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Emirati Women and the Western Region: Study the change in Employment and Education Indicators and its impact on the Human Development Index to the UAE; During 1990-2011

Mohamed El Khouli1
Assistant Professor, Faculty of Business, Sadat Academy of Management Science in Cairo, Egypt1
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Abstract

In light of the world's attention to gender issues as one of the priorities of development plans and policies overall, as well as support the roles of women's development of and build their capacity to qualify to participate in decisionmaking for the development and progress of society. Therefore, this paper traces the changes in women‟s status in the UAE generally and in the Western Region (the Emirate of Abu Dhabi) specifically. It uses the Human Development Reports of the UAE to examine the effect of both work and education of Emirati women on increasing the level of human development index (HDI). It concentrates on gender indicators in western region with regard to education and work fields based on census data in 2005 to highlight the women status in this region. The study is important because it focus on monitoring the status of women in the education and employment within the western region. It tries to attract attention of officials to develop plans on women development in this region, one of the remote areas that suffer from a scarcity of such studies.

Keywords

Emirati Women, Human Development, Western Region

INTRODUCTION

In light of the world's attention to gender issues as one of the priorities of development plans and policies overall, and in the framework of ensuring the inclusion of gender issues in all community participation in order to influence decision-making development, as well as encourage international organizations to support the roles of women's development and build their capacity to qualify through contributing an active role in the institutions society and in all fields of labor, business and the ability to participate in decision-making for the development and progress of society. Traditionally, women have always been the backbone of family life and the social structure in the Arabic countries and they continue to remain an integral part of maintaining the nation?s Islamic heritage and national culture. Women in the Arab world have throughout history experienced discrimination and have been subject to restrictions of their freedoms and rights. Some of these practices are based on community beliefs and custom, but many of the limitations are cultural and emanate from tradition rather than religion. These main constraints that create an obstacle towards women's rights and liberties are reflected in laws dealing with social justice, economy and healthcare, particular education and labour market that are considered main aspects for the current study contribute significantly in empowering women and expanding their options within the community surrounding. While Arabic women were granted the right to vote on a universal and equal basis, the men are still the dominant gender in this area. This phenomenon is justified by the fact that the communities in the Middle East are shaped upon one gender having distinct responsibilities. That is where men have full responsibility to support their families with the food and supplies they need and therefore they have to work and, subsequently, they have to get education to keep up with contemporary developments, while women have to take care of the house and children. This justifies the low contribution of the women in the economy [1]. However, there is a recent trend in Arabic countries that encourage the women to begin penetrating the workforce, but this participation is still in low scale according to the total.
Regarding gender roles and statuses in UAE, It noticed that has a significant effect in the division of Labor by gender. Despite the modern economic roles and social status reflect both change and continuity for women. Schools and universities are segregated, and levels of enrollment of girls and their performance are impressive. In higher education, female students outnumber males two to one. However, women's participation in the labor force remains one of the lowest rates in the world at 6 % in 1990. In spite of new employment opportunities, most Emirati women opt for marriage and raising children. UAE society places a high value on those roles. Conservative cultural attitudes lead women to seek jobs that do not involve mixing with men or commuting far from home. Subsequently, most women are employed in education, health, and civil service [2].
The UAE Constitution states that social justice should apply to all and that, before the law, women are equal to men. They enjoy the same legal status, claim to titles and access to education. They have the right to practice the profession of their choice. Moreover, in accordance with the Islamic principles upon which the Constitution is based, women are guaranteed the right to inherit proper[3]. Under the foregoing, it has been noted that the constitution reinforced the Emirati women in all legal terms that applied throughout the country in order to access to a modern society as the developed countries that are considered women's rights but based on Arab and Islamic traditions. Emirati women in general, have achieved indicators advanced in the progress of women status. For example, illiteracy indicator formed 85% of Emirati women at the outset of the federation, and then it had fallen to 7.6% by 2005, with increasing of female participation rates at elementary and middle schools until became equaling their male counterparts. Also, in the field of education over the successive years, Emirati women have surpassed Emirati men and now account for 56.3% of total students at schools and 70.8% of total students attending university [3]. If education is the cornerstone of any successful society, UAE women have achieved outstanding progress accounting for over 70% of university graduates. Although UAE women have made great strides in a number of spheres, the Government views women?s issues as a part of a larger „work in progress? and is determined to continue supporting their empowerment.
Concerning to the relative status of women and men; official statements in UAE affirm that men and women have equal rights and opportunities to advance themselves and the nation, yet patriarchy as a generalized ideology is still visible in social life. Men continue to receive employment preferences in high state administration and private businesses. Women do not play a significant role in politics and religious life, as these areas are considered only male domains [2]. Especially in the western region characterized by the availability of a limited number of traditional functions available to females as well as customs and social traditions in this region that put many restrictions on the rest of the females compared to other areas within the State. The western region is characterized by gender inequality particular in literacy, education and work. Because of relatively low educational level for the population in this region, as well as female workers are challenged by a more professional men labor force. Besides, the progress rates in women's higher education in this region are still slow compared with women in other urban areas within the United Arab Emirates. So, this study comes to provide a baseline to strengthen the path of progress of the UAE in the indicators of gender, particularly for women in the western region until it is considered by the officials and interested in UAE to promote women's empowerment indicators in the Western Region, which may contribute in the future progress to UAE at the global level regarding reinforce gender indicators as all, especially in remote areas. Moreover, Shed light on the education and work indicators of women in the western region for social change desirable is considered one of the key factors that contribute to support women's situation and developing the strategies and legislation that ensure the empowerment and advancement of women in this region as a cornerstone for the development of the western region. This ensures that the effective participation of women in the western region faster and easier in the plans and operations targeted development in the future.

