Unique Properties of Stem Cells
The disclosure of foundational microorganisms and the resulting finding that there are undeveloped cells in most, if not all, tissues has expanded our comprehension of the science of tissues and creatures. Investigation of foundational microorganisms in situ and in society is giving new bits of knowledge into advancement, cell science, and atomic procedures. What's more, foundational microorganisms have an immense potential for the treatment of numerous illnesses and additionally use in regenerative solution.
Fertilization, Lymphoma, Vascular Diseases, Somatic Stem Cell, Cell Therapy
A cell is the basic unit of life. In all the organism whether it is single-celled or multicellular, cells serves as structural and functional unit. Multicellular organisms consist of different type of cells such as red blood cells, neurons, bone marrow cells and etc. Cells start dividing soon after the fertilization is completed. Cells start dividing into million or trillion of cells to provide structure or shape of the organism. The vast numbers of cells working in concert with one another such as cells take nutrients from food and help to convert those nutrients into energy which help the body to carry out different functions. Cells also contain the body’s hereditary material and can make copies of them. Different cells of the body perform different functions. These cells are too small that can be seen under microscope [1-5].
There has been a great attention to the capacities of the stem cells in the recent years. Stem cells are the foundation of each and every organ and tissue of the body. It has potential to self-renewal, differentiation and to act as precursors for somatic cells. When a stem cell divides into different cells, each newly developed cell has the potential to be a stem cell or to become any other type of cell which can perform its specialized function. It can be a muscle cell, a red blood cell, or a brain cell [6-10].
There are two characteristics of stem cells which make it differ from the other type of cells in the body:
Stem cells are unspecialized cells which are having capability to renew themselves by cell division. For example, in some organs like gut and bone marrow, stem cells regularly divide to repair and replace worn out or damaged tissues [11-12].
Stem cells can induce to become tissue or organ specific cells under some physiological and experimental conditions. For example, in some organs like pancreas and the heart, stem cells only divide under special conditions [12-14].
Discovery of Stem Cells
In 1908, Alexander Maksimov, who was a Russian histologist, coined the term ‘stem cells’ but after he coined this term no significant progress was made in the area of stem cell research, After a long period of time that was after 60 years, Till and McCulloch (Canadian scientists) discovered the self-renewing cells in the bone marrow of mouse. They are unambiguously called the world’s discoverers of stem cells. After that a lot of scientists and researchers worked in the field of stem cells and the research is still going on [15,16].
Where are Stem Cells Found?
Undifferentiated cells are found in the early incipient organism, the embryo, amniotic liquid, the placenta and umbilical line blood. After birth and for whatever is left of life, immature microorganisms keep on residing in numerous locales of the body, including skin, hair follicles, bone marrow and blood, cerebrum and spinal string, the coating of the nose, gut, lung, joint liquid, muscle, fat, and menstrual blood (Figure 1), to give some examples. In the developing body, foundational microorganisms are in charge of producing new tissues, and once development is finished, undeveloped cells are in charge of repair and recovery of harmed and maturing tissues [17,18].
Figure 1: Cells developed from stem cells.
Potency of Stem Cells
The ability of any cell to differentiate into other specialized cell type is known as potency. On the basis of their potency, degree of plasticity or developmental versatility, stem cells can be classified into [19,20]:
It is the potency of cells to give rise to all type of body cells which also include extraembryonic or placental cells. It is the most versatile stem cells which is able to develop a whole new organism. Soon after fertilization, totipotent cells are produced it continue its division for couple of days [20-22].
It is the potency of cells to five raises any type of cells except embryonic cells. After four days of fertilization, totipotent stem cells give rise to pluripotent stem cells which is able to produce mature cells in the body, tissue and organ [23-28].
It is the potency of cell where adult cells are genetically reprogrammed to an embryonic stem cell. It is programmed by the "forced" expression of certain genes and transcription factors. These cells are able to meet the defining criteria for pluripotent stem cells [29-37].
It is the potency of cells to give rise to other types of cells but it is limited in its ability to differentiate.These cells are committed to produce specific cell types which have specific purpose and function [38-39].
It is the potency of cells which have ability to differentiate into only a few types of cell. It can give rise to the various blood cells but the different type of blood cells [39-40].
It is the potency of cells to five rises to only one type of cells. These cells arise from multipotent stem cells [39-40].
