All submissions of the EM system will be redirected to Online Manuscript Submission System. Authors are requested to submit articles directly to Online Manuscript Submission System of respective journal.

Research Article Open Access

Cardio-Renal-Anemia Syndrome: Possible Causes and Treatment


In many studies, a vicious link is found between heart failure (HF), kidney and Anemia. Anemia is common in HF patients, but its high prevalence in HF patients is directly related to itself or other comorbid conditions. Multiple potential mechanisms of interaction exist between anemia and the clinical syndrome of HF, including hemodilution, inflammatory activation, renal insufficiency, and malnutrition. Anemia is an independent risk factor for adverse outcomes in patients with HF as well as, it itself can precipitate HF. Anemia is an important comorbid condition and potentially novel therapeutic target in patients with heart failure (HF). Available data suggest that treatment of anemia isassociated with significant symptomatic improvement in HF.Simultaneously, aggressive treatment of anemia with erythropoietin (EPO) associated with increased risk of hypertension and thrombosis. Here this review article highlights the possible mechanisms for anemia in HF and balanced treatment approach to minimise treatment associated risk.

Ashishkumar C Zala, Naresh D Kantharia, Shashank Deoghare, Prakash P Malam, and Chirag N Gajera

To read the full article Download Full Article | Visit Full Article

rolex replica