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Review Article Open Access

Immunity against COVID-19: What Do We Know So Far? A Comprehensive Review on the Immunity Against COVID-19


The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has produce a major global health emergency. Various studies have tackled host immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 and offered new insights into the immune system’s role in severe COVID-19 patients. A deep understanding of the immunopathogenesis of COVID-19 constitutes a solid platform to develop novel immunotherapeutic approaches for the treatment of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. This review provides an update on host immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection and explores various immunological facets of both the innate and adaptive immunity. Data on important innate immune response elements are summarized, including cytokines, complement system, and potential evasion mechanisms. Information about the adaptive immune response against COVID-19 is also reviewed, including CD4+/CD8++ T cells, T cell exhaustion and T-cell epitope recognition in SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. Highlights on possible associations between impaired immune response and disease progression are alluded to. Various vaccine platforms and their effectiveness against emerging variants are described.

Mohamad Bahij Moumneh1,3, Ghassan Dbaibo1,2, Darine Daher4, Tarek Bou Dargham1,3*, Christine Atallah3, Rana El Hajj4, Lina Reslan1,4, Zeina Bayram5, Abdul Rahman Bizri

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