e-ISSN:2320-1215 p-ISSN: 2322-0112

Ethnopharmacological Studies for Sustainable Development in Cameroon

Tsabang Nole1,2*, Fongnzossie Evariste3, Bongoe Adamou4, Dongmo Bernard1, Donfagsiteli Tchinda Nehemie1, Tchinda Tiabou Alembert1, Agbor Gabriel1, Zambou Francois5 and Nguelefack Telesphore Benoit5

1Center for Research on Medicinal Plants and Traditional Medicine, Institute of Medical Research and Studies of Medicinal plants, Ministry of Scientific Research and Innovation, Yaounde, Cameroon

2Higher Institute of Environmental Science, Yaounde, Cameroon

3University of Douala, Douala, Cameroon

4Hospital of Edea, Edea, Cameroon

5Department of Animal Biology and Physiology, Laboratory of Pharmacology, University of Dschang-Cameroon

Corresponding Author:
Nole T
Center for Research on Medicinal Plants and Traditional Medicine, Institute of Medical Research and Medicinal Plants Studies, P.O. Box 6163, Yaounde, Cameroon
Tel: 273677461631
E-mail: tsabang2001@yahoo.fr

Received date: 04-07-2016 Revised date: 22-07-2016 Accepted date: 28-07-2016

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Abstract

Aim: Several diseases continue to affect strongly the populations’ health in Africa. Meanwhile Ethnopharmacology, a scientific interdisciplinary study of natural substances and related knowledge’s or practices that cultural groups implement for therapeutic, curative, preventive or diagnostic purposes, must be developed in the continent. Therefore sustainable development, a conception of common well being developed since the end of the 20th century can be effective by developing in Africa low-priced phytodrugs for consumption and exportation. The objectives of this study were to sustainably collect and document important cultural heritage before it is lost and to investigate and evaluate agents used to promote drug discovery in Cameroon. Materials and methods: To achieve these objectives we have used a methodology that begun by a field work, that started by harvesting and identifying plant species with confirmation in National Herbarium and the Ethnopharmacological detailed preparation of recipes and ended by the research of previous studies on recorded plants. Results: Forty-three (43%) of recorded plants is been documented for the treatment of diseases and investigated for their phytochemical and activities confirming of the rationalization of their traditional uses. Some plants are documented for the first time for their medical use, for example Massularia acuminata for hypertension, Pentaclethra macropylla for infectious diseases, Hallea stipulosa for difficult deliverance, Guibourtia tessmannii for diabetes, Piliostigma rufescens for dysentery, Carica papaya for cancer and Solanum torvum for gastric pains. Conclusion: The results of E-ISSN: 2320-1215 P-ISSN: 2322-0112 RRJPPS | Volume 5 | Issue 3 | September, 2016 40 this study stimulate a sustainable development by providing the basis for low cost drugs discovery and by documenting biodiversity for long time exploitation.

Introduction

Ethnopharmacology is scientific interdisciplinary study of a set of vegetal, animal or mineral materials and related knowledge’s or practices that, socio cultural groups implement for modify the states of living organisms, for therapeutic, curative, preventive or diagnostic purposes. For instance several plants used generally in Africa and particularly in Cameroon have been studied in Botany, chemistry and pharmacology [1]. Searches of new active ingredients by pharmaceutical laboratories and universities have permit to confirm certain traditional uses. During the open ceremonies of Harare forum in 2000 Doctor Ebrahim M. Samba, regional Director of WHO for Africa, has declared: «It must give to traditional medicine the respect and the place that it merits». He declares that WHO was ready to bring it assistance to protect intellectual property related to indigenous knowledge on traditional medicine and to facilitate the creation of botanical gardens intended for the cultivation and the preservation of local medicinal plants. For Doctor Samba WHO is disposed to supply a technical help for the drugs discovery from medicinal plants and to insure the production for local consummation and exportation, in the respect of good practices of manufacture.

Despite the absence of legal management, necessary for the development of searches and production of phytodrugs in Africa, we assist to the creation and the production of African simple specialties from some plants used traditionally and susceptible to replace in certain cases imported medicines.

Cameroonian floral has about ten thousand species of plants [2]. Yet, less than hundred and twenty medicinal plants are recorded [3]. Synthetic drugs cannot always duplicate the curative properties of natural drugs. Today major number of pharmaceutical firms and medical research institutions are returning to their roots in the plant world. The objective of this study was to collect and document information on herbal remedies traditionally used for the treatment of diseases and susceptible to promote drug discovery in Cameroon.

Methodology

It was begun by a field work, divided into parts: The collect and identification of plant samples with confirmation in National herbarium and the Ethnopharmacological detailed preparation of recipes including the weight of plant parts and volume of solvent used, the plant(s) or nonplant(s) associated, the modes of preparation including decoction, maceration, infusion, triturating, inhalation, scarification, washing, purge, ointment, etc, posology, duration of preparation, mode of administration and duration of treatment.

The process used to collect information has begun by a field work based on harvest and identification of plants of interest. During this step Ethnopharmacological detailed preparation of recipes were described with the aim of informants. This description focused on the mode and the time of preparation, the mode of administration, the posology, the duration of treatment, the undesirable or secondary effects, the toxic effects and the disease treated. It was followed by the chemical and pharmacological approach based on investigation of previous searches. Hence chemistry and pharmacology have also played a great role in the evaluation of natural products [4]. Confirmation of botanical identification was done in National Herbarium of Cameroon and voucher specimens are deposited in the Institute of Medical Researches and Medicinal Plants Studies.

Data were collected from 91 respondents drawn from 28 tribes using some validated questionnaires. The distribution of the respondents includes 41 traditional healers and 50 other resource persons. All the recipes were presented following diseases of different human apparatus including cardio-vascular, digestive, respiratory, nervous, female genital, male genital and urinary; bone-muscle-joints, Nose-mouth-throat-ear, eyes, skin and pediatric pathologies, symptoms and particular syndromes like anorexia; diseases and particular indications like alcoholism [5,6].

Results

Detailed Description of Recipes

All diseases, modes of recipes’ preparation, routes of administration and durations of treatment are presented in Table 1.

human apparatus Diseases Plants/mineral Scientific and vernacular manes (Dialect) Ethnopharmacological preparationQuantity of waterused in liter Quantity Duration of preparation-on Route of administrationNumber of doses daily Duration oftreatment in days
Cardio-vascular 1. Pre-cordial pains 1. Piper umbellatum (Piperaceae) Nbebe 5 Yemba-Dschang) Pounded powder Dry stem bark   Ointment by thoracicscarifications 2
2. Epistaxis 2. Amaranthushybridus(Amaranthaceae) associated with
3. Ocimumgratissimum(Lamiaceae) Ndali (Bakundou), Nkuwri (Bangwa), Osemo-se (Bakossi)
Triturating Two leaves of each species   Instillation of 2-4 drops of juice in one orifice of noose, eyes, ears
1
1
3. Hypotension 4. Croton haumanianus (Euphorbiaceae) Decoction
2
Stem bark
150g
15 min Oral
250ml
2
3
  5. Perseaamericana(Lauraceae) Peye (Balong), EjuOkara (Ejagham) Decoction
6
100 leaves
150g
1 hour Oral
250ml
3
3
4.Hemorroid 6. Alchorneacordifolia(Euphorbiaceae) Sadjodjo (Bafia),
Abouc (Bafut)
Decoction
1
Fresh leaves 15min Analapplication
1-2
5
5. Hypertension 7. Catharanthusroseus (Apocynaceae) Decoction
2
Fresh root: 150g 15 min Oral
250ml 3
7
8. Garcinea kola (Clusiaceae) Nya (Oroko, Yemba-Menoua), Onyie (Ewondo)
9. Musangacecropioides(Cecropiaceae) Oseng (Eton), Aseng (Ewondo, Boulou)
10. Massulariaacuminate (Rubiaceae)
6. Palpitations 11. Crossopteryxfebrifuga(Rubiaceae) Decoction
2
Root
300g
15 min Oral125ml
3
7
12. Lanneawelwitchii(Anarcardiaceae) Stem bark
150g
15 min Oral50 ml
3
13. Glypheabrevis(Tiliaceae) Maceration
1
Leaves
30g
1 hour Oral
3
3
6-Nose bleeding See3-Ocimum graticimum(Lamiaceae) Triturating Fresh leaves   Instillation
1-4 drops of juice per nostril
2
4
14. Sarcocephaluslatifolius(Rubiaceae) Shi Nkan She (Oku)
Digestive 7. Constipation8-Colic (andhyperten-sion,Diabeteshemorrhoid) See 14 Sarcocephaluslatifolius(Rubiaceae) 15. Citrus auranthifolia (Rutaceae)
16. Allium sativum(Liliaceae) Lah (Yemba-Menoua), Albacce (Fufuldé)
Decoction
2. Contra-indication: pregnancy, side effect: vomiting
100g fresh root, 1 Lime 50g garlic 20 min Oral
250ml 2
1-7
9. Gastritis 17. Emilia coccinea(Asteraceae) Infusion Leaves 1 hour Oral
250ml
3
7
10.
Pathologic accumulation of gas or air in the colon
18. Cola acuminata(Sterculiaceae) Decoction
2
Stem bark
150g
15 min Oral
250ml
3
19. Myrianthusarboreus(Cecropiaceae) Ngala (Pygmies-Baka), Ekekom (Eton, Ewondo) Decoction
3
Stembark 50g
Leaves 50 g
15 min Oral
250ml
3
 
11. Dysentry 20-Acanthospermum hispidus(Asteraceae) Decoction
3
Leaves
100g
15 min Oral
250 ml
3
2
See 16 Allium sativum(Liliaceae) Grind into pasta and
mix with honey
Fresh bulb
50g
  Oral
10 ml
3
2
21. Zyzygiumguineense(Myrtaceae) Decoction
2
Leaves
300g
15 min Oral
125 ml
3
4
12.Constipation 22. Anchomanesdifformis(Araceae) Decoction
2
side effect:dizziness, irritation of throat
Rhizome
100g
15 min Oral
75 ml
2
3
23. Drypetesgossweileri(Euphorbiaceae) Maceration 2 Stem bark
150 g
At least 1 hour Washstand of a Child 2
13. Diarrhea 24. Clerodendronsplendens(Verbenaceae) Decoction
4
Leaften stem
200 g
15 min Oral
125 ml
7
25. Streptogynacrinita(Poaceae) Maceration
1
Leaften stem
50 g
1 hour Oral
10 ml
3
3
26. Tetraceraalnifolia(Dilleniaceae) Decoction
1
Leaften stem
50 g
10 min Oral
15 ml
2
3
27. Millettialaurentii(Papilionaceae) Decoction
2
Stem bark
150 g
15 min Oral
75 ml
2
2
14. Dysentery See 20. Acanthospermumhispidus(Asteraceae) Decoction
2
Fresh Leaften stem
50 g
10 min Oral
250 ml
1
3
28. Combretumracemosa(Combretaceae) Decoction
2
Root
100 g
15 min Oral
125 ml
3 adults
10 ml
3 Child
5 ml
2 babies
7
29. Piliostigmarufescens (Papilionaceae) Decoction
2
Stem bark :150g 15min Oral
250ml
3
3
15. Dyspepsia 30. Piptadeniastrumafricanum(Mimosaceae) Decoction
3
Stem bark 15 min Oral
250 ml
1
2
31. Crinum ornatum(Amaryllidaceae) Decoction
3
side effect:diarrheas
polyuria, vomiting
Stem
200 g
15 min Oral
325 ml
3
1
16. Epigastralgia-gastralgia See 22. Anchomanesdifformis
(Araceea)
Decoction
2
side effect:dizziness, irritation of throat
Rhizome
100g
15 min Oral >Oral
75 ml
2
3
32. Brillantaisiapatula(Acanthaceae) Decoction
1
Leaves
50 g
15 min Oral
300 ml
2
3
17. Hernia 33. Anthocleistavogelii(Loganiaceae) Decoction
2
Stem bark
250 g
15 min Oral
125 ml
3
3
18. Nausea-vomiting 34. Ficusexasperata(Moraceae) Lewua (Eton) Decoction
2
Stem bark
150 g
15 min Oral
250 ml
3
3
19. Intestinalparasites 35. Olaxsubscorpioides(Olacaceea) Maceration 2 Root bark
50 g
1 hour 15 min Oral
20 ml
1
2
Decoction
2
Leaves
50 g
15 min Oral in fasting
20 ml
adult 1
10 ml
child 1
Repeat the treatmentafter2 days
20. Hemorroid 36. Anonidiummannii(Annonaceae) Maceration
2
Leaves
500 g and
Kawa
50 g
1 hour Anal
washstandwith warm decoction
2
5
Female genital Gynaecology
21. Algomenorrhea(dysmenorrhea) 37. Lanneawelwitschii (Anacardiaceae) Decoction
2
Stem150 g and root bark 150g 15 min Oral
125 ml after eating
3
3
38. Securidacalongepedunculata(Polygalaceae) Decoction
2
Leaves
100 g
15 min 0ral
125 ml
1
7
22. Pelvic pains 39. Halleastipulosa(Rubiaceae) Decoction
2
Stem bark 150g 15 min Oral
150ml
3
2
40. Harunganamadagascariensis(Hypericaceae) Endo (Eton) Decoction
2,5
Fresh
stem bark
250 g
35 min Oral
150 ml
Washstand
1
41. Isolonahexaloba(Annonaceae) Decoction
2,5
Stem bark
250 g
15 min Oral
150 ml, 3 first and third day
150 ml secondand fourth day
4
42.Tetrorchidium didymostemon(Euphorbiaceae) Decoction
2 The excess provoke slight diarrhea
Root
50 g
15 min Oral
75 ml of warm decoction
2
5
23. Hyperpolymenorrhea 43. Irvingiagrandiflora (Irvingiaceae) Numandok (Eton)
Associated to
44-Staudtia stipitata (Myristicaceae)
Decoction
2
Leaves
50 each
15 min Oral
250 ml
7
45. Paspalumconjugatum(Poaceae) Decoction
2
Leaften stem
100 g
15 min Oral
250 ml
3
4
24. Gynecologic infections 46. Cylicodiscusgabunensis(Mimosaceae) Adoum (Ewondo), Adun (Eton) Decoction
2
Stem bark
100 g
15 min Oral
250 ml
3
4
See 40Harunganamadagascariensis(Hypericaceae) Decoction
2,5
Fresh stem bark
250 g
35 min Oral
150 ml
Intimate washstand
7
25. Megacolpos 47. Baillonellatoxisperma(Sapotaceae) Decoction
2,5
Stem bark
250 g
35 min Oral
150 ml
Washstand
7
26. Itch of external parts of vagin 48. Dacryodesedulis(Burseraceae) Decoction
2,5
Leaves 50 g
Stem bark
100 g
and root
100 g
30 min Intimate Washstand 3
27. Female Sterility 49. Buchholziacoriacea(Capparidaceea) Decoction
2
Leaves
100 g
15 min Oral
150 ml
3
7
50. Ongokea gore (Clusiaceae) Decoction
2
Stem bark
100 g
15 min Oral
125 ml
3
7
51. Tristemmahirsutum (Melastomataceae) Decoction
2
Leaften stem
100 g
15 min Oral
150 ml
2
7
Obstetric and Pregnancy
28. Repeated abortion 29. Spontaneous abortion 30.Stillborns See 42Tetrachidiumdidymostemon(Crassulaceae), Associated to 52-Kalanchoe crenata(Crassulaceae) and
53. Cissusaralioides(‎Vitaceae)Ndieh gap (Bamoun)
Grind into pasta and mix in 75 ml Undesirable effect:
Vomiting
Leaves Pasta of 50 g of each plant   Ointment of thorarax and abdomen until delivery 7 months
31.Interruption of pregnancy 54. Boeraviadiffusa‘(Nyctaginaceae) Triturating Leaves   Vaginal injection of juice 3
32. Threat of abortion 55. Macarangahurifolia(Euphorbiaceae) Decoction
2
Undesirable effect:: emetic
Stem bark 15 min Oral
250 ml
8 months
56. Dichrostachyscinerea(Mimosaceae) Decoction
2 liters of Raphia wine
Leaves
100 g
15 min Oral
150 g
2
7
Childbirth
33. Dystocia: ocytocic
(Difficult delivery)
57. Hippocrateamyriantha(Hippocrateaceae) Pounded powder Dry leaves   Oral
10 ml of powder
before two weeks of delivery
7
58. Basella alba (Basellaceae) Decoction
3
Stem bark 150g 15 min Oral
150ml
3
2
59. Hyphaenethebaica(Arecaceae) Decoction
2
Apical buds
200 g
15 min Oral
150 ml
1
1
See 30.Stillborns 60. Macarangahurifolia(Euphorbiaceae) Decoction
2
Undesirable effect:: emetic
Stem bark
150 g
15 min Oral
250 ml
8 months
34. Childbirth preparation 61. Tremaorientalis(Ulmaceae) Maceration
2
Young leaves
100 g
1 hour Oral
20 ml
2
Intimate washstand
2
7
After delivery problems
35. Agalactia or hypogalactia See 48. Dacryodesedulis (Burseaaceae) Decoction
4
Stop breastfeeding during the treatment
Stem bark
500 g
30 min Oral
325ml
3
7
36. Mastrite Anima 1-Guineafowl Animal 2- Four-legged reptile Scarification Claws   Skin scarification
Claw the breasts with guinea fow or four-legged reptile
1
37. Sexual asthenia 62. Paussinystaliayohimbe(Rubiaceae) Decoction
3
Stem bark
200 g
15 min Oal 150ml
3
7
Male genital and urinary   Oral
2
7
63. Acridocarpusconolensis(Malpiniaceae) Consumption Fresh Stem bark and dry grantnut
64. Penianthuslongifolius(Menispermaceae) consumption Piecesof stem with Aframomummelegueta seeds   Oral
3
7
38. Azoospermia See 58. Basella alba (Basellaceae) Decoction
3
Stem bark 150g 15 min Oral
150ml
3
2
39. Urogenital infection See 4. Croton haumanianus (Euphorbiaceae) Decoction
2
Stem bark
150g
15min Oral
250ml
2
10
65. Mitragynainermis(Rubiaceae) Decoction
2
Stem bark
150 g
15 min Oral
250 ml
3
7
40. Male Sterility 66. Ongokea gore (Olacaceae) Decoction
2
Stem bark
125 ml
15 min Oral
250 ml
2
21
41. Hypertrophy of prostate 67. Prunusafricana(Rosaceae) Decoction
3
Stem bark
200 g
15 min Oral
250ml
3
3
Respiratory 42. Asthma 68. Annonasenegalensis(Annonaceae) Mbagami Eton) Decoction
2
Root 300 g 15 min Oral
Adult125 ml
Child 25 ml
2
3
43. Bronchitis 69. Annonamuricata(Annonaceae) Decoction
2
Leaves
50 g
15 min Oral
250 ml
6
5
44. Congestion of lungs See 42. Tetrorchidiumdidymostemon Decoction
3
Stem bark
200 g
15 min Oral
1
1
45. Dyspnea 70. Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae) Maceration
2
Leaften stem
100 g
1 hour Oral
25O ml
3
7
71. Cissusvogelii(Vitaceae) Ndig (Kaka) and
72. Ananascomosus (Bromeliaceae) Lélan (Yemba-Menoua)
Decoction
1
100g de liana
100 g d’anans
15 min Oral
250 ml
3
10
46. Influenza 74. Eleusineindica(Poaceae) Decoction
2
Leaften stem
100 g
15 min Oral
250 ml
2
5
47. Pneumonia 75. Petersianthusafricanus(Lecythidaceae.) Abing (Ewondo) Decoction
2
Stem bark
200 g
15 min Oral
250 ml
2
7
48. Cough 76. Abrusprecatorius(Fabaceae) Decoction
2
Leaves
100 g
15 min Oral
250 ml
2
7
49. Tuberculosis See 22. Anchomanesdifformis (Araliaceae) Decoction
2
Rhizome
100 g
15 min Oral
50 ml
2
30
Bone-muscle-joints 50. Lumbago 77. Parinariexcelsa(Chrisobalanaceae) Decoction
3
Fresh root
500 g
30 mn Oral
250ml
2
7
51. Tiredness 78. Barteriafistulosa(Passifloraceae) Decoction
3
Stem bark
200 g
20 min Oral
125 ml
2
7
79. Craterispermumsp (Rubiaceae) Decoction
3
Stem bark
200 g
15 min Oral
125 ml
2
7
52. Vertebral column deformation 80. Dissotisrotundifolia (Melastomataceae) Decoction
3
Leaves
100 g
15 ml Oral
125 ml
2
7
53. Fracture See 3. Ocimumgratissimum(Lamiaceae)
81. Sennaoccidentalis (Caesalpiniaceae) Ngasila (Baya), Mamatasha (Fufuldé)
82. Arachjs hypogea (Papilionaceae)
83. Musa paradisiaca (Musaceae)
84. Monodoramyristica (Annonaceae) Pebe (Douala), Kessam (Anyang)
Grind into pasta
2
leaves
50 g each Seeds
50 g
  Immobilize the fracture site and massage with the pastaof all these plants 2 8 months
54. Myosites (Muscle pains) 85. Calancobawelwitshii(Flacourtiaceae)
86-Bartetia fistulosa (Passifloraceae)
See 14. Sarcocephaluslatifolius(Rubiaceae)
Decoction
2
Root
100 g each
15 min Oral
20 ml
2
7
55. Rhumatism 87. Acanthus monthanus (Acanthaceae) Atondo (Eton), Maceration
2
Fresh leaves
100 g
2 hours Oral
150 ml
2
7
56. Torticolis 88. Millettiasp(Mimosaceae) Maceration
2
Stem bark
100 g
2 hours Oral
150 ml
2
7
57. Traumatism See 23. Drypetesgossweileri(Euphorbiaceae) Pound into fine pasta Excess use or big quantity of bark produces the skin burn Fresh stem bark
100 g
  Ointment Apply on the traumatized part 4
Nose-mouth-throat-ear 58. Toothache See 6. Alchorneacordifolia(Euphorbiaceae)and
89-Erigeron floribundus(Asteraceae)
Decoction
1
Leaves
50 g each
15 min Mouth bath
3
4
90. Pteridiumaquilinum(Dennstaedtiaceae) Decoction2 50 g of leaves 15 min Mouth bath
Many time daily
3
59. Otalgia 91. Leeaguineensis(Leaceae) Decoction2 Young leaves
50 g
15 min Instillation
1 drop per ear
2
2
60. Otitis 92. Gossypiumbarbadense(Malvaceae) Triturating Hot leaves   Instillation
1 drop per ear
3
3
61. Conjunctivitis See 80. Dissotisrotundifolia (Melastomaceae) Triturating 4 leaves   Instillation
1-4drops2
3
62. AphteousStromatitis
63. Blindness
93. Newbouldialaevis (Bignoniacées) Decoction2 Stem bark
50 g
15 min Instillation of vapor mouthopened 2
64-Sight lowering 94. Desmodiumadescendens(Papilionaceae) Maceration Leaves
50 g
1 2 hour Face toilet with the decoction
1
4
65. Conjonctivity 95. Celosia trigyna(Amaranthaceae) Triturating leaves   Instillation
2 drops per eye
2
3
66. Ocularpains 96. Aframomumdaniellii(Zingiberaceae) Triturating Leaves   Instillation
2 drops per eye
2
3
67. Abcess 97. Alstoniaboonei(Apocynaceae) Akouk ( Eton)   Latex   Ointment
Apply on the scarified abcess
3
68. Ringworm 98. Diodiascandens(Rubiaceae)
99. Mitracarpusscaber (Rubiaceae)
Grind into pasta Leaves 50 g each   Ointment Apply the pasta on infected sites 4
Sulphur Pounded powder Powder in oil   Ointment Local application
1
7
  69. Dermatosis 100. Hymenocardiaacida(Hymenocardiaceae)Déré (Baya), Kwo (Bamoun), Mbo (Tikar) Decoction
2
Stem bark
50 g
15 min Oral
50 ml
3
3
70. Scabies 101. Caloncobawelwitschii(Flacourtiaceae) Decoction
4
Leaves
150 g
15 min WashstandGenera l toilet 4
71. Leprosy 102. Chenopodiumambrosioides(Chenopodiaceae) Pounded pasta Freshleaften stems 100 g   Oral
Juice
75 ml
4
72. Whitlow 103. Sidaacuta(Malvaceae) Esempeuh (Yemba-Menoua) Grind into pasta Fresh
leaves 50g
  Ointment
Apply on the affected finger and bandage
4
77. Wounds 104. Erytrophleumivorensis(Mimosaceae) Grind into powder Dry stem bark   Ointment Apply the fine powderon wound 7
78. Reddish signs in the skin 105. Sennaalata(Caesalpiniaceae) Ngom tan (Beti) Triturating Young leaves   Ointment Apply the pasta on the affected part 7
Nervoussystem 79. Sexual aversion See 52. Kalanchoecrenata (Crassulaceae) Djoudjou (Yemba-Menoua) Triturating
diluted the juice with water
leaves   Oral
Juice
150 ml
1
7
80. Epilepsy 106. Cajanuscajan (Fabacées)
Osangéli (Fang)
Triturating leaves   Oral
Juice
150 ml
1
7
107. Oldenlandiasp
(Rubiaceae)
Grind into pasta and add a little water Aerial parts
100 g
  Instillation
3 drops per eye
10
81. Frigidlity See 62. Pausinystaliayohimbe(Rubiaceae) Patogué (Bassa) Chew a piece of stem bark Stem bark   Oral
suck the juice
4
10
82. Insomnia 108. Drimariacordata(Caryophyllaceae) Lététsinquiet (Yemba-Menoua) Maceration
1
50 leaves 1 hour Oral
125 ml
10
83. Nervosity 109. Amaranthusviridus(Amaranthaceae) Féfah (Yemba-Menoua)
See 52. Kalanchoecrenata(Crassulaceae)
110. Asystasiagangetica(Acanthaceae)
Decoction
2
Leaves
50 g each
15 min Oral
125ml
3
Massage the body with the restof leaves
2
5
Nevralgia
84. Intercostal Nevralgia See 70. Ageratum conyzoides(Asteraceae) Consumption
Triturating
Fresh leaves   Oral 20 g
2 times
Juice
25 ml
2 times
10
111. Phytolaccadodecandra(Phytolaccaceae) Maceration
150ml
Leaves 50 g 6 hours Oral
Adults 75 ml
Child25 ml
Baby 10 ml
2 times
10
85. Lumbalgo 112. Bidenspilosa(Asteraceae) Fortah (Lamso), Kegis (Oku), Foseénu (Nkom) Decoction
1
Leaves 50 g 15 min Oral
125 ml
2
10
86. Paralysis See 90. Erigeron floribundus(Asteraceae)
See 17. Emilia occinea(Asteraceae)
See 112. Bidenspilosa (Asteraceae)
Pounded pasta FreshLeaves   Massage the whole body with the pasta 10
87. Dizziness See 9. Musangacecropioides(Cecropiaceae) Maceration
250 ml
2-4 stipules   Oral
25O ml
1-2 times
10
Pediatric pathologies 88. Hypotrophy orEmaciation See 107. Cajanuscajan (Papilionaceae) Decoction
2
Seeds:150g 15 min Oral
250ml
3
10
89. Convulsion 113. Limaciopsissp
(Menispermaceae)
Decoction
2
tubercle150g 15 min Oral
150ml
3
10
90. Whooping cough 114. Luffaaegyptiaca(Cucurbitaceae) Maceration
1
18 fresh leaves 1 hour Oral
Adult 75 ml
1 time
Child 25 ml
2
10
91. Neonatal infantal death (prevention) See 42. Tetrorchidiumdidymostemon
(Euphorbiaceae)
115. Bryophylumpinnata (Crassulaceae)
Pounded pasta Leaves
50 g each
  Ointment
Add 75 ml ofredoil
Rup the woman belly and thorax
10
92. Abdominal pains 116. Impatiens irvingii(Basalminaceae) Pounded pasta 50 g Fresh leaves   Orall
juice
25 ml
3 times
5
93. Dyspnea 117. Crinum natan(Amaryllidaceae) Softenon fire and extractjuice Triturating Secondary effects: diarrhea and vomiting Fresh leaves   Oral
juice
20 ml
5
94. Lateness to walk 118. Thonningiasanguinea (Balanophoraceae)
blacken by
burning
and pound
Whole plant powder   Skin
Scarify the knees, back of feet and chest
5
95. Retarded scholar See 3. Ocimum gratissimum
(Lamiaceae)
Decoction
2
Leaves 100 g 15 min Oral
125 ml
2
10
96. Measles See 42. Chenopodiumambrosioides(Chenopodiaceae) Maceration 50 g leaves 2 hours Anal
Washstand
2
10
97. Chickenpox 119. Manihotesculenta(Malvaceae) Pounded pasta Leaves 50 g   Ointment
Rup the whole body
3
120. Tamarindusindica(Caesalpiniaceae)
See 121. Manihotesculenta(Malvaceae)
Pounded pasta 50 g of fresh leaves
Each
  Ointment
Rup the whole body
2 times
7
Symptoms-particular syndromes 98. Anorexia 121. Cleome ciliata (Capparidaceae) Decoction
2
Whole plant
100 g
15 min Oral
150 m
2 times
3
99. Physical asthenia 122. Gardenia ternifolia (Rubiaceae) consumption Fruits   Oral
Eat
crude fruit
3
123. Ficusgnaphalocarpa(Moraceae) Decoction
2
Stem bark
100 g
15 min Oral
50 ml
2 times
3
100. Headaches See 20. Acanthospermumhispidus
(Asteraceae)
Triturating Leaves
50 g
  Instillation
2 drops of Juice per yes
3
124. Dictyandraarborescens(Rubiaceae) Triturating Leaves
50 g
  Inhalation
Aspirate and inhalate juice
2-3 times
3
125. Helichrysumsp(Asteraceae) Decoction
2
Leaves
50 g
15 min Oral
150ml
2
3
101. Hyperthermia 126. Quassiaafricana(Simaroubaceae) Decoction
6
Whole plant
50 g
15 min Take a bath
Oral
25 ml
2
3
102. Spleen inflammation 127. Garciniaepunctata
(Clusiaceae)
Decoction
1 L of water
150 ml of palm vine
Stem bark
50 g
15 min Oral
Adult 25 ml
Child 15 ml
2
5
103. Anemia 128. Pterocarpussoyauxii(Fabaceae) