ISSN ONLINE(23198753)PRINT(23476710)
Amazing porn model Belle Delphine nudes on sexelibre.org. Watch free video collection of Belle Delphine nede leaked
Rare Muslim porn and سكس on sexsaoy.com. Tons of Arab porn clips.
XNXX and Xvideos porn clips free on xnxxarabsex.com. Best XnXX porn tube channels, categorized sex videos, homemade and amateur porn.
Exlusive russian porn russiainporn.com. Get uniqe porn clips from Russia
Find out on sexjk.com best collection of Arabain and Hijab سكس
Ch.Sumalatha ^{1}, M.Sreenivasulu Reddy ^{2}

Related article at Pubmed, Scholar Google 
Visit for more related articles at International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology
A Single powerconversion ac–dc converter with high power factor and high efficiency. The proposed converter is derived by integrating a fullbridge diode rectifier and a seriesresonant activeclamp dc–dc converter. To obtain a high power factor without a power factor correction circuit, this paper proposes a novel control algorithm. The proposed converter provides single powerconversion by using the novel control algorithm for both power factor correction and output control. Also, the activeclamp circuit clamps the surge voltage of switches and recycles the energy stored in the leakage inductance of the transformer. Moreover, it provides zerovoltage turnon switching of the switches. Also, a seriesresonant circuit of the outputvoltage doubler removes the reverserecovery problem of the output diodes. The proposed converter provides maximum power factor 0.995 and maximum efficiency of 95.1% at the full load.
Keywords 
Activeclamp circuit, seriesresonant circuit, single powerconversion. 
INTRODUCTION 
GENERALLY, the ac–dc converter consists of a fullbridge diode rectifier, a dclink capacitor and a high frequency dc–dc converter. These converters absorb energy from the ac line only when the rectified line voltage is higher than the dc link voltage. Therefore, these kinds of converters have a highly distorted input current, resulting in a large amount of harmonics and a low power factor. To solve the harmonic pollution caused by ac–dc converters, a number of power factor correction (PFC) ac–dc converters have been proposed and developed[1][8] . The PFC ac–dc converter can be implemented by using two powerprocessing stages. The PFC input stage is used to obtain high power factor while maintaining a constant dclink voltage. Most PFC circuits employ the boost converter . The output stage, which is a high frequency dc–dc converter, gives a desired output. Two powerprocessing stages require each control circuit consisting of gate drivers and those controllers. In general, the PFC ac–dc converter can be categorized into two types: twostage ac–dc converters and single stage ac–dc converters. Twostage ac–dc converters consist of two powerprocessing stages with their respective control circuits. However, twostage ac–dc converters raise power losses and the manufacturing cost, eventually reducing the system efficiency and the price competitiveness. In efforts to reduce the component count, the size, and the cost, a number of singlestage ac–dc converters have been proposed and developed. The main idea is that a PFC input stage and a high frequency dc–dc converter are simplified by sharing common switches so that the PFC controller, the PFC switch, and its gate driver can be eliminated. . 
II.CONVENTIONAL METHOD 
Fig. 1(a) shows the schematic diagram of the conventional twostage ac–dc converter. It comprises a fullbridge diode rectifier, a PFC circuit, a control circuit for the PFC circuit, a high frequency dc–dc converter, and a control circuit for output control. The control circuit is composed of gatedrivers and a controller. Namely, twostage ac–dc converters have two power processing stages with their respective control circuits. Also, the boost type PFC converter used in most PFC input stages requires the dclink electrolytic capacitor and the inductor. Two control circuits, the dclink capacitor and the inductor raise the size, weight and the cost of the converter and reduce the price competitiveness. On the other hand, the advantage is to decouple control of the dclink capacitor voltage from that of the output voltage and realize much tighter output control.However, the single stage acdc converters have several disadvantages.First, the power factor is also related to the controller, indicating that the variation of the load or the input voltage will change the power factor. Second, the output voltage control bandwidth is limited to a few hertz not to excessively distort the input current. Third, singlestage ac–dc converters require the dclink electrolytic capacitor and the inductor for the PFC circuit, just like twostage converters. Finally, the conventional singlestage ac–dc converters have highvoltage stresses or low power factor. 
III. PROPOSED METHOD 
Fig.2. shows the schematic diagram of the single powerconversion ac–dc converter. It consists of a fullbridge diode rectifier, a high frequency dc–dc converter, and a control circuit. That is, the single powerconversion ac– dc converter has also one control circuit because it has no PFC circuit. However, it requires the control algorithm for both PFC and output control, unlike singlestage ac–dc converters. Also, it has a large ac secondharmonic ripple component reflected at the output voltage in comparison with twostage and single stage converters because it has no dclink electrolytic capacitor. However, the single powerconversion ac–dc converter provides a simple structure, a low cost, and low voltage stresses because it has no PFC circuit composed of the inductor, power switching devices and the dclink electrolytic capacitor. Therefore, the single powerconversion ac–dc converter is preferred option when the cost per unit is more important concerns than reliability. 
