A Natural Way to Resist Sleep Disorders
Department of Pharmacy, SSJ College of Pharmacy, Hyderabad, India2Centre for Biotechnology
- *Corresponding Author:
- Prashanthi Gummadi
Department of Pharmacy, SSJ College of Pharmacy
Vattinagulapally, Rajendranagar mandal, Hyderabad, Telangana 500075, India.
Received date: 02/02/2017 Accepted date: 23/02/2017 Published date: 28/02/2017
Visit for more related articles at Research & Reviews: Journal of Medical and Health Sciences
The imbalance between production and elimination of Reactive Oxygen Species results in Oxidative stress. These are harmful at high levels and they are produced more in hypoxia destruction process of Obstructive sleep apnea and many other sleep disorders. An antioxidant is a substance capable of preventing the oxidation of other molecule. In biological system they protect cells from damage caused by unstable molecules known as free radicals. Antioxidants interrupt the chain reactions by removing intermediates of free radical, and inhibit other oxidation reactions by being oxidizing themselves. Many antioxidants have been observed to cross the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) and have neuroprotective effect. Antioxidants are emerging as prophylactic and therapeutic agents. Antioxidants have natural activity of preventing neuronal loss and damage caused due to oxidative stress. This review explains that how might antioxidant supplement help in preventing major sleep disorders like, Sleep apnea, Insomnia, Obstructive Sleep Apnea.
Free radicals, Oxidative stress, Antioxidants, Sleep disorders
Sleep is very essential for us in rejuvenating our body, mind and strengthening our body’s immune system, cognitive health [1-3]. Sleep Medication is not the only way to treat sleep disorders, which will leave us with long term side effects and can become addiction. Current researchers introduced brilliant ways to study sleep in a systemic way with the help of advanced technologies like electroencephalograph (EEG) which has made work easy. Latest research has found an interesting relationship between quality and quantity of sleep and health. Inadequate sleep leads to Obesity, sudden fall in blood pressure during sleep which results in heart complications like hypertension [4-9]. Antioxidants are the substances that protect cells from damage caused by free radicals. Free radical damage may lead to many neurodegenerative disorders. Over production of Reactive oxygen species (ROS) will results in oxidative stress which can leads to neuronal damage, hypoxia, tissue damage, apoptotic neuronal cell death. An antioxidant defence mechanism contributes the removal of this reactive oxygen and their precursors thereby inhibit formation of ROS [10-16].
All stages of sleep play an important in acquiring adequate sleep. Our brain regulates the transitional stages between wakefulness and sleep which in turn plays a crucial role in indicating depth and quantity of sleep. Polysomnography is used in measuring the stages of sleep also involved in measuring sleep patterns, brain wave activity, eye movement, respiration and heart rhythm [17-22]. Sleep is highly influenced by external environmental factors like light. Normally we pass through five sleep stages and one complete sleep cycle involves an average time of 90 to 110 minutes [23-28]. The two important categories of sleep are rapid eye movement sleep (REM) and non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREM), which are scientifically referred to as active and quite sleep respectively. REM sleep is again divided in to four separate stages. REM sleep involves rapid movements of the closed eye which can be measured using electrooculography (EOG), activity of brain during sleep consists of low-amplitude brain waves, brains oxygen and energy consumption is high during this stage, neurologically REM sleep is accelerated by the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and suppressed by serotonin [29-33]. There will be irregular and rapid breathing along with high blood pressure in REM sleep compared to Non-REM sleep. Muscles will be in relaxed condition during non-REM sleep while they are completely paralyzed and unresponsive during REM sleep which is termed as atonia which is result of brains suppression of control muscle movement. Most of the vivid dreams we come across sleep are during REM sleep due to muscular atonia [34-44].
As per recent reports about 70 journals, 92 Conferences, 34 workshops are exclusively related to Sleep. As per the reports of National Institutes of Health about 12 million Americans were suffering with OSA. Some of the sleep disorders are critical and they often interfere with mental, social and emotional functioning [45-55]. There is a drastic increase in cases of Sleep Disorder because of ignorance of people in identifying and reporting the condition. The Journal of Sleep Disorders & Therapy Presents a new platform to researchers and scientist to explore the developed and cutting-edge study trends in the field of Sleep problems and treatment [56-62]. OMICS Group organizes conferences on sleep with an aim to make an everlasting relation of upcoming new strategies in the field of Sleep Disorders with the scientific community and thereby giving everyone a healthier and quality life. 3rd International Conference on Sleep Disorders and Medicine is going to held on November 5-7, 2017, Madrid, Spain [63-69]. The main purpose is to promote the new developments and innovative ideas in exploring the knowledge by scientific researchers on Sleep disorders and Medicine to the community. Recently 2nd International Conference on Sleep Disorders and Medicine which is known as Sleep Medicine 2016 was a huge success and on November 28th -30th, 2016 at Atlanta [70-72]. The main theme of this conference is to illuminate the topic of sleep, how it benefits our daily lives and ultimately leading to a healthier and prosperous tomorrow. Zi-Jian Cai suggests that the slow-wave sleep (SWS) for regulating the emotional balance obstructed by emotional memories were randomly accumulated during waking and the REM sleep is contrary to it, which helps in revising and extending the psychoanalysis in both therapy and theory also another study by Kathy Sexton-Radek et al. discussed that the alternative medicine use to induce sleep has high impact on reducing the difficulties in sleep as well as to reduce the chances of sleep disorder cases globally [73-79].
The British Sleep Society is an organisation for scientific, medical and healthcare professionals coping with sleeping disorders. They are a registered British charity with an ultimate goal of improving public health via promoting research and education of sleep and its disorders. The European Society for the Advance of the Neuroscience is a national non-profit organization founded in 2013 with an ultimate aim to promote the research of the Scientists worldwide. This organization works with a mission to improve the advance technology in understanding the brain and the nervous system along with the diagnosis of diseases by gathering Young researchers of different backgrounds, and making way to publish their innovative research [80-83]. American Sleep Association was established in 2002 by sleep professionals with an aim to improve and strengthen public health by growing awareness regarding the importance of sleep and the problems of sleep disorders and secondary goal is to help other such organizations that share our goal. It believes that everyone in this community can make an optimistic impact on this effort. The Canadian Sleep Society is an organization with an ideal commitment of improving sleep health of all Canadians by supporting the research, promoting high quality clinical care, making the professionals and the public to know about problems and dangers of sleep disorders [84-88].
Antioxidants And Sleep Disorders
According to latest research, taking antioxidant supplements as sleeping aid is effective in restoring body’s equilibrium during sleep and thus resulting in restful sleep. Ingredients both Vitamins and antioxidants that have shown tremendous results in providing good sleep are Valerian root extract, Vitamin B complex, Magnesium, Vitamin E, Vitamin C, Melatonin, Carbocysteine, N-acetylcysteine, etc. [89-92].
Folate deficiency results in impaired sleep and it can be treated by Vitamin B complex which helps in regulating vital biochemical reactions of our body and induces sleep. Magnesium is a magnificent vitamin that stimulates GABA receptors and relaxes the brain to fall asleep. Recent studies revealed that Vitamin A has a crucial role in regulating brain functions of memory and sleep. N-acetylcysteine supplement has shown therapeutic potential in patient suffering with Obstructive sleep apnea, regular and long term therapy with N-acetylcysteine may reduce the use of Continuous positive airway pressure therapy.
Insomnia is the difficulty in falling asleep or staying asleep, some of the most common causes of this condition are anxiety, alcohol, stress and caffeine. Some of the antioxidant vitamins like vitamin C and E are able to balance the free radicals formed in the body. Sleep patterns can be improved by vitamin C and E supplements in 100mg and 400IU per day respectively and in the form of food like strawberries, citrus fruits, green leafy vegetables, tomatoes, nuts, wheat germ, olives, etc. [93-97].
