sravya I*

GRIET, Hyderabad, Telangana, India

*Corresponding Author:
Sravya I
Department of Biotechnology, GRIET
Hyderabad, Telangana, India

Received date: 22/06/2016; Accepted date: 23/06/2016; Published date: 31/06/2016

Visit for more related articles at Research & Reviews: Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicological Studies


One of the most common problems related to lifestyle today is being overweight. Severe overweight or obesity is a key risk factor in the development of many chronic diseases. Obesity and overweight are serious problems which can be largely preventable through sensible lifestyle changes.


Obesity, Overweight, Type 2 diabetes, Sleep apnea

Defining Obesity

Obesity means having too much body fat. It is different from being overweight [1-4], which means weighing too much. The weight may come from muscle, bone, fat, and/or body water. Both terms mean that a person's weight is greater than what's considered healthy for his or her height.

Obesity occurs over time when you eat more calories than you use. The balance between calories-in and calories-out differs for each person. Factors that might affect your weight include your genetic makeup, overeating [5-10], eating high-fat foods, and not being physically active.

Being obese increases your risk of diabetes, heart disease, stroke, arthritis, and some cancers. If you are obese [11-15], losing even 5 to 10 percent of your weight can delay or prevent some of these diseases. For example, that means losing 10 to 20 pounds if you weigh 200 pounds.

There are many ways in which a person's health in relation to their weight can be classified, but the most widely used method is body mass index (BMI) [16-20].

BMI is a measure of whether you're a healthy weight for your height. BMI isn't used to definitively diagnose obesity, because people who are very muscular sometimes have a high BMI without excess fat [21-23]. But for most people, BMI is a useful indication of whether they're a healthy weight, overweight or obese [24-28].

Generally, men with a waist circumference of 94cm (37in) or more and women with a waist circumference of 80cm (about 31.5in) or more are more likely to develop obesity-related [29] health problems.

Obesity Risks

It's very important to take steps to tackle obesity [30-35] because, as well as causing obvious physical changes, it can lead to a number of serious and potentially life-threatening conditions, such as:

Type 2 diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is a life-long (chronic) disease in which there is a high level of sugar (glucose) in the blood. Type 2 diabetes [36-39] is the most common form of diabetes.

Type 2 diabetes is a life-long (chronic) disease in which there is a high level of sugar (glucose) in the blood. Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes [40,41].

When sugar cannot enter cells, a high level of sugar builds up in the blood. This is called hyperglycemia. The body is unable to use the glucose for energy. This leads to the symptoms of type 2 diabetes [42].

Type 2 diabetes usually develops slowly over time. Most people with the disease are overweight or obese when they are diagnosed. Increased fat makes it harder for your body to use insulin the correct way.

Type 2 diabetes [43-45] can also develop in people who are thin. This is more common in older adults.

Family history and genes play a role in type 2 diabetes [46]. Low activity level, poor diet, and excess body weight around the waist increase your chance of getting the disease.

The most important way to treat and manage type 2 diabetes [47,48] is by being active and eating healthy foods.

Coronary heart disease

Coronary heart disease (CHD) [49,50] is a narrowing of the small blood vessels that supply blood and oxygen to the heart. CHD is also called coronary artery disease [51-55].

Coronary heart disease is caused by the buildup of plaque in the arteries to your heart [56-58]. This may also be called hardening of the arteries.

As a result, blood flow to the heart [59,60] can slow down or stop.

Treatment for coronary artery disease [61-63] involves making lifestyle changes, taking medications, possibly undergoing invasive and/or surgical procedures.

Sleep Apnea

Sleep apnea [64,65] is a common disorder that causes your breathing to stop or get very shallow. Breathing pauses can last from a few seconds to minutes. They may occur 30 times or more an hour.

The most common type is obstructive sleep apnea. It causes your airway to collapse or become blocked during sleep [66-68]. Normal breathing starts again with a snort or choking sound. People with sleep apnea often snore loudly. However, not everyone who snores has sleep apnea [69,70].

You are more at risk for sleep apnea if you are overweight, male, or have a family history or small airways. Children with enlarged tonsils may also get it.

When your sleep [71,72] is interrupted throughout the night, you can be drowsy during the day. People with sleep apnea are at higher risk for car crashes, work-related accidents, and other medical problems.

It is important to get treated; Lifestyle changes, mouthpieces, surgery, and breathing devices can treat sleep apnea [73-75] in many people.

Obesity can also affect your quality of life and lead to psychological problems, such as depression [76-80], stroke and some types of cancers such as Breast and Bowel cancer.

Obesity Causes

Obesity is generally caused by consuming more calories – particularly those in fatty and sugary foods – than you burn off through physical activity [1,5]. The excess energy is stored by the body as fat.

Obesity is an increasingly common problem because for many people modern living involves eating excessive amounts of cheap, high-calorie food and spending a lot of time sitting down, at desks, on sofas or in cars.

Many factors can lead to energy imbalance and weight gain. They include genes, eating habits, how and where people live, attitudes and emotions, life habits, and income.

People who are working should take more care towards their health like they should be more fit and should not eat more calories as it might lead to overweight [11,13,19] and can cause other related health issues. To overcome that they at least need to walk in the break times and should drink more water.

Obesity Teatment

The best way to treat obesity [21,24] is to eat a healthy, reduced-calorie diet and exercise regularly.

Eat a balanced, calorie-controlled diet

Eat slowly and avoid situations where you know you could be tempted to overeat

If lifestyle changes alone don't help you lose weight, a medication, yoga, and exercises


There's no single rule that applies to everyone, but to lose weight at a safe and sustainable rate most people are advised to reduce their energy intake by 600 calories a day.

For most men, this will mean consuming no more than 1,900 calories a day, and for most women, no more than 1,400 calories a day.

The best way to achieve this is to swap unhealthy and high-energy food choices – such as fast food, processed food and sugary drinks (including alcohol) – for healthier choices.

Try to avoid foods containing high levels of salt because they can raise your blood pressure, which can be dangerous for people who are already obese [30,33].


Reducing the amount of calories in your diet will help you lose weight [81-85], but maintaining a healthy weight requires physical activity to burn energy.

As well as helping you maintain a healthy weight, physical activity [86,87] also has wider health benefits.

Something is better than nothing, and doing just 10 minutes of exercise [88-90] at a time is beneficial.

It's also important to find activities you enjoy and want to keep doing. Activities with a social element or exercising [90-92] with friends or family can help keep you motivated.


Many different types of anti-obesity medicines [93] have been tested in clinical trials, but only one has proved to be safe and effective: orlistat.

A balanced diet and exercise programme should be started before beginning treatment [94,95] with orlistat, and you should continue this programme during treatment and after you stop taking orlistat.


Weight loss surgery, also called bariatric surgery, is sometimes used to treat people who are severely obese.

In rare cases, surgery may be recommended as the first treatment (instead of lifestyle treatments and medication) [96] if a person's BMI is 50 or above.

Obesity treatment in children

Treating obesity in children usually involves improvements to diet and increasing physical activity [97] using behaviour change strategies.

The amount of calories [98] your child should eat each day will depend on their age and height.


A healthy diet and exercising [99] two to three times a week is key to not becoming obese. Let's change the trend of obesity by living healthy lives [100].