Toxicity studies on crude leaf extract of Ocimum gratissimum in normoglycaemic and diabetic rats
Background: There is a growing interest in the medicinal value of extracts of Ocimum gratissimum plant. However, there is scanty data on the toxicity of extracts of this plant in experimental animals. Objective: This study was aimed at evaluating the safety and the effects on organs of crude leaf extracts of Ocimum gratissimum in normoglycaemic and diabetic rats. Methods: Freshly prepared leaf extracts of Ocimum gratissimum was admininstered on normoglycaemic and neonatal strptozotocine induced diabetic (n-STZ) rats.The animals were observed daily for clinical signs of toxicity throughout the period of study. At the end of the study, the animals were sacrificed after ether anesthesia. The kidneys, liver and a length of intestine were removed and examined for any pathologic changes due to treatment with the extract. Result: At the extract dose of 200mg /Kg body weight, no significant change was observed in all the biochemical parameters evaluated in the two groups following treatment with extract. Biochemical parameters were also similar in the normal and n-STZ rats. Sections of the small intestinal tissues of the animals treated with the aqueous extract showed enlarged intestinal Villi with nonspecific chronic inflammatory cell infiltration of the fibrovascular core. The liver tissues showed signs of mild to moderate vascular congestion which is otherwise unremarkable. Conclusion: At the therapeutic dose used in this study the leaf extracts of Ocimum gratissimum appears to have no significant organ toxicity.
Nelson I Oguanobi, Chioli P Chijioke, Samuel I Ghasi, Francis I Ukekwe and Keneth I Nwadike