II. THE PROPLEM OF STUDY

The rapid changes that have occurred on Arab women in all fields, which make more attention towards women status and their issues under considered by all the Arab societies as a cornerstone in the development and progress of their societies, particularly the UAE, which ranked a high level in the human development internationally. Also, UAE paid great attention in contemporary times to achieve significant progress for global gender indicators related to women's empowerment and progress toward desired social change in all areas and cities of the United Arab Emirates, particularly non-urban areas.
So, the problem of current study has emerged in light of the following considerations:
? That the fact of Emirati women in the western region in particular, to turn towards the change desirable internationally in work and education fields, for the development and progress still has facing some obstacles due mostly to the habits and customs of the community surrounding them in this region such as, lack of understanding of male community for the true role of education and work in the development of women. As well as reduced opportunities and options available for Emirati women in the western region that contribute to strengthen and enable their capacities in whether to work or to pursue higher education.
? The gender indicators that highlight the development and empowerment of women are still marginalized and incomplete in the reports of human development for the Arab countries in general, including UAE. As well as the lack of many of the statistical indicators of gender in recent years that highlight the social and economic change for the development of Emirati women, enhancing their capabilities and show the level of the gender gap between males and females in the opportunities available to both parties in the labor market based on the principle of efficiency and ability. Women generally do not have the same opportunities for males to exercise their rights whether economic or educational [4].
? Women represent 75% of the total poor of the world's 1.3 billion as a result of lack of opportunities available to them to get paid work, especially in remote areas and non-urban in most Arab countries [5].
? The gender indicators regarding the development of women in non-urban areas, are still suffer from a lack of media attention, both visual and audio, which aims to highlight women's status in the education and work for social change desirable, especially in remote and tribal areas far from civilization and urbanization within their communities that are dominated customs and traditions in favor of men as well as lack of awareness of issues and problems of women and the most important requirements in these areas [6].
? The indicators of women in education and employment is one of the most important key dimensions of social change desired in the world, is also considered important factors to the overall development desirable in all areas of the State. The social change for women includes several important components such as education, health, housing, employment, entertainment ... etc. [7].
Concerning to UAE, the western region is one of the remote areas of the Emirate of Abu Dhabi where women are still suffer from a lack of education and employment opportunities in a number of cities within this region due to its far away from the urban areas. Furthermore, the lack of jobs in this region and severe lack of higher education systems which would provide a quality education that contributes to the development of women's skills and develop their capabilities appropriate to the nature of competition in the labor market in UAE. Despite the progress and achievements of UAE women in the education, workforce and political aspects, the indicators of women in HDI and gender in United Nation reports illustrates that it need more interest to monitor and reinforce to women status in UAE through the precise numbers and statistics. Based on the above, the problem of study stems out of a conviction that the Emirati women in western region and gender indicators in general still need more supporting especially in education and work fields. So, the study will try to document, highlight and disseminate information on gender indicators regarding the work and education for women and show how their effect on the HDI index of UAE in order to attain advanced Level in Human Development. As well as determine the impact of work and education of women on the level of human development index. Besides providing support for decisionmakers about aspects of weaknesses and strengths in gender indicators regards Emirati women' status in education and work within the Western Region. To help professionals and officials in the country when set plans for women development in this region. Also, this study comes as serious attempt to outline both the developments and challenges associated with women?s progress in the western region in Abu Dhabi from the perspective of the monitoring of some gender indicators in line with UAE national interests, especially in Western Region. Therefore, it strives to explore the direction of these indicators regarding education and employment in Western Region towards for the social change desired without prejudice to the culture and identity of the Arab community.

III. THE OBJECTIVES OF STUDY

The main objective of the study to contribute to the improvement of gender indicators regarding the status of women in education and employment fields, particularly within the Western Region of Abu Dhabi Emirate as the key elements essential to achieve the desired social change for women and raising the level of human development index (HDI) of the state. Through the main objective, the sub-objectives were emerged as follows:
3.1 Studying the change rates for each of the related development index and gender empowerment measure for the Emirati women during the period of 1995-2008.
3.2 Studying the change rates for each of the percentage of Emirati women's participation in the labor market and the HDI of the UAE during the period of 1990-2011.
3.3 Study the impact of women's participation in the labor market and their enrollment in the primary or secondary education on the level of HDI of the UAE, and predict its value to 2015.

IV. JUSTIFICATIONS

? Lack of “in-depth statistical studies” on the gender indicators regarding women in the western region of the UAE with respect the employment and education aspects for the social change desirable.
? Scarcity of statistical studies for monitoring the gender indicators regarding the status of women within the western region in particular, depending on the basis of advanced statistical methods.
? Increase appreciation for and understanding of Emirati women's pivotal role in the social change that is related to human development process, and this reflects in the goals and priorities of organizations and agencies international.
? Highlighted on the importance of employment and education of Emirati women that are the main interlocutor fulcrum to empower women and reinforce their capacities in all areas, and to increase the level of human development in the UAE.
? Providing decision makers, planners within the United Arab Emirates by the statistical data & information about the status of women in the western region, particularly the fields of employment and education.

V. THE QUESTIONS OF STUDY

? Is there a positive change to Emirati women regarding the gender-related development index, gender empowerment measure, participation in Labour market, and The HDI for the UAE from the reality of international reports of the United Nations?
? Do Emirati women's education and their participation in the labor market have significant effect on raising the level of human development (HDI) of the UAE?
? What are the aspects of weaknesses and strengths in the gender indicators that related to the women in the Western Region in UAE for education and work force?

VI.METHODOLOGY

In order to, identify the most requirements of social change for women's development in education and employment fields within the Western Region of the Emirate of Abu Dhabi. The methodology of study will depend on the following:
? Descriptive approach: By exploring of indicators of human development index of the UAE and some indicators of progress for Emirati women in employment and education during 1990-2010, as well as Gender-related development index and Gender Empowerment Measure during the period 1995-2010, from the reality of human development reports of the UAE. Besides, the focus primarily on monitoring gender indicators in the field of education and employment related to women in the western region from the census data of Abu Dhabi in 2005. To identify the aspects of strengths and weaknesses of the status of women with respect to those indicators within this region for the social change required.
? Analytical approach: By examining the relationship between the level of human development index for the United Arab Emirates, and the impact of each of the proportion of women in the labor market and increased rates of joining the primary and secondary education in general, using advanced statistical techniques, in order to show the importance of the impact of work and education of women for raising the level of human development of the UAE. This study will highlights on the importance of those indicators to attract attention of Emirates officials, particularly regards the western region. The location domain of this study is determined in the Western Region of the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.