We are just at the beginning of understanding the relationship between sleep and antioxidants. This review has explained a basic relation between sleep and antioxidants in our body. Studies reveal that deprived and reduced sleep is related with reduced levels of antioxidants, and also overcoming the poor sleep resulted in increased antioxidant levels. Various studies have explained and that the vitamin C antioxidant is aiding the treatment cardiovascular problems which are associated with sleep apnea and also the studies on negative effects of obstructive sleep apnea on functioning of antioxidants were discussed. There should be an increase in the studies on how antioxidants and antioxidant foods effect in promoting sleep [98-100].
- Bhattacharya M and Chakraborty S. Free radicals and naturally occurring antioxidants. RROIJ. 2015.
- Neeti Sharma. Free radicals, antioxidants and disease. Biol Med. 2014;6:214.
- Butnariu M. Action and protection mechanisms of free radicals. J Pharmacogenomics Pharmacoproteomics. 2012;3: e129.
- Charushila YK and Subodhini AA. Evaluation of serum antioxidants during adjuvant chemotherapy of breast cancer- a prospective observational study. Biochem Anal Biochem. 2015;4:171.
- Panja S, et al. Antioxidants from indegenous medicinal plants inhibit proliferation of ascitic cancer cells. J Cancer Sci Ther. 2014.
- Shrivastava SR, et al. Advocating use of antioxidants in ensuring optimal health. J Food Nutr Disor. 2013;2:4.
- Ghareeb DA and Sarhan EME. Role of oxidative stress in male fertility and idiopathic infertility: causes and treatment. J Diagn Tech Biomed Anal. 2014;2:1.
- Naspolini NF, et al. Effects of calorie restriction and soybean and olive oils on oxidative stress in obese. J Food Nutr Disor. 2015;4:5.
- Shetty AA, et al. Vegetables as Sources of antioxidants. J Food Nutr Disor. 2013;2:1.
- Aljerian K and Haffor A. Effects of hyperoxia exposure on free radicals accumulation in relation to ultrastructural pathological changes of diaphragm. J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015;5:247.
- Sinha BK. Roles of free radicals in the toxicity of environmental pollutants and toxicants. J Clinic Toxicol. 2013;S13:e001.
- Ramos P, et al. Free radicals in the thermally sterilized aminoglycoside antibiotics. Pharmaceut Anal Acta. 2012;3:193.
- Butnariu M and Samfira I. Free radicals and oxidative stress. J Bioequiv Availab. 2012;4: 4-6.
- Rathod GB, et al. Hazards of free radicals in various aspects of health – a review. J Forensic Toxicol Pharmacol. 2014;3:2.
- Akintunde JK, et al. Sub-chronic treatment of sildernafil citrate (viagra) on some enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in testes and brain of male rats. J Pharm Drug Deliv Res. 2012;1:2.
- Clifford T, et al. The influence of different sources of polyphenols on sub-maximal cycling and time trial performance. 2013.
- Skenderi KP, et al. Total antioxidant capacity and phenolic compounds of selected vinegars in the greek market. J Food Nutr Disor. 2013;2:2.
- Mohamed EB, et al. Immunomodulatory and antioxidant protective effect of zingiber officinale, in lead intoxicated rat. Prensa Med Argent. 2015;101:3.
- Shatrova AN, et al. Antioxidant-dependent prevention of h2o2-induced premature senescence in human endometrial stem cells. Cell Biol: Res Ther. 2015;4:1.
- Shetty AA, et al. Vegetables as sources of antioxidants. 2013.
- Zidan NS, et al. The protective effect of a novel coumarinic derivative on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. J Food Nutr Disor. 2016;5:3.