Type of Stem Cells
Embryonic Stem Cells
Embryonic stem cells are procured from embryos. These cells that are attained from the inner cell mass of a blastocyst after the first differentiation phase during embryonic expansion. These cells are pluripotent, self- renewing cells [40-43]. It is having the capacity to divide for long periods and retain their ability to make all cell types within the organism. There are main two properties of embryonic stem cells:
• As these cells are obtained from the early blastocyst stage, they are at a very early developmental stage, and are having pliability to become any of the cell type that make the human body. When ESS get combination of signals, they are accordingly developed into mature cells which function as neurons, muscles, bone, blood or many other required cell types [44-48].
• ESS is having ability to endure in an undifferentiated state and to divide unspecified period of time. Therefore, unlimited numbers of identical, well-defined, genetically or genomically characterized stem cells can be produced in culture for medical use [49-51].
Adult Stem Cells
Adult stem cells which are also known as somatic stem cell, are found in both children, as well as adults. They can produce different type of cells that maintain the tissues and organs of the body and they are able to reproduce and divide indefinitely. They are thought to live in a specific area of each tissue (Figure 2), where they may abide supine for years, dividing and creating new cells only when they are activated by tissue injury, disease or anything else that makes the body demand more cells [52-55].
Figure 2: Embryonic stem cells.
There are main two properties of adult stem cells:
• They are having ability to make identical copies of themselves for a long period of time, this property is known as long-term self-renewal.
• They are having proficiency to develop mature cell type that have attribute morphology and perform special functions.
There is an intermediate cell that is also called as precursor or progenitor cell that is generated by the stem cells. This stage of cell is developed before the cell achieves their fully differentiated state (Figure 3). Adult stem cells are partly differentiated cells that can divide and engender to differentiated cells [55-59].
Figure 3: Adult stem cells.
Applications of Stem Cells
Stem Cells are being used to help people undergoing pain, distress or hardship from dozens of diseases and conditions which includes malignancies, blood disorders and immune deficiencies etc. Stem cells work by providing new cells to replace damaged, diseased, or defective cells. The following list unveil the wide range of applications that adult stem cells are having right now [60,61].
• Stem cells can diligently divide and produce new blood cells within two to six weeks.
• stimulate rebirth of the blood components in the bone marrow, those are damaged by high doses of chemotherapy or radiation. This oft occurs in leukemia or lymphoma cases, for example, when the bone marrow is diseased and must be devastate.
• Stem cells can correct excrescence in children with inherited or inborn blunders of metabolism by replacing these faulted cells in the bone marrow with new and non-defective cells.
• Stem cells can produce other types of cells that tramp to the brain, liver, and all other organs. Research is currently being done on these other uses [62-64].
Research With Stem Cells
Scientists and researchers are fascinated in stem cells for multiple reasons. Although stem cells do not minister any one function, many have the capacity to perform any function after they are indoctrinated to specialize. Each cell of the body is derived from first few stem cells formed in the early stages of embryological development. Therefore, stem cells which are extracted from embryos can induced to become any desired cell type. This property of stem cells makes them potent enough to regenerate detrimental tissue under the right conditions [65-67].
Organ and Tissue Regeneration
Tissue regeneration is certainly the most important feasible application of stem cell research. Currently, organs must be provided or donated by someone and transplanted, but the demand for organs far exceeds supply. Stem cells could potentially be used to grow a any type of tissue or organ if directed to differentiate in a certain way. For example, Stem cells that lie just beneath the skin have been used to engineer new skin tissue that can be grafted on to burn victims [68-73].
Cardiovascular Disease Treatment
A team of researchers reported in PNAS Early Edition that they were able to create blood vessels in laboratory mice using human stem cells. The scientists excerpted vascular precursor cells obtained from human-induced pluripotent stem cells from one group of adults with type 1diabetes as well as from another group of “healthy” adults. They were then implanted onto the superficial of the brains of the mice. Within two weeks of implanting the stem cells, netting of blood-perfused vessels had been formed and they were able to last for 280 days. These newly developed blood vessels were as good as the adjacent natural ones. Therefore, using stem cells to repair or regenerate blood vessels could eventually help treat human patients with cardiovascular and vascular diseases.[74-78].
Brain Disease Treatment
Substitution cells and tissues might be utilized to regard cerebrum infection, for example, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's by renewing harmed tissue, bringing back the particular mind cells that keep unneeded muscles from moving. Embryonic foundational microorganisms have as of late been coordinated to separate into these sorts of cells, thus medicines are promising [79-83].
Cell Deficiency Therapy
Solid heart cells created in a research center may one day be transplanted into patients with coronary illness, repopulating the heart with sound tissue. Correspondingly, individuals with sort I diabetes may get pancreatic cells to supplant the insulin-delivering cells that have been lost or demolished by the patient's own particular resistant framework. The main current treatment is a pancreatic transplant, and it is unrealistic to happen because of a little supply of pancreases accessible for transplant [84-88].
Blood Disease Treatments
Grown-up hematopoietic foundational microorganisms found in blood and bone marrow have been utilized for a considerable length of time to regard ailments, for example, leukemia, sickle cell pallor, and different immune deficiencies. These cells are fit for creating all platelet sorts, for example, red platelets that convey oxygen to white platelets that battle ailment. Challenges emerge in the extraction of these cells using intrusive bone marrow transplants. However hematopoietic undifferentiated organisms have likewise been found in the umbilical string and placenta. This has driven a few researchers to require an umbilical rope blood donation center to make these capable cells all the more effortlessly reachable and to diminish the odds of a body's dismissing treatment [89-94].
Foundational microorganism medicines may require immunosuppression in view of a necessity for radiation before the transplant to expel the patient's past cells, or on the grounds that the patient's resistant framework may focus on the immature microorganisms. One way to deal with maintains a strategic distance from the second plausibility is to utilize immature microorganisms from the same patient who is being dealt with. Pluripotency in certain undifferentiated cells could likewise make it hard to acquire a particular cell sort. It is likewise hard to get the accurate cell sort required, in light of the fact that not all cells in a populace separate consistently. Undifferentiated cells can make tissues other than coveted sorts. Some foundational microorganisms structure tumors after transplantation; pluripotency is connected to tumor arrangement particularly in embryonic undifferentiated organisms, fetal appropriate undeveloped cells and prompted pluripotent immature microorganisms. Fetal legitimate undifferentiated cells structure tumors in spite of Multipotency [96-100].
- Das M, et al. Computational Analysis of Ultra-Structural Images of Red Blood Cells. Oncol Trans Res. 2015;1:104.
- Cohn S and Keric N. Impact of the Age of Transfused Red Blood Cells in the Trauma Population. J Blood Lymph. 2014;4:118.
- Assan R, et al. The Value of Red Blood Cells (Rbc) Indices and Osmotic Fragility Test as Screening Tests in Malay Pregnant Women with Alpha Thalassaemia. Clinics Mother Child Health. 2013;11:154.
- Zaets SB. Do We have Enough Direct Evidence to Postulate that Abnormally Shaped Red Blood Cells Impair Microvascular Blood Flow in Critical Conditions? Anatom Physiol. 2013;3:e112.
- Lin MR, et al. Hyaluronan Elevates Cell Cycle Regulators P130, E2F4, and P27kip1 in Dormant Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells to Regulate Cell Quiescence. J Stem Cell Res Ther. 2016;6:345.
- Flood JS, et al. A Lookback Investigation of United Kingdom Residents Who Received Unscreened Stem Cells. J Community Med Health. 2016;6:417.
- Khayat-Khoei M. Will the Amniotic Membrane and Its Stem Cells Preserve their Capacity after Cryopreservation?. J CytolHistol. 2016;7:e118.
- Kaur KK, et al. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells-Emphasis on Transcriptomics and Recent Advances in Therapeutic Potential. Transcriptomics. 2016;4:134.
- Günther K, etal.Rapid Monolayer Neural Induction of induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Yields Stably Proliferating Neural Stem Cells. J Stem Cell Res Ther. 2016;6:341.
- Sutton F. Genome silencing, Cell Division and Phytohormone Biosynthesis in Winter Wheat (a possible relationship). J Plant Biochem Physiol. 2013;1:e115.
- Huszar JM and Payne CJ. miR-146a Influences Energy Metabolism, Cell Differentiation and Innate Immunity. Metabolomics. 2013;3:119.
- Yamaguchi M. Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation: Involvement in Osteoporosis with Obesity and Diabetes. J Bone Marrow Res. 2013;1:e107.
- Andy Coghlan. Stem cell timeline: The history of a medical sensation. New Scientists.2014.
- Ian Murnaghan. History of Stem Cell Research. Explore stem cells. 2016.
- SittiponIntarapat and Claudio D. Stern Chick stem cells: Current progress and future prospects. Stem Cell Res. 2013;11:1378–1392.
