Department of Biotechnology, Amity University, Noida, New-Delhi, India
- Corresponding Author:
- Poonam Jaggi
Department of Biotechnology
Noida, New Delhi, India
Received: 22/07/2016; Accepted: 24/08/2016; Published: 30/08/2016
Visit for more related articles at Research & Reviews: Journal of Hospital and Clinical Pharmacy
This review paper aims to fight with women’s breast cancer which is most common worldwide and second leading after the skin cancer which leading to death. It’s quite common in the Asian, Africa countries less compared to Western countries like USA, Canada. The causative factors include several factors, age, family history, obesity, lifestyle, diet, alcohol, endocrine factors both endogenous and exogenous and genetics. It is important to understand the pathogenesis of most common disease, which is associated with mortality and with high morbidity if didn’t detect early stages of the disease.
Breast cancer, BRCA II gene
Breast cancer ranks third most burdens of diseases and the leading causes of death by more than a four hundred thousand in the sixth position in the world. Breast cancer types of malignant cancer cells form in the tissues of the breast it occur mostly in women’s, but some of the scientific reports show that it can also occur in men’s, which originates from ducts is called as ductal carcinomas, which is originating from the lobules which are called as lobular carcinomas [1-9] . It occurs due to the exposure to the radiation waves, high levels of the estrogen glands beyond of its function and family history of can also increase risk of this type of cancer [6,10]. In the additions because of its rarity and the facts that women with mutations in the BRCA II gene are at an increased risk compared to the normal populations for the breast cancer development, men’s with breast cancers are now a listed indications for genetic testing [8,11-14].
In the worlds, breast cancer is the second most cancer which occurs in the women and next to the skin cancer. Every year there are nearly about 2,400 new cases of breast cancer in men’s and about 2,40,000 new cases in the women’s itself in the USA [15-20]. For every medicals oncologist, the adjuvant management of breast cancers is similar to that used in the every cancer treatments [21-22]. Adjuvant chemotherapy’s are used to treat breast cancer patients who had been a substantial risks or recurrence and death from breast cancer [23-25]. Unfortunately, prospective trials evaluated the benefits of adjuvant systemic chemotherapy’s in men’s had not been performed [26-35].
The treatment for the BC has been traditionally following guidelines for the treatment of the cancers. Due to rarity of the cancers the facts that the tumors are usually large in the comparisons to the size of the breast, and the facts that many of the tumors arises beneath of the nipples or involves in the nipple-areolar complex; mastectomy had been the standard treatment [32-34,36-40]. A completed axillary node dissection is routinely included to provide the nodal staging information’s, since the regional nodes are the most common sites of metastases [41-60]. However, during the past 11 years, the surgery for breast cancer in the women’s has been become more conservative, with breast preservations and the lumpectomy replacing mastectomy in the up to 66% of the patient’s population [41-45,61-70]. The axillary surgery has been also become more conservative with the intraoperative lymphatic mapping and the sentinel lymph nodes biopsy replacing radical node dissections. Alterations in the treatment strategies for men’s have lagged behind those in women’s [49,51-53,71-75].
Based on the appearance of the cancers from the microscope it can be classified in to two to three types, most of these type of cancer are carcinoma which can be classified in to two types [54-57].
Ductal Carcinoma In Situ
Ductal carcinoma in-situ DCIS is the most common types of the non-invasive cancer [58,72-73]. Ductal which starts from the milk ducts, it cancers refers to the any cancer that begins with in the epidermis of the skin or other tissues including the breast tissues that covers or lines the internal organs, and in-situ means "in its original place." DCIS is a "non-invasive" it does not spread beyond the milk ducts within the breast tissues [59-64]. It is not much life-threatening, but having DCIS can increased the risks of the developing an invasive breast cancers.
Invasive Ductal Carcinoma
Invasive Ductal Carcinoma means that the cancers which spreads to the surrounding the tissue of breast Cancer. Its starts from the ducts which carry the milk from the milk-producing lobules to the breast nipples [65,66]. All together, “IDC” refers to the cancer that which breaks the wall of the milk ducts and begins to enter the breast tissue. As time precedes that invasive ductal carcinoma spread to the others parts of the human body [67-69].
Treatment of the Breast Cancer
There are the different types of treatment with breast cancers like surgery, Radiography, chemotherapy & hormones therapy. Some of the breast cancer treatment may causes side effects after months or years when treatment has been ended [68,76-80].