VII. THE SCOPE OF STUDY

? Location: Locate the study in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) which consists of the seven small emirates of Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah, Ras Al-Khaimah, Ajman, Umm Al-Qaiwain, and Fujairah, which were united as a federal state on 2 December 1971. The UAE covers 83,600 square kilometers and is located on the Arabian Gulf. It shares land borders with Oman, Qatar, and Saudi Arabia. The oil is an essential part of the GNP in the economy of the UAE, and the country is one of the most important poles of the world's energy [8]. Abu Dhabi represents 85 percent of the land, and Abu Dhabi City is the permanent capital of the nation. While the western region was identified by the styudy in order to study the gender indicators regarding Emirati women in this region - the focus core of the current study - which is one of the major areas of the Emirate of Abu Dhabi. The Western region represents the western part of the Emirate of Abu Dhabi. It covers almost 89% of the total area of the Emirate of Abu Dhabi and contains six major cities: (MadinatZayed - Liwa - Al Mirfa- Ghayathi - Dalma - Al Silaa). The western region is considered one of the richest areas of the oil and gas fields in the state, and its wealth of agricultural and animal different, especially camels which takes more interest from the population of western region.
? Demography: Relative to its size and oil wealth, the UAE has an estimated population at 2,624,000 in 1997. The commercial production of oil triggered rapid population growth as a result of an increase in the national population from improvements in health care, and living standards and the importation on a large scale of mostly male foreign laborers. This has created an imbalanced population composition in favor of males; in 1997, there were 1,755,000 males and 869,000 females. Concerning the Western region, it has a population estimated at 108550 in 2005. Also has an imbalanced population composition in favor of males; in 2005, there were 85156 males and 23394 females. In other words, women represent 22% of the total population in the Western Region.

VIII. LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

? The study concentrated on Western Region as a major aspect of limitations for this study it is to show the education and employment indicators of women's status in the Western Region, the most effective method to study the subject comparatively, proving the important of these factors for Emirati women to support the development in the UAE.
? The study excluded some dimensions that were not appropriate for the nature of tribal society in the Western Region such as the independence of women's personality, the political situation and democracy direction, as well as no data available published to these dimensions. Also, it was found through a survey depended on a very small sample of women as a pilot study, the inadequacy of measuring of these dimensions by the survey, due to that all women were not objectively in their responses on these dimensions as a result of inherited customs and traditions in this region. So, it is recommended to measure these dimensions later through the future studies using some other qualitative approaches, such as in-depth interviews with some of the leading women that play an important pioneer role in the western region in areas of the development of women politically and economically
? Non-accept the society and institutions within the Western Region specifically to the idea of questionnaires and personal interviews for quantitative surveys or focus groups discussions to measure the most important indicators of social change for women. Particularly with regard to their direction to democracy or political or independence of personality and other factors, including also the aspects of education and employment - under interest of the current study - as one of the sensitive issues for women within the tribal communities within this region. As above mentioned, the study mainly depended in review of the gender indicators regarding education and employment on data published by official bodies such as UNDP to the United Nations with regard to reports human development during the period (1990-2011), the World Bank, and Abu Dhabi Statistics Centre for census Emirate of Abu Dhabi in 2005.

IX. LITERATURE REVIEW

Despite there are a great deal of literature focused on the factors of social change desirable to all women regarding the development in UAE as well as the Middle East, little attention seems to have been given to the trends of women in the Western Region towards this social change. While there are many examples of studies being involved the women to bringing about the social change required, the actual role of both education and labor market for women progress has gone relatively unnoticed particular the western region. The most studies have emphasized the importance of positive social change for women in Arab societies. To bring about the desired development for the progress of society and its development in accordance with the Legitimate requirements of women in the light of global openness and developments.Also most of these studies, pointed that there are still some obstacles in the way of women to achieve the desired social change within their communities, particularly with regard to education and employment within Gulf societies.
However, a study showed that the United Arab Emirates has very significant changes to education, health, welfare, incomes, and employment, but these changes were far reaching to the role of women in rural and Bedouin society [9].There is a study argued the existence of the phenomenon of the decline in the participation rate of women in the formal labor force less than a third in the Middle East [10]. Despite high levels of education for females across the region, the observed persistence of this low rate. Also, A study recognized that the women working more superior than women non-working in the face of the problems of society and the strength of personal and social interaction [11].In addition another study discussed the effects of feminism, nationalism and colonialism on modern Arab women [12]. And an extra study has pointed that the rapid transformation of the Arabian Gulf societies during the past decades has greatly influenced gender dynamics. As showed, that gender and women?s studies remains a relatively young field in the Middle East as well as the scarcity of research on the UAE and the Arabian Gulf countries is striking [13].
There is a study urged that it is necessary to examine the social change of women through discussion of women?s employment, education, and world-market fluctuations as determinants come together [14]. And a study declared that increasing numbers of Emirati women have been able to forge an expanded set of gender roles which would have once seemed well beyond reach [15]. Andanother study aimed to shed light on the role of media in the development of women and awareness of their rights [16].Also there is a study argued that Arab media largely ignore to the role of women within the community [17].It was pointed to the importance of their participation in the process of comprehensive development with men without distinction [18]. One study has shown that Emirati women are undergoing a transition as their society, exposed to foreign influences, adapts to changing identities while protecting culture and religious traditions [19]. Also one of the studies emphasized that education is a key part of strategies of social change in the Middle East through improve individuals' well-being and societies' economic and social status in the community especially for women [20].
As it has shown that women suffer from no-treatment as partner with men, have the same rights [21].And one of the significant studies focused on Emirati women?s lives and the rapid social changes in the Emirati society after the discovery of oil [22].Moreover, there is a study showed that gender data related to women status remains limited and poorly utilized, making it difficult to know if efforts are on track to achieve gender equality goals and commitments, in particular in Arab countries. It pointed to international commitment regarding promote gender equality and empower women as a goal of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) to assess the progress of any state towards the overall development processes, especially gender [23].
In this regard, and after reviewing previous studies, the planners and those interested in issues of women development and transition to the desired social change internationally, should be make more to play a key role in facilitating gender equality and equity and the empowerment of women. As a result referred to by many of the studies, that the remote areas within the Arab communities have significant impact on the existence of an imbalance in the gender indicators and lacking of desired development for women. This in turn affects the level of Gender related human development index for any country. Therefore, the UAE always be keen continue to improve and reinforce gender indicators and the empowerment of women within the advanced level on the world rankings in the coming years. So, this study comes as a try to highlight for improving the status of women in the western region, which the most areas of this region are remote and far from urban cities.

