Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, Africa
Received: 13-Sep-2022, Manuscript No. JFPDT-22-74478; Editor assigned: 15-Sep-2022, PreQC No. JFPDT-22-74478 (PQ); Reviewed: 29-Sep-2022, QC No. JFPDT-22-74478; Revised: 05-Jan-2023, Manuscript No. JFPDT-22-74478 (R); Published: 12-Jan-2023, DOI: 10.4172/2321-6204.11.1.001
Citation: Zhang Y. Yogurt and its Types. RRJ Food Dairy Technol. 2023;11:001.
Copyright: © 2023 Zhang Y. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Visit for more related articles at Research & Reviews: Journal of Food and Dairy Technology
A meal called yoghurt is produced when bacteria in milk ferment. Yogurt cultures are the microorganisms that are used to manufacture yoghurt. These bacteria ferment milk sugars into lactic acid, which reacts with milk protein to give yoghurt its distinctive acidic texture and flavour. The milk that is most frequently used to produce yoghurt is cow's milk. Yogurt may also be made from the milk of water buffalo, goats, ewes, mares, camels, and yaks. You may use homogenized milk or not. It can be either raw or pasteurized. The effects of each variety of milk are very diverse.
Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus microorganisms are used to make yoghurt. Additionally, additional bifidobacteria and lactobacilli may be introduced before, during, or after yoghurt culture. In certain nations, yoghurt must include a certain number of Colony Forming Units (CFU) of bacteria; in China, for instance, yoghurt must contain at least 1 million CFU of lactobacillus per millilitre.
To prevent curds from forming, milk must first be heated, typically to around 85°C (185°F), before being turned into yoghurt. The milk is heated and then allowed to cool to around 45°C (113°F). To allow fermentation to take place, the bacterial culture is added, and a warm temperature of 30-45°C (86-113°F) is maintained for 4 to 12 hours. Higher temperatures operate more quickly, but run the danger of a lumpy texture or whey separation.
Plain yoghurt made from whole milk has 81 percent water, 9 percent protein, 5 percent fat, and 4 percent carbs, including 4 percent sugars. A 100 grams serving has 406 kilojoules (97 kcal) of caloric intake. A serving of yoghurt has a modest amount of protein, phosphorus, and selenium (14 to 19% DV), but is a high source of vitamin B12 (31% DV) and riboflavin (23% DV).
By adding microorganisms to milk, yoghurt is made and thickened, giving it its well-known tart flavour. The bacterial culture is added after cooling the milk after it has been cooked to prevent curds from developing. The majority of yoghurt contains living, active cultures that support digestive health. Americans are accustomed to the smooth, creamy texture of regular yoghurt. Although it is not as thick as other yoghurt alternatives since it is unstrained, it is still too thick to consume.
Greek yoghurt is strained to eliminate the liquid and whey after the yoghurt base is made, giving it a thicker consistency than regular yoghurt. Greek yoghurt is a well-liked alternative to sauces used in savoury foods because of its strong sour flavour.
Australian yoghurt is unstrained, just like regular yoghurt. Greek yoghurt is thicker than standard yoghurt but has a creamier texture since it is cooked more slowly and for a longer period of time than ordinary yoghurt.
French style yoghurt is cultivated in the individual sized containers it is served in, as opposed to being manufactured in a big vat and then split into containers. Like regular yoghurt, it is unstrained, but it has a smooth, creamy texture and is less sweet than other yoghurts.
Greek yoghurt is notably thinner and less tart than Icelandic yoghurt, or Skyr. There is disagreement about whether Skyr belongs in the category of yoghurt varieties. It may be claimed that it is cheese because of the way the procedure causes curds to develop. Skyr is promoted as Icelandic yoghurt in the United States because, whatever it is properly called, it is eaten like yoghurt. Skyr is one of the thickest yoghurts on the market since it has been strained four times.
There is yoghurt produced without lactose, even if yoghurt with viable, active cultures is already a suitable option for individuals who are lactose intolerant. A unique enzyme that breaks down the lactose in milk has been added to lactose-free yoghurt. Your body does not feel the discomfort of lactose intolerance in the absence of this lactose. Because the lactose has only been broken down outside of your body, it still tastes like regular yoghurt.
There are many alternatives available for drinkable yoghurts, not just in terms of taste. They come in a variety of consistency levels, from a thinner consistency more like to skim milk to a thicker consistency more akin to classic yoghurt. Additionally, you may decide whether you want to savour sour or sweet yoghurt.
Drinkable yoghurt and kefir are both fermented beverages; however kefir passes through a lengthier fermentation phase. The addition of kefir grains to milk provides kefir its distinctive flavour. You'll notice a little tart flavour and an almost effervescent aspect to it.