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Geospatial Techniques for Groundwater Potential and Water Quality Assessment: A Review
In the 21st century, the water quality problem is one of the most severe issues that affected human health and social development. It is necessary to evaluate water quality for drinking purposes. Safe drinking water is one of the fundamental human rights nowadays. Groundwater is an essential source of freshwater. It is essential to develop and utilize groundwater resources in an area because groundwater resource is linked mainly with drinking purpose and different sectors. This paper has discussed the literature review in groundwater studies using Remote Sensing and GIS and other Multicriteria decision analysis techniques, groundwater recharge, quantitative assessment of groundwater, statistical modeling of groundwater fluctuation, and groundwater management, and groundwater quality. The literature review indicates that most of the techniques/logics/models/methods used in the past years for exploring the groundwater potential zone like Geospatial techniques, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), Analytical Network Process (ANP), Fuzzy Logic techniques, Weighed Index Overlay Analysis (WIOA), etc. The Purity of water or drinking water quality can be identified by using some standard water quality testing parameters viz. Chemical, Physical, and Microbial. From the review of research papers, it is evident that a lot of research has been carried out in the above fields. This analysis could be used for the study area to assess the groundwater both quantitatively and qualitatively as it requires exploring the groundwater potential to overcome water scarcity or overexploitation in the study area.