X.FINDINGS

10.1 Women in the UAE: An Overview:
Today, with the ongoing evolution of women status in the world and the global interest in the monitoring of gender indicators as well as all governments are committed to provide information on progress in these indicators in the light of the interest in improving the status of women and empowerment. So, the UAE is keen to show the facts and advancement of women in the state in the context of the balance between the indicators of progress and social change desired globally while maintaining our culture and Arab identity based on the strengthening of family stability. In the last quarter of the past century, the role of Emirati women has been reinforced and has gained new dimensions with the development of the UAE. The women in UAE gained all the encouragement and support from the rulers of the emirates in the pursuit of establishing the role of women and work to educate women and make them aware. Also, the Constitution of UAE included the texts to support women, including "Women enjoy the full rights enjoyed by men," and included items confirms the principle of social equality, and that women had the full right to education, employment and jobs just like men.
10.1.A.Study of the change in development & empowerment measures of Emirati women:
In order to identify the indicators of progress level made by the Emirati women generally during the period from 1996 - 2009, the total and annual change rate (%) were calculated for each of the Gender-related development (GDI), the Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) of the Emirati women, as of the most important international standards of the United Nations concerning the measurement of the level of development and empowerment of women during that period, which is reflected in the results of the following table 1:
The results in the previous table showed that the change rate of gender-related development index increased during the period (1996-2009) by 23.7%, i.e. the change rate was increased about 2% per year. The period between 1998 and 1999 was the highest percentage change in the level of gender-related development index, which amounted to 9.7 %, and this index takes into account considerations of development indicators related to Emirati women, therefore it indicates the presence of significant interest in the gender indicators associated with women during this period in the direction of social change and development internationally desired. There was also growing trend in the gender empowerment measure of Emirati women during the same period, the measure represents some of the indicators that measure the extent of women's empowerment within the community such as the number of parliamentary seats and senior management positions. The results indicate that the change rate of this measure increased during the period by 173.1%, i.e. it means that the value of this measure has doubled approximately one and half times during the period (1996-2009), as the change rate amounted to 14.4% approximately annually. The period between 2006 and 2007 was the highest percentage change in the empowerment measure of women, which representing 84.7%, followed by the percentage change during the period between 1999 and 2000, reaching 56%.
10.1.B.Study the change in the HDI and percentage of Emirati women's participation in the labour market:
The current research depended on the reports of Human Development of United Nations for monitoring the values HDI of the UAE during the period (1990-2011 AD), which it indicated to an advanced level in both the human development index (HDI) in the United Arab Emirates, as well as increasing the indicators of rates of females enrollment in primary and secondary education, in addition to the level of the significant progress of the rates of women's participation in the labour market during that period. The following table shows the change rates in the values of both the human development index and percentage of Emirati omen's enrollment in the labour market during (1990-2011) as follows:
The results shown in table 2, indicates that the period between 1994 and 1995 achieved the highest proportion of the change rate in the values of the human development index for the United Arab Emirates, reaching 11.7%, while in the period between 1999 and 2000, was the highest among annual change rates in percentage of Emirati women's enrollment in the labor market, reaching 68.3%. In general there is an increasing tendency in the direction value of each of the HDI and the percentage of women's participation in the labor market during the period (1990-2011), which are shown in the following:
It is noticed from figure (1), the existence of growing trend generally in the human development index during the period (1990-2011), where the percentage of the total change rate during that period amounted to 8.2% , where the rate of increase approximately, 0.4% per year. The figure (2) also explained, the existence of growing trend in the percentages of Emirati women's participation in the labour market during the period (1990-211), where the percentage of the total change rate of during that period, representing 575.8%; i.e. the rate increased about 27.4% annually. And therefore this means that the level of women's participation in the labour market has doubled five and half times during the period (1990-2011), which reflects the interest of the UAE and its leadership to providing employment opportunities for Emirati women, so that they can contribute effectively to the overall development process within the community and its institutions. This has an impact on achieving an advanced level in the human development index of the state and occupation very high rank in the world classification among developed countries. The study highlights the importance both of the education and employment aspects of Emirati women, which it can increase the value of the level of human development of the UAE state. By using multiple regression analysis through the application of Stepwise method to examine the impact of the following variables: 1- the aspect of employment of Emirati women, which was represented in the variable (percentages of women's participation in the labour market), 2- the aspect of education of women, which was represented in the percentages both of (women' enrollment in primary education, women's enrollment in secondary education), on increase the value of the HDI of the UAE.So, the study depended on data published in the international reports of United Nations to examine the main question of study that provides: Which previous independent variables have more effect and predicting by the value of (HDI)? The results of the regression analysis showed the value of R2 of the model equal to 76%, which indicates the validity of the model extracted through the independent variables to explain the variation in the dependent variable (HDI). Also, the value F equal to 58.931, which was statistically significant at a level less than 0.05. This indicates the significant of relationship between variables in the final model after excluded the variables which weren?t significant. Thus, the results of multiple regression using the stepwise method showed that the percentage of women's participation in the labor market had the greatest impact in predicting the value of the HDI, where the value of regression coefficient for this variable was significant at a level less than 0.05, while the exclusion the variables both of women's enrollment in primary education, and in secondary education from the final regression model, where the regression coefficients of these variables weren't significant at a level less than 0.05. The findings extracted from the multiple regression analysis by stepwise method shows in the following table:
Consequently, the equation of regression model proposed can formulate in light of results shown in table (3) as follows:
The value of HDI = (0.783 + (Women's participation in the labour market * 0.002) (1)
The results shown in table (3) showed the standard Z-score of the variables that entered the regression equation, which is called Beta's coefficients, and the coefficient in this case, become equal to the value of correlation between the independent variable (Women's participation in the labour market) and the dependent variable (HDI), which predicts standard values of the dependent variable by standard values of the independent variable. As the results showed that women's participation in the labour market had the greatest impact in predicting the value of the HDI, where the correlation coefficient between two variables equal to 0.870, which indicates to a strong correlation statistically significant at the level of significance less than 0.05. Thus, the standard value of the dependent variable (HDI) can be calculated by the following equation:
The standard value for the HDI = (0.870 * the standard value of women's participation in the labour market (2)
This means that increasing the percentage of women's participation in the labour market - which is the independent variable had the greatest impact in predicting the dependent variable - one degree, it will be accompanied by an increase in the value of the HDI by 0.870. Depending on the equation of proposed regression model No.(1), the values of HDI were estimated until the year 2015, in line with the trend of states to assess the level of progress towards the Millennium Development Goals at end of 2015, also the expected values of the HDI depended on estimating the percentage of women's participation in the labor market during the period (2012-2015). So, the next table will display the expected values to HDI of the UAE until the year 2015, as follows:
The results shown at the previous table showed that there is a growing tendency in the values of the HDI, which are very close to one during the period (2012 - 2015) in light of the growing participation rate of Emirati women in the labor market during the same period. This result highlights the importance that all institutions and organizations of the state should be concerned with the development and affairs women, by doing more efforts to reach targets that achieve very high values of HDI of the UAE within the international classification of the United Nations.
10.1.C.The proposed model of path analysis:
From the results mentioned above regarding regression analysis, which proved the weakness of impact of the indicators education of Emirati women with respect to rates of women' enrollment in primary and secondary education. Accordingly, the study sought to examine the extent of indirect effect of these indicators on the values of the HDI through the percentage of women's participation of in the labor market. And therefore, path analysis method was used to check the effects of direct and indirect of the variables independent (exogenous) on the variables dependent involved in the proposed model, in addition to check the impact of residuals variables that represent variables not included in the proposed model, and the outinterest the current study, and this is one of the basic features for the path analysis. Based upon, the conceptual framework of the proposed model was presented as follows:
1- Build a theoretical model proposed:
2- The equations of system: Based on the previous theoretical model, it has been formulating the equations of system as follows
X3= p32X2 + p3CRC (3)
X1= p12X2 + p13X3 +p1bRb (4)
Y= p01X1 + p02X2 + p03X3 + p0vRv (5)
These equations represent the proposed relations between the exogenous and external variables and the residuals, as path coefficients were calculated depending on the regression coefficients using the regression method, while the path coefficients of the residuals variables were calculated in the above model, by the following equation:
image(6)
3- Estimate the path coefficients and the exclusion of the variables non-significant (it is not statistically significant) from the system equations:
By estimating the path coefficients in the previous model, and then check their level of significance, the model was reduced by the exclusion of coefficients that are not significant in the model, until it was reached to the final model of the relationship as shown in figure No.(4). By observing the next figure No.(4) regarding the relationships between the variables and coefficients path of the final model proposed, it showed that there is an indirect effect and not a direct for education indicators of Emirati women (enrollment ratios in primary or secondary education), where the direct effect of path coefficients for these variables weren't significant at the level of 0.05, while the results of path analysis demonstrated significant of the indirect effect for these educational indicators regarding women through the direct effect on the percentages of women's participation in the labor market.
And then it was reached to the following equations:
image(7)
image(8)
image(9)
Thus, through the previous equations, it can determine the influences following:
? The direct effect of women's participation in the labor market (X1) on the HDI (Y) the dependent variable = (0.87); which is a direct effect is strong. .
? The indirect effect of women's enrollment in primary education (X2) on the HDI (Y) the dependent variable = (0.99). (0.60). (0.87) = 0.51, which is considered an indirect effect moderate.
? The indirect effect of women's enrollment in secondary education (X3) on the HDI (Y) the dependent variable = (0.60). (0.87) = 0.52, which is considered an indirect effect moderate
As above, there is no direct effect for each of the enrollment of Emirati women in primary or secondary education on the value of the HDI, where the path coefficients of these variables were non-significant. But on the other hand, these variables related to women's education have an indirect effect in raising the value of the HDI moderately, through the direct effect on women's participation in the labor market. Also, the variable of Emirati women's enrollment in secondary education only had a direct impact on the women's participation in the labor market, which amounted to (0.60). These results indicated need to focus on educational indicators of Emirati women, which had a significant role in influencing the increase in the percentages of Emirati women's participation in the labor market. And therefore, if the data were available and complete concerning the percentages of Emirati women's enrollment in the higher education through time series targeted of the study, during (1990-2011), may be these educational variables of Emirati women would affect directly on increasing each of the percentages of women's participation in the labor market and the value of HDI. This considered an important aspect requires taking into account during future studies.
10.2 Women in Western Region:
This study strives to highlight the issue of social change by females in Western Region at Abu Dhabi, by exploring their characteristics through gender indicators in educational and employment of Emirati women, as key aspects that can draw a portrait about their needs regarding these aspects to achieve the requested change. The study concentrated on these aspects by descriptive analysis of census of Abu Dhabi 2005 to show the status of women in education and employment in the western region, due to its role in bringing about social change desirable. Therefore, this study can use it as guidelines for gender indicators improvement in the western region within projects and programs of the development regarding this Region. As well as, put the Emirati women in western region at the heart of policy-making regarding equality issues that contribute to underlining the need to base and to evaluate social change of the women?s directions towards the best regarding the education and work in order to the overall development required in this region. For attain full advantage through using human resources available from men or women particularly within this region. Also, it strives through next part of the study to help supervisors of policy makers and projects of development until can gain a better understanding of the ways in which improving of gender status in the western region that will affect their work plans desirable for the future, and can subsequently incorporate for Emirati women empowerment into their performance appraisal systems, while also allocating adequate budget resources for this purpose.
Table (1) showed that the population of the western region representing 9% of the total population of the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, and the rate of 16% of them female, while 84% males; most of them migrant workers. On the other hand, the findings demonstrated that males in the Western Region, representing 11% of the total males within the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, while the females in the Western Region, representing 5% of the total females within the Emirate of Abu Dhabi. To find out details more accurate about the shape of gender distribution to the Emirati community, the population was classified by gender and nationality to Nationals and non-nationals, as the following table:
The findings of Table (2) showed that the percentage of Emirati females represents 39% of the total females in the western region, while the percentage of femininity 45% of the Emirati society (Nationals only) in the Western Region. Also, the percentage of Emirati males represents 9% of the total males in the western region, while the percentage of masculinity 55% of the Emirati society (Nationals only) in the Western Region. Thus, it is noticed that the percentage of Emirati females less than the Emirati males within the western region by 10% and this may be due to the attention of a large number of females' emigration to urban cities to pursue their higher education or obtain better employment opportunities, as result to the lack of the region to such concerns. Or sometimes may be due to the possibility of large errors in the content or coverage through census and vital registration for the data of females within the family in the remote western region such as their status, number, age, ....etc., because of the customs and traditions of the population in these areas, which sometimes refuses full disclosure of any data regarding females in these areas. The following table will state the sex ratios in the population distribution by gender and nationality in the Western Region of the Emirate of Abu Dhabi as follows:
A. Some background characteristics according to the gender:
The results of table 7 showed that there was some defects or variations according to sex ratio in the population composition within the western region at the level of the population as a whole, where it is noticed that 539 males per 100 females, while at the level of nationals population, it was a significant decrease in the sex ratio so that the 122 males per 100 females, in spite of that, it reflects a deviation about the normal. And this may due to the failure or incompleteness of the registration of data regarding females correctly or otherwise. In reviewing the sex ratio at the level of non-nationals population, it was sharp deviation about the normal, which reaching 810 males per 100 females. In general, it was noticed the lack of balance for the structure population according to gender, both at the level of total population in general or at the level of nationals population particularly in the western region, which requires more efforts through censuses future and surveys to study of the causes of this imbalance of sex ratios especially for the nationals population, as well as reducing the errors or factors that contribute to the weakness of gender indicators concerning the females within this area.
B. Educational Status:
The education of Emirati women in one of the most important achievements, and it is considered a value-added shows its impact to provide the constituents for the progress of society as a whole, and contributes to improve the inputs of participation in labour force, that in turn contribute to the construction and development. Moreover, it has become access to education for females has improved dramatically over the past few decades, and there have been a number of encouraging trends in girls' and women's education. And Emirati women are also more likely to enroll in universities than they were in the past compared to men. But Emirati women in the western region through a pilot study on small sample still facing some such as the shortage of higher education institutions in all remote areas, traditions...etc. The table (8) will state the gender indicators regarding the educational situation of women within the western region, as follows:
For exploring the educational status of women in the western region, the results in previous table showed that the percentage of Emirati women in higher education amounted to 10%, which is weak, although it is slightly higher than the percentage of Emirati men, which representing 9.5%. It is noticed the same almost at the level of total population where the percentage of females in higher education amounted to 14%, and it is higher than for males, which representing 11% in relation to holders of university education. As, the rate of illiteracy among Emirati females amounted to almost 9%, and it was the highest percentage compared to its percentage among Emirati males, which reaching about 4%, i.e. that the percentage of illiteracy among Emirati females double its percentage among Emirati males, while we find the opposite at the level of the total population, while the opposite at the level of total population. And the following figure shows the educational status of the national population by gender compared to the total population in the western region.
The previous figure showed that the percentage of males and females who have secondary education was the highest percentage either at the level national?s population or at the level of total population in the western region. For secondary education, the percentage of Emirati females who have completed secondary education amounted to 33.7% of the total Emirati females, where it exceeded the percentage of Emirati males in secondary education, which amounted to 31.9% of the total Emirati males. As the previous findings of the study explained that secondary education is important in raising the level of HDI of the state as a whole, and to influence indirectly by raising the percentage of contribution chances of women to join the labor market, which requires the need to more efforts to raise the rates of females' enrollment at this stage and also as well as university level. As, it is noticed from the previous figure that the percentage of Emirati female that have completed their university education reached 10% of the total Emirati females and it is considered a weak, which is equivalent to every 10 Emirati females there are only one woman has completed the university education. It is worth mentioning that a lot of Emirati females in some remote areas within the western region are unable to complete their university studies, either because of customs and traditions of the dominant or the lack of colleges and universities in the nearby place of residence or absence of the necessary cost for good education, or other. This constitutes obstacles to the Emirati women in this region hamper the completion of scientific and school progress, which would contribute in bringing about the desired development within their communities.
C. Work Status:
According to the importance of work for the Emirati women to bring about social change desired, and as demonstrated by previous findings that raising the percentage of Emirati women's participation in the labor market, and it has a significant effect and directly to raise the level of HDI of the UAE. So, in this part of the study will be reviewed of percentages of Emirati females at the age of the labor force compared to the percentages of males in different age groups, as follows:
The results of the previous table stated that the nationals population in the age group of 20-34 years was the highest percentage of the total nationals population in the age of the labour market, both at the level of male or female, and this percentage was higher among Emirati females, which reaching 80% compared to its value among Emirati males, which reaching 63%. This age group has the ability to work and production compared to the other ages. The age group (25-29) years was the highest group, which` represents high concentration of Emirati females at the age of the labour force, and then the percentage decreased in the highest age groups, until their percentages become zero in the older age groups. Although it is expected that the age of females is the highest in the older age compared to males, and there were a large gap between the total numbers of Emirati females and males in the age of the labor force (15 years and over), these results indicate a kind of inconsistency or imbalance, may due to some errors in the count or incomplete of inventory to the number of females in the age of the labor force .The following figure showed the population distribution of Emirati males and females at the age of labour force within the western region compared to the total population in this region.
By the previous figure 8, there is an increase in rates of Emirati females in the young age of the total Emirati females at rates higher than rates increase among males in the young age of the total Emirati males , the same result for the total population within the western region after the addition of the numbers of expatriate population in the age of the workforce to population, where also increasing the percentages of women in the young ages in the labor force and production compared to their percentages in older age. The following table shows the percentages of employed and unemployed of the Emirati population compared to the total population in the western region in Abu Dhabi.
The findings of the table shows the high percentage of unemployed among the Emirati females, where their percentage amounted to 21% compared to unemployed among the males, which amounted to 9%. In order to access more detailed data on the work status regarding the status of Emirati women in the western region by gender and different age groups, in order to identify the most important age groups that need more attention from the officials to make concrete steps towards social change desirable by Emirati women within this region.
Concerning to the work status of Emirati women in the findings of the previous table, it was noticed that the highest unemployment rate for women in the age group (15-19) years, where the percentage of unemployed amounted to 88% of the total females in that age group, followed by the percentage of unemployed in the age group of (20-24) years, which amounted to 35% of the total females in that age group. As the unemployment rates was low among the young age, until became zero in the older age starting the age of 45 years and above. Also, the following figure reflects the unemployment and employment percentages of nationals by gender and age groups compared to the total within the western region, as follows:
The previous figure indicates in general to high rates of unemployment in the young age of the Emirati female, who are capable of work and production, while gradually decrease until become zero in older age for females,. The highest percentage of unemployment in the age group (15-19) years, reaching 88%, and also followed by their percentage in age group (20-24) years, which reaching 35%. This result perhaps due to the preference of younger females to marriage and a family irrespective joining the labour market, or lack of employment opportunities for females in this region, as well as their desire to complete university education and high studies in light the hard work conditions. But the matter is different for Emirati males with lower the rates of unemployed people in the young age compared to older age. This may also indicate a lack of employment opportunities for Emirati females compared to male, thus reducing the chances of social change desired for Emirati women towards the progress and development within their communities.This needs more efforts to reduce these rates in the young age groups of the females, where they are able to work and production.