- Masayo SY, et al. TGF-β family signaling in stem cells. BiochimBiophysActa. 2013;1830:2280–2296.
- HimaBindu A and Srilatha B. Potency of Various Types of Stem Cells and their Transplantation. J Stem Cell Res Ther. 2011;1:115.
- Rich IN. Potency, Proliferation and Engraftment Potential of Stem Cell Therapeutics: The Relationship between Potency and Clinical Outcome for Hematopoietic Stem Cell Products. J Cell SciTher. 2013;S13:001.
- Liao YJ, et al. Establishment and Characterization of Novel Porcine Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Expressing hrGFP. J Stem Cell Res Ther.2014;4:208.
- Jiang W, etal.Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: Origins and Directions. Human Genet Embryol. 2012;S2:002.
- PriyankaNarad and Upadhyaya KC. Integrative Bioinformatics Approaches to Analyze Molecular Events in Pluripotency. Biol Med. 2014;6:208.
- Esteban-Pérez CI, et al. Genomic Instability in Embryonic Stem Cell: A Mechanism for Adaptation and Pluripotency Maintenance. JFIV Reprod Med Genet. 2015;3:142.
- Somia HA, et al. Evaluation of Bone Marrow Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell Potency on Wound Healing. J Stem Cell Res Ther. 2015;5:312.
- Günther K, et al. Rapid Monolayer Neural Induction of induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Yields Stably Proliferating Neural Stem Cells. J Stem Cell Res Ther. 2016;6:341
- Kaur KK, et al. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells-Emphasis on Transcriptomics and Recent Advances in Therapeutic Potential. Transcriptomics. 2016;4: 134.
- Abu-Hassan DW, et al. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Restore Function in a Human Cell Loss Model of Open-Angle Glaucoma. J Clin ExpOphthalmol. 2016;7:535
- Brooks PT, et al. Structural Analysis of Threedimensional Human Neural Tissue derived from Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells. J Stem Cell Res Ther. 2016;6:337.
- Al-Anazi KA. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells and Their Future Therapeutic Applications in Hematology. J Stem Cell Res Ther. 2015;5:258.
- Joseph BC and Rao MS. Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells for the Treatment of Hemophilia A. J Cell SciTher. 2014;5:e119.
- Compagnucci C. The Emerging Potential and Perspectives of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs) J Biomol Res Ther. 2014;3:e132.
- Lu J. Modeling Parkinson’s Disease with Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells. ClonTransgen. 2014;3:e113.
- Yokoyama KK. Two-hit Reprograming of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells. Occup Med Health Aff. 2014;2:168.
- Rossignol J, et al. Will Undifferentiated Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Ever have Clinical Utility? J Stem Cell Res Ther. 2014;4:189.
- Sung PJ, et al. Feeder-Free Derivation of Functional Platelets from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells. J Blood DisordTransfus. 2013;4:153.
- AB Balaji et al. Isolation of a novel population of multipotent stem cells from epidermal layer of human skin. Biology and Medicine. 2010;2:57-67.
- Etsuro I, et al. A Role for Proton Signaling in the Induction of Somatic Cells to Pluripotent Embryonic Stem Cells. J PhysChemBiophys. 2014;4:138.
- Xiao Y et al. Identification of the Common Origins of Osteoclasts, Macrophages, and Dendritic Cells in Human Hematopoiesis. Stem Cell Reports. 2015;4:984-994.
- Itakura Y, et al. Podocalyxin-Targeting Comparative Glycan Profiling Reveals Difference between Human Embryonic Stem Cells and Embryonal Carcinoma Cells. J GlycomicsLipidomics. 2013;S5:004.
- Hirano T and Tamae K. Differentiation of Embryonic Stem Cells and Oxidative DNA Damage / DNA Repair Systems. J Stem Cell Res Ther. 2012;S10:005.
- Esteban-Pérez CI, et al. Genomic Instability during Early Differentiation of Embryonic Stem Cells. J Stem Cell Res Ther. 2016;6:329.
- Dingwall S, et al. Expression of Histocompatibility 2 Blastocyst (H2-Bl) in Embryonic Stem Cells Inhibits CD8+ T-Cell Activation but is not Sufficient to Facilitate Graft Tolerance. J Stem Cell Res Ther. 2015;5:320.
- Shroff G and Hopf-Seidel P. Use of Human Embryonic Stem Cells in the Treatment of Parkinsons Disease: A Case Report. Int J EmergMent Health. 2015;17;661-663.
- Liu S, et al. Myelination of Motor Neurons Derived from Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells by Oligodendrocytes Derived from Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells in a Microfluidic Compartmentalized Platform. J Stem Cell Res Ther. 2015;5:304.
- Neri F, et al. Murine Embryonic Stem Cells Synthesize Retinoic Acid to Promote their Own Differentiation. J Stem Cell Res Ther. 2015;5:293.
- Shroff G. Use of Human Embryonic Stem Cells in the Treatment of Age-Related Macular Degeneration. J Clin ExpOphthalmol. 2015;6:446.
- Rao S. Embryonic Stem Cells: A Perfect Tool for Studying Mammalian Transcriptional Enhancers. J Stem Cell Res Ther. 2012;S10:007.
- Parsons XH. MicroRNA Profiling Reveals Distinct Mechanisms Governing Cardiac and Neural Lineage-Specification of Pluripotent Human Embryonic Stem Cells. J Stem Cell Res Ther. 2012;2:124.
- Das S, etal.Transcriptional Regulation of Human NANOG by Alternate Promoters in Embryonic Stem Cells. J Stem Cell Res Ther. 2012;S10:009.
- Siqueira RC. Clinical Trials Currently Being Conducted with the Use of Adult Stem Cells Transplantation to Treat Retinal Diseases . J Transplant Technol Res. 2014;4:e130.
- Felippe TCG and Santoro DC. Implantation of Adult Stem Cells in Patients with Heart Disease: Clinical Practice Implications for Nurses. J Nurs Care. 2014;3:167.
- Siqueira RC. Clinical Trials Currently Being Conducted with the Use of Adult Stem Cells Transplantation to Treat Retinal Diseases . J Transplant Technol Res. 2014;4:e130.
- Katti KS. Use of Adult Stem Cells in Biomaterials Research. J BiotechnolBiomater. 2013;3:e121.
- Young HE, et al. Treating Parkinson Disease with Adult Stem Cells. J NeurolDisord. 2013;1:121.
- Snippert HJ and Clevers H. Tracking adult stem cells. EMBO Rep. 2011;12:113-122.
- Boyette LB and Tuan RS. Adult Stem Cells and Diseases of Aging. J Clin Med. 2014; 3:88-134.
- Lane SW et al. Modulating the stem cell niche for tissue regeneration. Nat Biotechnol. 2014; 32:795-803.
- Beerman I and Rossi DJ. Epigenetic Control of Stem Cell Potential During Homeostasis, Aging, and Disease. Cell Stem Cell. 2015;16:613-625.
- Lutolf MP et al. Designing materials to direct stem-cell fate. Nature. 2009;462;433-441.
- Jung Y and Brack AS. Cellular Mechanisms of Somatic Stem Cell Aging. Curr Top Dev Biol. 2014;107:405-438.
- Watt FM and Driskell RR. The therapeutic potential of stem cells. Philos Trans R SocLond B Biol Sci. 2010;365:155-163.
- Mead B et al. Stem cell treatment of degenerative eye disease. Elsevier. 2015.
- New strategy to reverse the disease dyskeratosis congenital. University of Pennsylvania. 2016.
- Borsani E, et al. Biological Characterization and In Vitro Effects of Human Concentrated Growth Factor Preparation: An Innovative Approach to Tissue Regeneration. Biol Med (Aligarh). 2015;7:256.
- Gupta S, et al. Mucosal Substitutes for Periodontal Soft Tissue Regeneration. Dentistry. 2015;5:327.
- Shyh‐Jou S and Tsun‐Chih C. Regeneration and repair of human digits and limbs: fact and fiction. Regeneration (Oxf). 2015;2:149-168.
- Hirayama M, et al. Bioengineered Lacrimal Gland Organ Regeneration in Vivo. J FunctBiomater. 2015;6:634-649.
- Ozeki N et al. Synovial Mesenchymal Stem Cells Promote Meniscus Regeneration Augmented by an Autologous Achilles Tendon Graft in a Rat Partial Meniscus Defect Model. Stem Cells. 2015;33:1927-1938.
- Bajpai VK and Andreadis ST. Stem Cell Sources for Vascular Tissue Engineering and Regeneration. Tissue Eng Part B Rev. 2012;18:405-425.
- Parsons XH. Exploring Future Cardiovascular Medicine: Heart Precursors Directed from Human Embryonic Stem Cells for Myocardium Regeneration. CardiolPharmacol. 2013;2:e110.