The operating modes of the input side and the output side are shown in Figs. 4 and 5, respectively. The rectified input voltage 
IV. CONTROL ALGORITHM 
The proposed converter has no PFC circuit. Therefore, to obtain a high power factor, it requires the control algorithm for both PFC and output control. The duty ratio D according to the input current iin is hard to control because the relation of D and iin is nonlinear. To achieve good controllability, the nonlinear system needs to be transformed into the linear system by the feedback linearization. 
Fig. 6 shows the control block diagram of the proposed converter. The voltage controller attempts to minimize the error value as the difference between Vo ,ref and the measured output voltage by adjusting ï¿½ï¿½Ë³ ∗that is, iË³*is calculated by the voltage controller, and then is calculated by the PFC rule in Fig. 6. In order to realize the PFC rule, synchronization with input voltage vin is necessary. Since Vi includes the information about the amplitude and the phase of vin , the synchronization with vin is implemented by using Vi as shown in Fig. 2. 
The current controller attempts to , iË³*minimize the error value as the difference betweenand the measured output current io by adjustingΔD. Finally, D is obtained by adding ΔD to Dn . The proposed control system consists of the inner loop and the outer loop. The inner loop is the current control loop and the outer loop is the output voltage control loop. The proposed control system is analyzed by using a small signal model. The crossover frequency of the openloop transfer function Tv (s) for the voltage controller is chosen much smaller than the openloop transfer function Ti(s) for the inner current loop. The openloop transfer functions Ti(s) and Tv (s) are expressed as 
Ti(s) = Hi · Cic (s) · Gid (s) ……………………..3 
Tv (s) = Hv · Cvc (s) · Gvi(s)………………………4 
where Hi(s) and Hv (s) are current sensor gain and voltage sensor gain, respectively. The small signal transfer functions of the duty ratiotooutput current and the output currentto voltage, respectively, can be obtained as follows 
IË³*=IË³*(VI/VM)2..........................................................5 
V. SIMULATION AND RESULTS 
A simulation design of minimization method for single phase inverter without an output filter is implemented in MATLAB/ SIMULINK with the help of wing energy, boost rectifier, universal bridge, controllers and FFT as shown in figure 8 
The output waveform of inverter output as shown in figure 10a.When manual switch is connect directly to the output of inverter, there is a dc voltage of 1 V appears at output. After switch connected to PI, the output voltage is minimized as shown in figure 10b. 
The THD value can be obtained by using FFT analysis, as shown in figure 11 and frequency spectrum of proposed system as shown in figure 12. Both are clearly shows harmonics are minimized and THD obtained is 4.24% , complies with the limit imposed by the standards. 
VI.CONCLUSION 
A novel approach to harmonic minimization method for single phase inverter established on mirror injection of harmonic and elimination of dc principle has been proposed. The following conclusions can be drawn after the imaginary analysis and the experimental results reported in this paper the proposed system minimizes the harmonics generated by the switching operation as well as harmonics generated by dc nature of the source and external point i.e. grid. Improvement of THD, through the cancellation of loworder harmonics and minimization of dc , so that the output voltage complies with the limit imposed by the standards, without the use of a filter. 
References 
[1] YongWon Cho, JungMin Kwon, and BongHwan Kwon,” Single PowerConversion AC–DC Converter With High Power Factor and High Efficiency”, ieee transactions on power electronics, vol. 29, no. 9, PP.4797 4806,september 2014. [2] B. Singh, B. N. Singh, A. Chandra, K. AlHaddad, A. Pandey, and D. P. Kothari, “A review of singlephase improved power quality AC– DC converters,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 50, no. 5, pp. 962–981, Oct. 2003. [3] B. Singh, B. N. Singh, A. Chandra, K. AlHaddad, A. Pandey, andD. P. Kothari, “A review of threephase improved power quality ac– dcconverters,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 641–660, Jun.2004. [4] H. S. Kim, M. H. Ryu, J. W. Baek, and J. H. Jung, “Highefficiency isolatedbidirectional AC–DC converter for a DC distribution system,” IEEETrans. Power Electron., vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 1642–1654, Apr. 2013. [5] M. Arias, D. G. Lamar, J. Sebastian, D. Balocco, and A. A. Diallo, “HighefficiencyLED driver without electrolytic capacitor for street lighting,”IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 127–137, Jan./Feb. 2013. [6] B. Tamyurek and D. A. Torrey, “A threephase unity power factor singlestageAC–DC converter Based on an interleaved flyback topology,” IEEETrans. Power Electron., vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 308–318, Jan. 2011. [7] S. C.Moon, G. B. Koo, and G. W.Moon, “A new control method of interleavedsinglestage flyback AC–DC converter for outdoor LED lightingsystems,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 28, no. 8, pp. 4051–4062, Aug. 2013. [8] M. Narimani and G. Moschopoulos, “A new singlephase singlestagethreelevel power factor correctionAC–DCconverter,” IEEE Trans. PowerElectron., vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 2888–2899, Jun. 2012. [9] C. Y. Oh, D. H. Kim, D. G. Woo, W. Y. Sung, Y. S. Kim, and B. K. Lee,“A highefficient nonisolated singlestage onboard battery charger forelectric vehicles,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 28, no. 12, pp. 5746–5757, Dec. 2013. 