ISSN ONLINE(2319-8753)PRINT(2347-6710)

All submissions of the EM system will be redirected to Online Manuscript Submission System. Authors are requested to submit articles directly to Online Manuscript Submission System of respective journal.

Amazing porn model Belle Delphine nudes on Watch free video collection of Belle Delphine nede leaked

Rare Muslim porn and سكس on Tons of Arab porn clips.

XNXX and Xvideos porn clips free on Best XnXX porn tube channels, categorized sex videos, homemade and amateur porn.

Exlusive russian porn Get uniqe porn clips from Russia

Find out on best collection of Arabain and Hijab سكس


T.K.Panda1, D.Rout2, B.Rout3 and B.B.Kar2
  1. Faculty, Department of Chemistry, Gandhi Institute For Technology, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India1
  2. Professor, School of Applied Sciences, KIIT University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India2,4
  3. Faculty, Department of Chemistry, Orissa Engineering College, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India4
Related article at Pubmed, Scholar Google

Visit for more related articles at International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology


In the present study, an attempt has been made to develop the fertility capacity of fly ash as a soil substitute to enhance wide application of fly ash in agricultural field. In order to study the impact of cow dung in developing fertility of fly ash, a set of experiments were carried out by taking different ratio of fly ash and cow dung. The mixed samples were tested to observe the growth of sunflower plants in it. The study revealed that when the fly ash : cow dung ratio was found to be 5:2, the mixed sample could provide appreciable growth to the plants with the gradual increase in FLY ASH : COW DUNG ratio up to 5:3 there is a healthy growth of the plant after which decrease in the ratio has no adequate effect on plant growth. The date generated were compiled and the result has been summarized in the study.


Text detection, Inpainting, Morphological operations, Connected component labelling.


Fly ash, a waste generated due to the burning coal is found to be an important basic material which has to be utilized extensively. So, for the utilization is concerned, presently its major utility is in cement and concrete product. As the composition of fly ash varies with burning of various coals such as lignite, bituminous, semi bituminous, anthracite etc, this variability in composition both in chemical and mineral parameters(1-2), can make it possible to serve them as raw materials for the manufacture of different value added products. The different utility of fly ash has been tabulated in Table-1 as represented below:-
Here the glassy phase can contribute to preparation of Zeolite, to prepare some structural components and to be used as insulating mediums etc.
The charcoal which is left un-burn are subjected to produce activated carbon or as fuel supplements. Magnetic ceramics are produced from raw magnetite. The hollow sphere structures consisting of silica, alumina and iron oxides can be used as polymer fillers, preparation of light weight ceramics and substances with lower dielectric constant.
In the present study, an attempt has been made to utilize fly ash as a soil substitute. This conceptual comparison has been brought up with the fact that Soil and Fly ash, both are highly stable Inorganic Compounds(3-8) with an invariable composition. In basic matrix is silica, alumina and the elements are present in their oxidic form. Thus, keeping in view the above similarities, an attempt has been made where fly ash can be utilized as a soil substitute.


To study the soil amendment property of fly ash and to utilize it as a substitute for Soil, in the present investigation a fly ash sample has been subjected to study with the following composition as represented in Table-2.
In order to modify the composition of fly ash to be similar to that of soil, cow dung is added at various ratio to the fly ash sample to enhance the wt% composition of P, N, K in fly ash(9-12). The cow dung used in the study has the following composition as represented in Table-3.
The samples were mixed with various ratio so as to study the impact of cow dung to increase the potentiality of fly ash, which in turn can be used as a soil substitute. In the study, the ratio of FLY ASH to Cow Dung is represented in Table- 4 as follows:-
During the study, the Tulsi plant is subjected to grow in each individual composition in triplicate and the growth of the plant was monitored. The addition of COW DUNG to the FLY ASH sample has been carried out uniformly and the samples were kept for proper conditioning for a period of one month. The growth in enhancement of nitrogen in the fly ash sample is monitored in every 7th day, 14th day, 21st day and 28th day of the month.


The study revealed that addition of cow dung to the fly ash enhances the Potassium, Phosphorus and Nitrogen content of the fly ash sample. Addition of Nitrogen, in turn leads to nitrogen fixation when get in contact with atmospheric level. Similarly, Potassium and Phosphorus content get enhance by the wet deposition of the aerosols containing K and P.
It has been observed that by the addition of cow dung to the fly ash sample gradually there is enhancement of fertilizing characteristic of the fly ash sample which increases in the ratio as represented in the following diagram.
The result shows that the Fly ashes at the samples prepared with a ratio 1:1 to 1:4 shows a constant tread of nitrogen content in fly ash though different ratios have been mixed in different pots. When the ratio is coming up to 1:5 and raising till 1:10 there is gradual decrease in nitrogen content. This may be attributed to the fact that the nitrogen content in the mixture when subjected to conditioning, in maximum only 1/4 parts of nitrogen can be transformed into the fly ash matrix for nitrogen fixation. When the ratio reaches up to 1:5, there is a distinct fall in the nitrogen level. This indicates the less absorption of nitrogen in the mixture starting from 1:5 to 1:10. It has been found that when cow dung is added to the fly ash sample, it gradually penetrates into the fly ash matrix and performs various reactions for nitrogen fixation.


The above study concludes that fly ash is found to be a promising material to substitute soil. In order to utilize fly ash as a substitute to soil, the nitrogen content of the fly ash sample has been increased using cow dung. The study revealed that by using cow dung as an additive, the property of nitrogen fixation can be introduced and enhanced in fly ash, which in turn can be used as a soil substitute.


[1] Alexander M. (1965) Denitrifying bacteria. In Merho&of Soil Analysis, part 2 (C. A. Black et al., Eds), pp.1484-1486. American Society of Agronomy, Wisconsin.

[2] Anderson J. M., Ineson P. and Huish S. A. (1983) Nitrogen and cation mobilization by soil fauna feeding on leaf litter and soil organic matter from deciduous woodlands. Soil Biology dr Biochemistry 15, 463-461.

[3] Bremner J. M. (1965b) N&he by-calorimetric methods. In Methods of Soil Analysts. part 2 (C. A. Black et al+, Eds), pp. 1219-1224. Amerkxn Society of Agronomy, Wisconsin. B~ymeya A., Jakubczyk H. and Okchow& E. (1975).

[4] Intluence of wprophago~ arthropods on microoqanisms in sheep feces-Laboratory investigations. Bulletin de L’academie Polonaive des Sciences, Series Science 23, 257-262.

[5] HaitTter G. and Matthews E. G. (1971) The natural history of dung beetles. A supplement on assaciated biota. &&a Lutinoamericana de Microbiologia 13, 147-W.

[6] Hosogi Y., Hayakawa H., Shim& K. and Miyao M. (1979) Studies on the utilizadon of dung beetles for the vt of pasture and pastuqe sanitation, 3. Occurrence of dung beetles in Kochi pref&ure (in Japanese with anEngli& summary). Bulletin of the Kochi Prefectural Livestock Experiment Sfation 10, l-10.

[7] Kai H. and Harada T. (t972) bin of nitrate by a mod&d Conway microdiffusion analysis using Dtvarda’s alloy as a reducing reagent (in Japanese with an English summary). Science Bullerin of the Faculty of Agriculture Kyushu Uniuersity 26, 61-66.

[8] Kononova M. M. (l%l) The detritions of humus by Lussenhop J., Kumar R., Wiiow D. T. and Lloyd J. E. (1980) Insect effects on bacteria and fungi in cattle dung. O&OS 34.54-58.

[9] Manianni B. W. and Watkin 8. R. (1972) The cattle dung patch. Etert of a dung patch on the chemical status of the soil, and ammonia nitrogen losses from the patch. Journal of British Grassland Society 27, 43-48.

[10] M&J. D. (t%5) Fungi. In Methods of Soil Analysis, part 2 (C. A. Black et al., Eds), p. 15w. Amerian sodety of Agronomy, Wisconsin.

[11] Sasayama It., Nakamum K., Manda M. and Kurohiji I. (1984) Diurnal prevalence and its stasohal change of dung beetkz relationship to weather ckrnents (in Japanese with an En&h stunnxuy). Journat of Japanese Society of Grassland Science, 09, 362-367.

[12] Stevenson B. G. and Dindal D. L. (1987) Insect effects on decomposition of cow dung in m&xoams. Pedohiologia 3&80-92.