- Mishra P and Prasad SM. Mounting insights over human wellness by utilizing plant’s primed defense against precise/mild oxidative stress. J Plant Physiol Pathol. 2016;4:2.
- Mohapatra S and Mittra B. Induction of glutathione, ascorbate and associated enzymes by a low dose cdcl2 pre-treatment alleviate fusarium induced oxidative stress in wheat. J Plant Physiol Pathol. 2016;4:1.
- Yang S, et al. Physical activity and oxidative stress biomarkers in generally healthy women. J Community Med Health Educ. 2015;5:377.
- Jagetia GC and Mallikarjuna Rao KVN. Hesperidin, a citrus bioflavonoid reduces the oxidative stress in the skin of mouse exposed to partial body ?-radiation. Transcriptomics. 2015;3:111.
- Gupta DK, et al. Moderate uranium disturbs the nutritional status and induces oxidative stress in pisum sativum l. J Plant Physiol Pathol. 2016;4:1.
- Kishida S, et al. Short-term treatment with an angiotensin ii receptor blocker prevents necrotic core formation by inhibiting oxidative stress-mediated apoptosis in macrophages. J Cardiovasc Res. 2016;5:1.
- Pokorný J and Pokorný J. Biophysical pathology in cancer transformation. J Clin Exp Oncol. 2013;S1:003.
- Djamgoz MB. Biophysics of cancer: cellular excitability (“celex”) hypothesis of metastasis. J Clin Exp Oncol. 2014;S1:005.
- Al-Amoudi SM. Cancer diagnosis: who has the right to know? J Womens Health, Issues Care. 2013;2:3.
- Prashanthi G. A Review on Sleep Health and Sleep Disorders. RRJMHS 2017;6:1.
- Killgore WDS. Lighting the Way to Better Sleep and Health. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2016;5:1.
- Jong M, et al. Feasibility and Effects of Touch Massage and Nurse Led Sleep Counselling in the Treatment of Primary Insomnia. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2016;5:1.
- Miyata S, et al. Masked Hypertension and Morning Blood Pressure Surge in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2016;5:1.
- Sorscher AJ, et al. Pharmacotherapy for Chronic Insomnia: A Brief Survey of PCP Attitudes and Preferences. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2016;5:1.
- Tan M, et al. Positive Airway Pressure Therapy for Sleep Disordered Breathing in Congestive Heart Failure is Associated with Reduction in Pulmonary Artery Systolic Pressure. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2016;5:2.
- Christina D, et al. Stress Management for the Treatment of Sleep Disorders in Lawyers: Pilot Experimental Study in Athens, Hellas. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2016;5:2.
- Ibrahim MA, et al. Sleep Pattern in Primary Enuretic Children. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2016;5:2.
- Cary D, et al. Examining the Relationship between Sleep Posture and Morning Spinal Symptoms in the Habitual Environment Using Infrared Cameras. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2016;5:2.
- Zubair UB, et al. Assessment of Quality of Sleep in Pregnancy and Socio Demographic Factors Associated with Poor Sleep Quality in Pregnancy. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2016;5:2.
- Chen C-C (JJ) and Ringenbach SDR. The Association between Physical Activity and Sleep Disorders in Adolescents and Young Adults with Down syndrome: A Questionnaire Study. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2016;5:3.
- Bajaj N, et al. Are We Over PAP-Tizing our Patients? The AASM 2012 Criteria for Hypopnea Scoring and Impact on OSA Prevalence. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2016;5:3.
- Alves JGB, et al. CPAP effect on Daytime Sleepiness in Patients with Mild-Moderate and Severe Obstructive Sleep Apnea. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2016;5:3.
- Zubair UB, et al. Subjective Quality of Sleep at High Altitude and Factors Associated with Poor Sleep Quality at High Altitude. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2016;5:3.
- Woods C, et al. Barriers and Enablers to Successful Uptake of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) Treatment for Obstructive Sleep Apnoea for Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2016;5:3.