Different Types of Five Standard Treatments are used for Patients with Cancer
Most of the patients with cancers have surgery to removes the Breast Cancer cells. Breast surgery is an operation to removes the cancer and some tissues around it, but not the breast tissues. The chest wall lining May also removed if the cancers cells are near it. This type of surgery may also be known lumpectomy, partial mastectomy, and segmental mastectomy. Total mastectomy is the type of surgery to remove the whole breast Cancer cells [79-81].
Radiation therapy is the types of cancer treatments are used x-rays or radiations to kill the cancer cells. There are two types of radiations are used for the cancer treatment [82-85].
External radiation therapy
It uses a machine outside the body to send the radiations towards the cancers cells .
Internal radiation therapy
It uses radioactive substances sealed with needles & wires that are directly placed into the cancers. The radiations therapy are given depends upon the type & stage of the cancers [87-94]. External radiations are used for the treatment of breast cancers & internal radiations with Sr-89 are used to relief bone pain with caused by breast cancer. Sr-89 is injected into the veins & travels to the bone surface after that radiation is released & kills the cancer [54,95].
Chemotherapy’s are a treatment of cancers cells that uses drug to stop the growth of the cancer cells either killing the cancer cells or by stopping from dividing. When chemotherapy injected into a veins or muscles then drugs enter the blood streams & reached into the cancers cells [71,96].
Breast cancer is well-known malignancy among women and partial in the men’s; around 1 in 8 American ladies will build up the disease in their lifetime. In around 2,46,560 new cases of the invasive breast cancer will diagnosed in US. This Year more than 40 thousand women will die from breast cancer. A month ago, medical news investigated a study that discovered obesity changed the gene expression of man’s sperm which increases the breast cancer risk of their daughter. Therefore, early screening of these disease whom where in a high risk or whom where are susceptible individuals to the other individuals, along with its surveillance of treating the cases in order to detect at the early stages, which has to be advocated [91-99].
- Malshe AG. Hydrogen ion/proton dynamics: A possible therapeutic approach in malignancy treatment. J ClinExpOncol. 2016;5:1.
- Shin DG, et al. A methylation profile of circulating cell frees DNA for the early detection of gastric cancer and the effects after surgical resection. J ClinExpOncol. 2016;5:1.
- Romeira D, et al. Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and axillary lymph node positivity: A systematic review. J ClinExpOncol. 2016;5:2.
- Norollahi SE, et al. The role of microRNAs in cancer progression. J ClinExpOncol. 2016;5:2.
- Kumar R, et al. Quantum magnetic resonance therapy: targeting biophysical cancer vulnerabilities to effectively treat and palliate. J ClinExpOncol. 2016;5:2.
- Parvathi MVS, et al. Micro RNA-142-5p profile as a predictor of tumor markers regulation in different histological grades of human breast carcinoma. J ClinExpOncol. 2016;5:2.
- Xu Y, et al. Early changes in 2d-speckle-tracking echocardiography may predict a decrease in left ventricular ejection fraction in lymphoma patients undergoing anthracycline chemotherapy: A pilot study. J ClinExpOncol. 2015 ;4:1.
- Mushtaq M. Choriocarcinoma presenting as intracerebralhaemorrhage and no evident primary: Rare presentation. J ClinExpOncol. 2015;4:1.
- Kotb AF and Attia D .correlation between the presentation of renal cell carcinoma and its prognosis. J ClinExpOncol. 2015;4:1.
- Karimi A, et al. Challenges in diagnose and management of ameloblastic carcinoma: A report of three cases. J ClinExpOncol. 2015;4:2.
- Shrihari TG.Inflammation related cancer - Highlights.J Carcinog Mutagen.2016;7:269.
- Kuperman VY, et al. Evaluation of automatic and manual contouring of cranial structures. J ClinExpOncol. 2015;4:3.
- Al-Dabbagh AR,et al.Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a UK Population: Is there an Association? J Carcinog Mutagen.2016;7:270.
- Slaoui W, et al. Unusual ulcerated nodules of scalp with histological proof of cutaneous metastasis derived from prostate cancer: Report of a case. J ClinExpOncol. 2015;4:3.
- Mandal S, et al. A case of multiple myeloma presenting with plasmacytoma of body of sphenoid bone: A case report. J ClinExpOncol. 2015;4:3.
- Seishima R,et al.A novel anti-cancer strategy targeting CD44-positive cancer stem cells. J Carcinog Mutagen.2016;7:262.
- Gong Z, et al. Effect of vaccination with different types and dosages against a very virulent Marek’s disease virus strain. J ClinExpOncol. 2015;4:4.
- Brahmbhatt MM, et al. Highly complex chromosomal rearrangements in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia: An Indian experience. J ClinExpOncol. 2015;4:4
- Tilakaratne WM, et al. Demographic and histopathological differences of oral squamous cell carcinoma; analysis of 4394 cases from Sri Lanka. J ClinExpOncol. 2015;4:4.
- Atalay C, et al. Impact of loco-regional under-treatment in elderly patients with early breast cancer protocol yameka-09sdlt; multi-centric retrospective cohort study. J ClinExpOncol. 2014;3:1
- Akbayir S, et al. Evaluation of plasma microRNA expression levels in early diagnosis of colorectal cancer. J ClinExpOncol. 2014;3:1.
- Kamra HT, et al. Metaplastic carcinoma of breast with an intracanalicularfibrodenoma-a rare case report. J ClinExpOncol. 2014;3:1.
- Edmiston R, et al. Solitary fibrous tumour of the sinonasal cavity – case report of endoscopic resection using coblation. J ClinExpOncol. 2014;3:1
- Sinha S,et al.Predictive and prognostic factors in breast cancer and their association with ER PR HER2/neu Expression. J Carcinog Mutagen.2016;7:263.
- Kassim YL, et al. Biomimetic three dimensional cell culturing: Colorectal cancer micro-tissue engineering. J ClinExpOncol. 2014;3:2
- Özyörük D, et al. A case of a pulmonary adenocarcinoma in situ in a 4 year old child. J ClinExpOncol. 2014;3:2.
- Foroughi F and Hosseini H.Small intestinal obstruction due to metastasis from marjolin’s ulcer: Report of a case and review of the literature. J ClinExpOncol. 2014;3:3.
- Çetin B, et al. Peroxidation products and antioxidant enzyme activities in multinodular goiter and papillary thyroid cancer patients. J ClinExpOncol. 2014;3:3.
- Hayashi T, et al. A diagnostic biomarker: differential expression of lmp2/ß1i in human uterine neoplasms. J ClinExpOncol. 2014;3:3.
- Fotopoulos G, et al. Comparative observational study of two ethnic population groups of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. J ClinExpOncol. 2014;3:3.
- Yonemura Y, et al. Mechanisms of the formation of peritoneal surface malignancy on omental milky spots from low grade appendiceal mucinous carcinoma. J ClinExpOncol. 2014;3:4.
- Rathod GB, et al. Tumoralcalcinosis on right knee in 26 years old male: a rare case report. J ClinExpOncol. 2014;3:4
- Maite LD, et al. Atipic axillary mass: Follicular dendritic cell sarcoma within Castleman’s disease: A case report and review of literature. J ClinExpOncol. 2014;3:4.
- Lambert K and Mokbel K.Ductal carcinoma in situ: An editorial. J ClinExpOncol. 2012;2:1.
- Asuquo ME, et al. Giant mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the parotid gland: A case report and review of literature. J ClinExpOncol. 2012;2:1
- Amanullah M, et al. Safety aspects in treatment of cancer by carbamate insecticides as measured by osmotic fragility of erythrocytes. J ClinExpOncol. 2012;2:1.
- Coyne CP, et al. Gemcitabine-c4-amide-[anti-her2/neu] anti-neoplastic cytotoxicity in dual combination with mebendazole against chemotherapeutic-resistant mammary adenocarcinoma. J ClinExpOncol. 2013;2:2.
- Seyedmajidi M and Foroughi R. Central mucoepidermoid carcinoma–a case report and review of the literature. J ClinExpOncol. 2013;2:2
- Caudron A, et al. Elastography as a new screening tool for metastatic lymph nodes in melanoma patients. J ClinExpOncol. 2013;2:3.
- Niu J, et al. Lung adenocarcinoma presenting with WDHA syndrome and Marie-Bamberger syndrome: A case report. J ClinExpOncol. 2013;2:3.
- Singh GK, et al. P53 gene inactivation modulate methylenetetrahydrofolate c677t gene polymorphism associated risk factor for the development of cervical carcinoma - a tissue specific genetic heterogeneity. J ClinExpOncol. 2013;2:3.
- Kumar Kar S, et al.Recurrent hypoglycaemiain a case of phyllodestumour of the breast: A rare case report. J Carcinog Mutagen.2016;7:264.
- Mohanta A, et al.Cytomorphometricanalysis of non-keratinized malignant squamous cells in exfoliated cytosmears of human oral neoplasm.J CarcinogMutagene.2016;7:247.
- Sandra SH, et al. Pleomorphic lobular carcinoma of the breast: A review of 35 cases at a single institution. Breast Can Curr Res. 2016;1:105.
- Meredith I, et al. Mammographic surveillance after breast reconstruction-is imaging necessary? Breast Can Curr Res. 2016;1:106.
- Rahmani S, et al. The clinical and histopathological significance of performing surgical cavity random biopsy in breast conserving surgery on disease course and local recurrence. Breast Can Curr Res. 2016;1:104.
- Guan J,et al.Vector-Based let-7a miRNAsfunction as suppressors of multiple oncogenes in SK-N-MC and SHEP neuroblastoma cells. J Carcinog Mutagene.2016;7:248.
- Chetan GK,et al.Role of concurrent methylation pattern of MGMT, TP53 and CDKN2A genes in the prognosis of high grade glioma. J CarcinogMutagene.2016;7:250.
- Diette N, et al.Gender specific differences in RNA polymerase III transcription. J CarcinogMutagene.2016;7:251.
- Carmichael AR, et al. What is the impact of lifestyle on the incidence of cancer? J Blood Lymph. 2015;1:e101
- Malzev VN.Hallmarks of cancer: Interpretation as carcinogenic hypercycle. J CarcinogMutagene.2016;7:252.
- Gomez A. The mammi breast pet. A new weapon for the diagnosis of breast cancer. J Blood Lymph. 2015;1:e102
- Singh A and Arora D. A case of breast cancer recurrence at the “Match Line”. J Blood Lymph. 2015;1:101.
- Khawaja S, et al. A comparison between oncoplastic breast conserving surgery and standard wide local excision: A UK experience. J Blood Lymph. 2015;1:102.
- Smichkoska S and Lazarova E. Long term trastuzumab in metastatic setting of the patients with her2 positive breast cancer. J Blood Lymph. 2016;1:103.
- Bisen PS. Nutritional therapy as a potent alternate to chemotherapy against cancer. J Cancer SciTher. 2016;8:e135
- Geleta B, et al. N-myc downstream regulated gene ndrg: Role in cancer metastasis suppression and as drug target in cancer therapeutics. J Cancer SciTher. 2016;8:154-159.
- Geleta B, et al. Cyclic dependent kinase cdk: Role in cancer pathogenesis and as drug target in cancer therapeutics. J Cancer SciTher. 2016;8:160-167.
- Murugan NJ, et al. Differentiation of malignant compared to non-malignant cells by their bio-photon emissions may only require a specific filter around 500 nm. J Cancer SciTher. 2016; 8:168-169
- Khalid A and Javaid MA. Matrix metalloproteinases: New targets in cancer therapy. J Cancer SciTher. 2016;8:143-15.
- Ahmad A, et al. Kras, Braf, PIK3CA and EGFR Gene mutations are associated with lymph node metastasis and right sided colon carcinoma. J Cancer SciTher. 2016;8:122-129.
- Álvarez-Bañuelos MT, et al. Prognostic factors associated with survival in women with breast cancer from Veracruz, Mexico. J Cancer SciTher. 2016;8:092-098.
- Gayatri Devi V, et al. Therapeutic potentials of cd151 shRNA in targeting metastasis of triple negative breast cancer cell line mda-mb-231. J Cancer SciTher. 2016; 8:104-112.
- Tot T and Gere M. Radiologicallyunifocal invasive breast carcinomas: Large-section histopathology correlate and impact on surgical management. J Cancer SciTher. 2016; 8:050-054.
- García-Novoa A and Acea-Nebril B. Controversies in axillary treatment of breast cancer patients and metastatic sentinel lymph node. J Cancer SciTher. 2016; 8:066-068.
- Peterson HE, et al. Stereotactic radiosurgery is a safe and effective method of prolonging survival and managing symptoms in patients with brainstem metastases. J Cancer SciTher. 2015;7:192-197.
- Al-Amoudi SM. Cancer diagnosis: Who has the right to know? J Womens Health, Issues Care. 2013;2:3.
- Parvathi MVS, et al. Micro RNA-142-5p profile as a predictor of tumor markers regulation in different histological grades of human breast carcinoma. J ClinExpOncol. 2016;5:2
- Liu J,et al.Division manners functions in controlling stem cells’ renewal.J Carcinog Mutagen.2016;7:256.
- Chandrakesan P,et al.Regulatory roles of Dclk1 in epithelial mesenchymal transition and cancer stem cells. J Carcinog Mutagen.2016;7:257.
- Yousef YA, et al. External beam radiation therapy for retinoblastoma resistant to chemotherapy and focal treatment: Outcome and predictive factors. J ClinExpOncol. 2015;4:2.
- Sarwar R, et al. Association of promoter polymorphisms in Xrcc2 gene involved in DNA double strand break repair and increased susceptibility to thyroid cancer risk in Pakistani population. J Carcinog Mutagen.2016;7:265.
- Rahmani S, et al. The clinical and histopathological significance of performing surgical cavity random biopsy in breast conserving surgery on disease course and local recurrence. Breast Can Curr Res. 2016;1:104.
- Malik MA,et al.NADPH: Quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1609C>T) polymorphism and gastric cancer risk: A meta-analysis. J Carcinog Mutagene.2016;7:249.
- Akram Z, et al.Assessment of arsenic induced DNA fragmentation by using comet assay. J Carcinogene Mutagene.2016;7:258.
- Schiffer D, et al.Tumor Stem Cells and the Microenvironment in Glioblastoma.JCarcinog Mutagen.2016;7:260.
- Der EM, et al. Malignant tumours of the female genital tract: A 10 year histopathological review at the Korle-Bu teaching hospital 2002-2011. J ClinExpOncol. 2015;4:4.
- Shelly A, et al. Encapsulated minimally invasive epimyoepithelial carcinoma of submandibular gland - a new entity? With review of literature. J ClinExpOncol. 2013;2:4.
- Kinoshita S, et al. Clinicopathological assessment of patients with locally advanced breast cancer with 10 or more lymph node metastases. Breast Can Curr Res. 2016;1:107
- De Iuliis F, et al. Unexpected vocal cord paralysis and myasthenia gravis in a patient with squamous cell lung cancer. J ClinExpOncol. 2014;3:2.
- Brown MA, et al. Developing research networks to enhance cross-mentoring and representation of women in clinical and experimental oncology. J ClinExpOncol. 2015;4:3.
- Nakayama K,et al.Molecular-Biological Characteristics of Type I, Ovarian Low-Grade Serous and Mucinous Carcinomas and Prospects of Molecular-Targeted Therapy. J Carcinog Mutagen.2016;7:261.
- Schmidt C and Brown M. Relating the pendulum of democracy with oncology research. J ClinExpOncol. 2015;4:3.
- Der EM, et al. Malignant tumours of the female genital tract: A 10 year histopathological review at the Korle-bu teaching hospital 2002-2011. J ClinExpOncol. 2015; 4:4.
- Tilakaratne WM, et al. Demographic and histopathological differences of oral squamous cell carcinoma; Analysis of 4394 cases from Sri Lanka. J ClinExpOncol. 2015; 4:4.
- Brahmbhatt MM, et al. Highly complex chromosomal rearrangements in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia: An Indian experience. J ClinExpOncol. 2015; 4:4.
- Manzo C.Cancerogenesis and polymyalgia rheumatica.J Carcinog Mutagen.2016;7:268.
- Ichihara H, et al. Negativelycharged cell membranes-targeted highly selective chemotherapy with cationic hybrid liposomes against colorectal cancer in vitro and in vivo.J Carcinog Mutagen.2016;7:267.
- Mannan A,et al.p53 R72P alone and in Combination with MDM2 SNP T309G is associated with colon carcinoma incidence and survival. J Carcinog Mutagen.2016;7:266.
- Sugarbaker PH and Glehen O. Management of unexpected peritoneal metastases with primary colorectal cancer using second-look surgery with HIPEC. Can surg. 2015;1:101.
- Ian SF. Medico-legal aspects of delay in diagnosis of breast cancer. Can Surg. 2016;1:103.
- Garcia SB, et al. Neuropeptides in the development of colon cancer. Can Surg. 2016;1:104.
- Molina-Garrido MJ. Introduction to the inaugural issue of journal of cancer diagnosis. J Cancer Diagn. 2016;1:e102.
- Puckett Y, et al. Does an offering free breast cancer screening make a difference? A retrospective 3year review of a west Texas free breast cancer screening program. J Cancer Diagn.2016;1:101.
- Villabona CV, et al. Utility of ultrasound vs. gene expression classifier in thyroid nodules with atypia of undetermined significance. J Cancer Diagn. 2016;1:103.
- Nna EO, et al. Allelic variants of klk2 gene predict presence of prostate cancer at biopsy. J Cancer Diagn. 2016;1:105.
- Heidari A. A bio-spectroscopic study of DNA density and color role as determining factor for absorbed irradiation in cancer cells. Adv Cancer Prev. 2016;1:e102.
- Shi A, et al. Expression of stem cells marker aldh1 in premalignant lesions, cancer, benign hyperplasia and normal duct of human breast. Adv Cancer Prev. 2016;1:107.
- Agius LM. Putative status of actively operative performance attributes as determinants of minimal platform oncogenesis in C-Myc amplification. Adv Cancer Prev. 2016;1:108.