XI.CONCLUSION

The most results provided in this study demonstrates that the UAE still need to continue in setting new standards for development women within the western region in advocating change and development in line with its traditions and norms of Arabic countries. Therefore, this study hopes to contribute through the findings and information that would strengthen the means of good planning for the future of Emirati women in the Western Region in order to ensure their effective participation in the overall development process within their communities. The findings of study showed the following:
? The study proved using multiple regression analysis by Stepwise method, that the rising of participation rates of Emirati women in the labor market has a direct impact in predicting the value of the human development index of the UAE, the correlation coefficient between them amounts 0.870, which is a strong correlation and significant statistically at the level of significance less than 0.05. This indicates that continue to increase the provision of employment opportunities for Emirati women, especially in the western region has a significant effect in increasing the value of human development index of the state in general, and the western region in particular.
? The percentage of total change rate in gender-related development index increased during the period (1996-2009) by 23.7%, while the annual change rate amounted about 2%. There was also a growing trend in the percentage of total change rate to gender empowerment measure of women, which increased during the same period by 173.1%, i.e. the value of this measure has doubled one and half times during the period (1996-2009), while the annual change rate of GEM amounted about 14.4%. However, there was still weakness in the efficiency of registration for the values of these indicators and measures due to incompleteness of the registration and discrepancies between the International reports regarding gender indicators of the UAE.
? There is a tendency increasing in values of each of the human development indexes and the percentage of enrollment of women in the labor market of the UAE during the period (1990-2011), where the percentage of the total change rate in the HDI over this period amounted 8.2%, and the rate of increase was 0.4% per year. While the percentage of the total change rate for the participation of UAE women in the labor market during the same period amounted 575.8%, and increase rate of 27.4% annually, meaning that the participation rate of women in the labor market doubled five and half times during the period (1990-2011), which reflects the interest of the UAE officials by providing employment opportunities for Emirati women so that they can contribute effectively to the overall development process within their communities.
? The study showed by using path analysis based on the theoretical model of the current study the significant effects of direct and indirect variables proposed in the model on the value of Human Development Index (HDI), therefore the findings proved the following:
o There is a direct effect by the variable of percentage of women's participation in the labor market on the value of the human development index (HDI) equals (0.87), and the degree of this influence is strong.
o There is an indirect effect by the variable of women's enrollment in primary education on the value of the human development index (HDI) equals 0.51, and the degree of this influence is considered moderate.
o There is an indirect effect by the variable of women's enrollment in secondary education on the value of the human development index (HDI) equals 0.52, and the degree of this influence is considered moderate
o There is a direct effect the variable of women's enrollment in secondary education on the percentage of women's participation in the labor market equals 0.60, and the degree of this influence also is considered moderate
? Women in general within the western region represent 16% of the total population of the western region, resulting from the impact of increasing of males expats in this region. On the other side, they represent 5% of the total women in the Emirate of Abu Dhabi.
? The percentage of Emirati women forms 39% of the total females in the western region, while the percentage of femininity amounts 45% within the Emirati community in the Western Region. This means that the percentage of Emirati women is less than the Emirati men within the western region by 10%, and this may be due to some factors, for example, emigration of a large number of women-to-urban cities in order to complete their higher education or obtain better employment opportunities, as result the region's lack of such concerns. Or may be due to errors in the inventory or register of the number of women exactly within their families in most areas of the western region, because of the customs and traditions that refuse full disclosure of any data for women in these areas.
? A defect-gender within the composition population in the western region when dealing with the data of all population. The results showed that a sex ratio amounted to 539 males per 100 female. While the results on the level of Emirati population, it showed a significant decrease in a sex ratio, which amounted to 122 Emirati male per 100 Emirati female. This ratio also reflect a defect in the structure gender compared to the situation normal (100- 105), this may be to the failure of the count or non-registration correctly for women data, or otherwise.
? For the education status of Emirati women in the western region, it was found that the percentage of females who have completed their higher education amounted to 10%, it was the highest compared to the percentage of males that amounted to 9.5%. While the percentage of illiteracy among Emirati females amounted to almost 9%, it was the highest compared to the illiteracy among Emirati males, reaching about 4%, i.e. that the rate of illiteracy among Emirati women equals double the illiteracy among Emirati men.It is worth mentioning, that a pilot study through interviews with small Emirati women, and it proved that Emirati women facing many obstacles that hamper the completion of their university studies in many remote areas in the western region, because of dominant customs and traditions or non-availability of colleges and universities in the nearby place of their residence as well as the lack of the necessary cost for access to university education of high quality.