- Crawford MR, et al. Implementing Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia- The Patient Perspective. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2016;5:4.
- Sexton-Radek K, et al. Tableside Sleep Intervention with Pain Patients following Physical Therapy. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2016;5:4.
- Etindele Sosso FA and Raouafi S. Appropriate Sleep Duration and Physical Activity Modulate Cognitive Improvement. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2016;5:4.
- Rogers A, et al. Resistant Hypertension and Sleep Duration among Blacks with Metabolic Syndrome MetS. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2016;5:4.
- Chen CW, et al. Qualitative Study of Long-Term Sedative-Hypnotic use Patterns. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2016;5:4.
- Bachour A, et al. Home Sleep Apnea Study of Patients with Limited to No Mobility. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2016;S1.
- Sharma S and Tan M. High-Resolution Pulse Oximetry: Cost Effective Tool to Screen Sleep-Disordered Breathing in the Hospitalized Patients. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2016;S1.
- Sharma S and Chakraborty A. Polycythemia in a Patient with Heart Failure Resolved by Treatment of Underlying Sleep Apnea: A Case Report. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2016;S1.
- Prashanthi G. Role of Antioxidants on Cancer and Neurodegenerative Disorders. RRJMHS 2016; 5:3.
- Li Y, et al. Investigation of the Effect of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Hypopnea Syndrome (OSAHS) on Vascular Endothelial Function in Coronary Slow Flow (CSF) Patients. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2016;S1.
- Izumi S, et al. Sleep Hypoxemia and Urinary Free Cortisol in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2016;S1.
- MacKay Stuart and Holmes SueElle. Heavy Issue: Clarifying AHI Elevation after Contemporary Airway Surgery for OSA – The MACHO Graph. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2015;4:1
- Molina-Leon A and Nuñez A. EEG Morphology and Spectral Analysis in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Effect of Methylphenidate Treatment. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2015;4:1.
- Speth TA, et al. Sleep Parameters and Architecture in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Comparison with Typically Developing Peers and Across Subtypes. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2015;4:1.
- Barone DA, et al. Improvement of Sleepiness in Connective Tissue Disorders Following H1/H2 Blockade. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2015;4:1.
- Scherer M, et al. The Relationship between Sleep, Depression, and Traumatic Brain Injury: A Study of Ontario Workers with Head Trauma. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2015;4:1.
- Madsen MT, et al. Effects of Melatonin on Sleep after Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2015;4:1.
- Orff HJ, et al. Sleep Disturbance, Psychiatric, and Cognitive Functioning in Veterans with Mild to Moderate Traumatic Brain Injury. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2015;4:2.
- Dikeos D, et al. Evaluation of the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire in a Community and Clinical Population of Children and Adolescents. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2015;4:2.
- Davies SE, et al. Obstructive Sleep Apnea is Associated with Increased Frequency of Nocturnal Cardiac Arrhythmias. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2015;4:2.
- Koga A, et al. Association between Sleep Duration and Personality-Gene Variants: Sleep Duration is Longer in S/S Homozygotes of Serotonin Transporter than in L Allele Genotypes. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2015;4:2.
- Sendon CS, et al. Adaptive Servo Ventilation to Treat an Infant with both Central and Obstructive Sleep Apnea. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2015;4:2.
- Pinyopornpanish P, et al. Obstructive Sleep Apnea during Pregnancy and the Morbidity Outcome. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2015;4:2.
- Peng KA, et al. Management of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Following Endoscopic Skull Base Surgery. J Otol Rhinol. 2014;3:5.
- Adriana N, et al. Correlations between Quality of Life, the Degree of Apnea and Diseases Associated Pathology in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome. J Otol Rhinol. 2014;3:5.
- Kumar AR, et al. Quantitative Assessment of an Obstructive Sleep Apnea Patient Before and After Tracheostomy: A Case Study. J Otol Rhinol. 2013;2:2.
