Department of Food Nutrition and Dietetics, Assam down town University, Panikhaiti Guwahati, Assam, India
Received date: 01/07/2021; Accepted date:15/07/2021; Published date: 22/07/2021
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Banana; Product development; Superfood; Therapeutic properties; Value addition
Banana plants are monocotyledonous perennial and one of the most important fruit crops of India contributing 16% of the world total fruit production. It is among the numerous fruit yielding plant which is as not only a healthy fruit but also all parts of the plant provide various medicinal values. The worldwide production of bananas in 2015 was 117.9 metric tonnes and Asia exports 4.5 million tonnes in 2019, representing an increase of 18 percent compared to 2018, when they stood at 3.8 million tonnes. The edible banana is indigenous to the warm moist part of Asia and probably originated somewhere in the mountainous regions of Assam, Myanmer (erstwhile Burma) Thailand, Vietnam (erstwhile Indochina). More than 85% of global banana production is produced by small-scale farmers, providing an important source of food and income.
Banana is a popular and everyone’s favourite fruit all over the globe because of their taste texture, availability, versatility, and cost. Banana is a very good source of carbohydrates, dietary fibres, certain vitamins, essential minerals specially potassium and many health-promoting bioactive phytochemicals which reduces neurodegenerative disorders but it can also act as mineral inhibitors when in forms such as phenolic compounds, phytates and tannins .
It is a highly perishable fruit because of its high moisture content that leads to microbial contamination. The high levels of sugars, nutrients element and low pH value also make this particular fruit desirable to fungal decomposition. This is why it is important to convert them to semi perishable value added food products by applying appropriate processing techniques and gentle handling to reduce the post harvest losses. Value added products are not only important sources of vitamins, minerals and fiber but also provide a wide array of bioactive components or phytochemicals. Sustainable utilization of wastes and by-products from banana peel, rhizome, leaf etc., for producing value-added products provides an opportunity for earning additional income for the dependent industrial sector as well as help in decreasing pollution by reducing environmental stress.
Banana as super food and it’s nutraceuticals parameters
Banana fruits are highly nutritious and easily digestible than many other fruits. The wide consumption of banana is due to its sensory characteristics, particularly its attractive texture and flavor make banana popular by the consumers. Moreover, it has high caloric contribution leading to high demands mainly by developed countries which account for nearly 70% of world’s consumption. The fruit is low in fat and high in dietary fiber, vitamin C, vitamin B6, and manganese making it an excellent source of nutrients. The presence of potassium and fiber in large amounts in bananas may help combat atherosclerosis, which can lead to heart attack and stroke and keep body fluids in balance. Banana is an also an ideal weaning food for the children after six month of birth and as well as ideal for geriatric nutrition. Whole banana plant is useful in food, feed, pharmaceutical, packaging, and many other industrial applications .
Each and every part of banana a rich source of various bioactive compounds like total phenols, carotenoids, flavanoids etc. Some phytosterols were also reported in banana, however there level was low due to these bioactive compounds, bananas have a higher antioxidant capacity than some berries, herbs and vegetables and this capacity increases during fruit maturity. Pereira and Maraschin reported that gallic acid, catechin, epicatechin, tannins and anthocyanins are the main phenolic compounds which is reported to be 7 mg/100 g fresh weight. These compounds impart astringent taste to the unripe banana. Determined the beta carotene content in selected Indian banana varieties and reported karpooravalli banana cultivar had the highest beta carotene content (143.12 μg/100 g) among all the varieties.