- Jadczyk T et al. Stem cell therapy for cardiovascular disease: the demise of alchemy and rise of pharmacology. Br J Pharmacol. 2013;169:247-268.
- Lei Z, van Mil A, van de Vrugt AM, Doevendans PA, Sluijter JPG (2015) Dgcr8 is Indispensable for Cardiac Lineage Specification in Embryonic Stem Cells. J Stem Cell Res Ther 5:260.
- Tanaka A, et al. Cardiovascular Disease Modeling Using Patient-Specific Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells. Int J Mol Sci. 2015;16:18894-18922.
- Sharma RK et al. Understanding the application of stem cell therapy in cardiovascular diseases. Stem Cells Cloning. 2012;5:29-37.
- Liao CH, et al. The Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines Expression of Porcine Embryonic Stem Cells Xenotransplanted into the Brain and Spinal Cord in Rats. J Cell SciTher. 2014;5:168.
- Pluchino S and Cossetti C. How Stem Cells Speak with Host Immune Cells in Inflammatory Brain Diseases. Glia. 2013;61:1379-1401.
- Drago D, et al. The stem cell secretome and its role in brain repair. Biochimie. 2013;95:2271-2285.
- Gu H. Using Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells to Model Neurodegenerative Diseases. J Anc Dis Prev Rem. 2013;1:e101.
- Burns TC, et al. Stem Cells for Ischemic Brain Injury: A Critical Review. J Comp Neurol. 2009;515:125-144.
- Shroff G, et al. Evaluation of Wound Healing Ability with Human Embryonic Stem Cells in Patients with Non-Healing Wounds: A Case Series. Pigmentary Disorders. 2015;2:191.
- Ito K and Toshio Suda. Metabolic requirements for the maintenance of self-renewing stem cells. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2014;15:243-256.
- Jun-Lin G et al. Autophagy in stem cells. Autophagy. 2013;9:830-849.
- Shroff G (2015) Treatment of Lyme Disease with Human Embryonic Stem Cells: A Case Series. J Neuroinfect Dis 6:167.
- Zhou D et al. Reactive Oxygen Species in Normal and Tumor Stem Cells. Adv Cancer Res. 2014;122:1-67.
- Conese M (2012) Towards a Combined Gene and Cell Therapy for Lung Diseases: The Case of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells. Adv Genet Eng. 1:103.
- Delaney C et al. Strategies to enhance umbilical cord blood stem cell engraftment in adult patients. Expert Rev Hematol. 2010;3:273-283.
- Shroff G, Barthakur JK, Mohan P, Mahajan H (2015) Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography Scan as a Diagnostic Tool in Children with Cerebral Palsy Treated with Human Embryonic Stem Cells. J Nucl Med RadiatTher 6:223.
- Ogliari KS et al. Stem cells in dermatology. An Bras Dermatol. 2014;89:286-292.
- Young W, D’Souza SL, Lemischka IR, Schaniel C (2012) Patientspecific Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells as a Platform for Disease Modeling, Drug Discovery and Precision Personalized Medicine. J Stem Cell Res Ther S10:010.
- George Q. Daley. The Promise and Perils of Stem Cell Therapeutics. Cell Stem Cell. 2012;10:740-749.
- Lechanteur C, et al. Large-Scale Clinical Expansion of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in the GMP-Compliant, Closed Automated Quantum® Cell Expansion System: Comparison with Expansion in Traditional T-Flasks. J Stem Cell Res Ther. 2014;4:222.
- Bhangra KS, et al. Using Stem Cells to Grow Artificial Tissue for Peripheral Nerve Repair. Stem Cells Int. 2016;2016:7502178.
- Lee YH. Regenerative Potential of Intravenous Infusion with Mononuclear Cells in Cord Blood and G-CSF-Mobilized Peripheral Blood. J Stem Cell Res Ther. 2014;4:224.
- Kingham E and Oreffo RO. Embryonic and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: Understanding, Creating, and Exploiting the Nano-Niche for Regenerative Medicine. ACS Nano. 2013;7:1867-1881.
- Salem H, et al. Adult Gland Derived Stem Cells (Gdscs); Potentials, Hurdles and Expectations. J Stem Cell Res Ther. 2014;4:228.
- Jalali M, et al. Human Stem Cells for Craniomaxillofacial Reconstruction. Stem Cells Dev. 2014;23:1437-1451.