- Kasai M, et al. Nasal Surgery improves Continuous Positive Airway Pressure compliance and Daytime Sleepiness in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome. J Otol Rhinol. 2015;S1:1.
- Alharethy S. Septoplasty is Promising for Improving Snoring. J Otol Rhinol. 2016;5:3.
- Cai ZJ. Extending psychoanalysis with theories on sleep functions. J Sleep DisordTher. 2015;4:217.
- Zaki NWF, et al. Sleep medicine knowledge among medical students in seven egyptian medical faculties. J Sleep DisordTher. 2016;5:239.
- Minkoff K. Sleep: A progressive field. J Sleep DisordTher. 2015;5:e135.
- Killgore WDS. Lighting the way to better sleep and health. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2015;5:1.
- Ibrahim MA, et al. Sleep pattern in primary enuretic children. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2016;5:2.
- Cone L, et al. The effect of healing touch on sleep patterns of pediatric burn patients: A prospective pilot study. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2014;3:2.
- Goldman SE, et al. Concordance of mother/child sleep patterns using actigraphy: Preliminary findings. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2014;3:2.
- Msaad S, et al. Influence of ramadan observance on sleep pattern and wakefulness at work among medical trainer in Tunisia. J Sleep DisordTher. 2016;5:243.
- Strober LB and Arnett PA. Sleep changes in multiple sclerosis: From the individual’s perspective. j sleep disor: treat care. 2013;2:4.
- Xi-Jian D, et al. Different cerebellar responding to acupuncture at sp6 under different sleep states: An FMRI study. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2013;2:2.
- Timchenko A, et al. Midnight siesta and circadian rhythms of related metabolic and behavioral variables in aging mice. J Vet Sci Med Diagn. 2014;3:3.
- Prado LBF, et al. Sleep in individuals sharing their sleep environment with dogs: Pilot study. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2015;4:3.
- Orff HJ, et al. Sleep disturbance, psychiatric, and cognitive functioning in veterans with mild to moderate traumatic brain injury. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2015;4:2.
- MacKay Stuart and Holmes SueEllen. Heavy issue: Clarifying AHI elevation after contemporary airway surgery for OSA-the MACHO graph. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2015;4:1.
- Oberg C, et al. Effects of sleep deprivation on exhaled nitric oxide concentrations in medical residents taking night call. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2014;3:4.
- MacKay S, et al. Benefit of a contemporary sleep multidisciplinary team (mdt): Patient and clinician evaluation. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2014;3:2.
- Batchelor FA, et al. Subjective and objective sleep measures in older people with a history of falls. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2014;3:1.
- Preer L, et al. Personality traits associated with sleep initiation problems. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2013;2:4.
- Hylkema T and Vlaskamp C. Improving sleep in a person with down syndrome and alzheimer’s disease. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2013;2:4.
- Milano F, et al. Combined treatment of a severe osas patient planned after a sleep endoscopy performed with and without a mandibular protrusion simulator. A case report. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2013;2:4.
- Chapman B, et al. Motivational measurements predict no show rates for titration studies and use of alternative therapies. A case report. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2013;2:4.
- Putilov AA. Patterns of association of health problems with sleep-wake timing and duration. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2013;2:4.
- Blunden S, et al. Development of a short version of the dysfunctional beliefs about sleep questionnaire for use with children (DBAS-C10). J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2013;2:3.
- Afsar B. Sleep deprivation: A forgotten risk factor for renal dysfunction in healthy individuals. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2013;2:2.
- Rouatbi S, et al. The six minute-walk test is-it the most effective way to follow an overlap syndrome? J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2013;2:1.
- Moran AM, et al. Adolescent sleep: review of characteristics, consequences and intervention. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2012;1:2.
- Demir AB, et al. Togetherness of rem behavior disorder and fahr disease: A case report. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2012;1:2.