Therapeutic property of different parts of banana
Banana is a rich source of antioxidant compounds and these compounds reduces risk of neurodegenerative disorders, retards ageing process and helps in lowering the incidence of degenerative diseases, such as heart disease. Folklore studies revealed that Root Extract (RE), Shoot Extract (SE), and Inflorescence Extract (IE) of Musa Balbisiana have high medicinal properties, and the root extract is used for the treatment of diabetes. However, very less scientific study has been conducted till date regarding the scientific validation of this traditional claim. Various parts of the plant like Fruits, leaves, roots, and stalks from banana plant can also be used for the treatment of various diseases including diabetic, diarrhea, scabies, fevers, burns, pain and inflammations as all parts of the plant exhibit different pharmaceutical properties. Banana is suitable for consumption as it contains less fat, less sodium, and no cholesterol, making it particularly recommendable for people with cardiovascular and kidney problems, arthritis, gout, or gastrointestinal ulcers. The plant is traditionally used in diarrhoea, dysentery, intestinal lesions in ulcerative colitis, diabetes, sprue, uremia, nephritis, gout, hypertension and cardiac disease. observed Musa Balbisiana (MB) fruit pulp powder for its cardio protective effect in cardiac hypertrophy and suggests that Musa balbisiana fruit powder supplementation can be useful for inhibition of inflammation and oxidative stress. Banana peel also has the antibacterial activity against periodontal pathogens as well as gram positive and gram negative bacteria. Musa balbisiana Colla root extracts treated rat revealed a reduction in fasting blood glucose (62.5%), serum total cholesterol (36.2%), triglyceride (54.5%), and low-density lipoprotein (50.94%) after 15 days as compared to STZ treated animal .
Value addition of banana
Banana undergoes less industrial processing compared to fruits such as potato, apple, orange, and tomato. Different value added products like chips, snacks, powder etc. Helps to improve the market efficiency and income to the farmers as well as help to generate employment.
Green bananas can be sliced and fried as chips. CFTRI, Mysore has developed the he process technology of banana chips by using 'Dwarf Cavendish' and ‘Nendran’varieties. The chips are produced by peeling followed by slicing and then dehydration. Banana chips may be osmotically dehydrated with brine solution and then dried in conventional air-dryer or microwave, radio frequency, infrared, vacuum or freeze-dryer to reduce the drying time and cost. Though freeze drying yields a good product, but it is not cost effective. The storage period can be greatly enhanced (up to 147 days) by storing the banana chips controlled conditions at about 25°C.
Banana as flour/powder
Drying is one of the best processing methods for any perishable food product. It is considered necessary to make the fruits available year round and different places where it is not available. Banana is dehydrated to remove moisture by different methods like microwave drying oven drying, spray drying, solar drying, freeze drying and ground to make banana flour or powder. The drying process also helps in handling and transporting due to it’s decreased weight. Pretreated the banana pulp with organic acid to obtain Unripe Banana Flour (UBF) and noticed that it enhances the physical and antioxidant properties of the banana flour. Liao and Hung studied the starch digestibility of green banana powder. Determined the optimum ripeness stage to extract carotenoids from second grade banana peel for possible food applications. Banana puree is the main commercial processed banana product that is widely used all over the world.
Banana as wine/beverage
Banana wine is an important alternative to utilize over ripe banana. Fermented alcoholic beverages can made from ripe banana pulp juice ameliorated to 18 Brix was inoculated with 3% (V/V) Baker’s yeast and held at 30 ± 2°C for 14 days as well as peel. The highest aroma-producing yeast isolated from banana fruit and peel showed that whole banana could be a good substrate for fermentation and distillation .
The addition of organic green banana flour (GBF, 0%, 1%, 3%, or 5% w/v) on the quality parameters of fermented milk was investigated (21 days/5ºC) by Batista et al.,(2017) and found that at 3% addition of green banana flour, contributes to develop Synbiotic fermented milk with improved fatty acid and volatile profiles, as well as aroma and flavor acceptance.
Ripe banana fruits can be pulped for puree making which further used in a variety of products including ice cream, yogurt, cake, bread, nectar, and baby food. Banana pulp had potassium (584 mg/100 g), magnesium (58 mg/100 g), total sugar (5.2 g/100 g) and starch (1.8 g/100 g) contents.
Inadequate or inappropriate food intake is one of the leading factors of childhood malnutrition that leads to childhood morbidity and mortality. That is why wholesome, nutritionally adequate weaning diet is essential for achieving optimal growth in this crucial phase of life. Again childhood obesity is one of the leading due to excess added sugar consumption leads to poor health outcome in children. Banana is an excellent weaning food option for toddlers. A highly nutritious baby food has been formulated by using banana pulp flour to use as complementary feeding after supplementing it with other source of protein, mineral, vitamin and fat.
Banana fruit candy made from banana pulp, jiggery and ginger are very popular in Southern part of India. However different types of candy was developed using banana stem as well through osmotic dehydration and sun drying process.
Fully banana fruit can be made into figs by drying or dehydrating the extra moisture. There are very sweet in taste with sticky consistency. For this, the banana fruit is treated with 0.1% potassium metabisulphite solution and dried under the sun or ovendried at 50°C. These figs may have a shelf life of about 3-4 months with appropriate packaging and ambient conditions.
Excellent quality of jam can be produced from ripen banana and they have sweet taste, fine flavour and texture. In the method for the preparation of jelly or jam fully ripe or over-ripe fruits are used. First the fruits hand-peeled and cut into definite small pieces or slices. The banana slices are boiled for 1 h in 60°C Brix sugar syrup at the rate of 1 lb of banana slice to 1 pint of syrup (454.01 g to 0.5681). This is then strained and the clear solution is boiled until it sets. The Ph should be adjusted to 3.5. Sometimes pectin is also added to improve the set.
Banana sauce is a ready-to-eat to sauce. The sauce has a strong banana taste and flavour and a dull yellow-red colour. The total soluble solid content varies from 39-40°C Brix depending on the variety of bananas. It has a shelf-life of one year when stored in bottles.
Value added cereal bars were developed by using banana peel flour, rice flakes and oat flour and on sensory acceptability of cereal bars, with subsequent evaluation of sensory profile of products identified as having high acceptability. The use of banana peel flour in the production of cereal bars is doable with different sensory profiles, which may favour the development of new products for different market niches.
Banana waste materials are rich source of nutrients and minerals like potassium, nitrogen and phosphorus. It is also rich source of starch (3%), crude protein (6-9%), crude fat (3.8-11%), total dietary fibre (43.2-49.7%), poly unsaturated fatty acids, essential amino acids and micronutrients. So peels could be good material for cattle and poultry feed.
The banana foliage and pseudo stems are used as cattle feed during dry periods in some banana producing areas. Bananas are a good energy source but need to be supplemented with protein. The banana leaves are not eaten but may be used for wrapping food in cooking. These are also used for weaving eco-friendly baskets, mats, cups etc., In India and Asia, banana leaves are used like aluminium foil. The leaf makes an excellent platter and food served on these leaves tastes delicious. The leaves are not eaten but while steaming food some of the polyphenols are imparted to the food .
Different parts of banana have a long history of traditional uses ranging from folk medicine to culinary preparations in different parts of the world. It is an excellent source of antioxidant, has metal chelating power, acts as anti-diabetic, helps cures hypertension, helps to manage cholesterol etc. The Banana plants are used in preparing different functional food, wine, alcohol, biogas etc.
The value addition of banana plays significant role in human nutrition, especially as a source of vitamins, minerals and dietary fiber, Now a days consumers opt for the food products, which are nutritious as well as convenient to use. More importance has been given to the products having natural flavour rather than chemical loaded artificial food flavoring substances. As the processing of the food in the forms which are preferred by the consumer, have long shelf life and involve low cost of production, studies need to be carried out to optimize the processing techniques to prevent oxidative damage on the bioactive compounds and increase the shelf life of the food products. Thus, a systematic approach should be followed to develop and standardize the value added food products from banana that can be rewarding to the farmers, besides making available the nutrients to the Indian dietaries, thus meeting nutritional security of the population.
With increases in technology, there has been a corresponding increase in product innovations, food safety, food hygiene, and increased shelf life for food products; hence there has been exploitation of both local and commercial banana cultivars. It can be prove to be important for overall growth of Indian economic empowerment if processing sector of fruits and vegetable can be given proper attention in development and growth. Furthermore, bioactive constituents needs to be isolated and should be considered for further in vivo studies to confirm the claims and to explore the potential of development of components that may contribute in discovery and development of new drug and to be considered value added market oriented products.