? For the national population in the age of labor force in the western region, it was found that the age group of 20-34 years was the highest percentage whether on the level of males or females. And this percentage was higher among Emirati females, which reaching 80%, compared to among Emirati males, which reaching 63%. This age group has the ability to work and production, compared to the other ages. As, the age group (25-29) years represents the highest percentage to Emirati females in the age of labor force, which is the same for Emirati males. And then, their percentage decreased gradually over the high age groups, until their percentage became zero in older age compared to males, although it is expected that percentage of women in the older age groups are higher than men.
? For the employment status of Emirati women in the western region, it was found that high rates of unemployment among the young age groups of the Emirati female where they be capable of work and production, as were higher compared to rates of unemployment among males in those age groups.As unemployment rates for women decreased gradually until became non-existent among the older age groups of Emirati females.For example, while the highest percentage of Emirati females in the age of labor force are concentrated in the age group (25-29), which amounted to 36%, compared with males in this age group, which amounted to 25%. The high rate of unemployment among Emirati females in this age group, which amounted to 20%, was the highest compared to the rate of unemployment among males in the same age group, which amounted to 4%. This result means that unemployment rate among females in this age group are five times the unemployment among males. And therefore this reflects the inequality in access to employment opportunities for females within this region.
? The highest rate of unemployment among Emirati women was in the age group (15-19) years, which amounted to 88%, and also followed by their percentage in the age group (20-24) years, which amounted to 35%. This may due to the preference of females in the young age for marriage, family formation and the desire to complete their high studies irrespective joining the labor market or lack of good employment opportunities for females in that region. Especially, this result was different for Emirati males where the percentages of unemployed were the lowest in the young age groups compared to older. This may also indicate a lack of the access to employment opportunities for Emirati women compared to men, thereby reducing the chances of Emirati women towards the desired social change for the progress and development within western region.

XII. RECOMMENDATIONS

? A combination of qualitative and quantitative methods should be considered by all future studies regarding gender in order to cross check results and to generate a richer understanding of the data about the women's status and their direction for the social change within the western region.
? The formation of a national committee on issues of development and empowerment of women and in coordination with the Centers for statistics in order to work to monitor, evaluation and revision the values of indicators gender, to identify specific values for these indicators every year through the various international reports, and in order to prevent discrepancies and inconsistencies in these data. This Committee will be responsible about the supply of various international organizations for the values of these indicators annually.
? The development of specific context -relevant gender-sensitive indicators without inconsistencies in the data. – And the use of and reporting on those indicators – should be made obligatory within international development agencies, governments and grassroots organizations. As well as increased awareness that gender goals and indices are useful because they allow for cross-national comparisons of gender equality, and they condense complex data into clear messages about achievements and gaps in gender equality at international and regional level.
? All government institutions and ministries should support the capacity of national statistical offices to produce gendersensitive data, especially in remote areas where women suffer from various constraints. Furthermore, it should take into account the quality of data concerning the registration of the age and gender for Emirati women within the Western Region, as result of errors in the incompleteness or content.
? Development agencies should adopt a gender mainstreaming approach in the western region, to monitor whether commitments at the employment policies for females in all institutions are reflected in the procedures and culture of an organization, and whether they are being implemented in practice. Internal gender audits and gender selfassessments must used by many development organizations in the UAE to assess issues of gender equity in recruitment and flexible working hours to assess the degree to which gender mainstreaming has been implemented at the level work in this region.
? Ensure access the higher education institutions in various cities within the western region to raise the rates of enrollment of women in higher education in line with the customs and traditions of the community in this region, which sometimes refuses to move the female out of the city to complete her education university, or due to universities place are far from their residence. Taking into account, the interest in the efficient of registration and statistics to all educational indicators regarding females in the western region in particular, and this in turn contributes to increasing the proportion of enrollment of women in the labor market as well as bring about development and social change desirable, and all this leads ultimately to contribute to the high level of human development of the state.
? Continue to increase employment opportunities for females in the western region, especially in positions of political, parliamentary, and the supreme administrative. This will be undertaken during a specified percentage per year for females and growing annually in order to raise the proportion of their participation in the labor market positively. This step reinforces the economic development situation of Emirati women in this region as essential components of targeted social changes at the national or international level.

Tables at a glance

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Table 1 Table 2 Table 3 Table 4 Table 5 Table 6


Table icon Table icon Table icon Table icon Table icon
Table 7 Table 8 Table 9 Table 10 Table 11
 

Figures at a glance

Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5
Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5


Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9
Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9
 

References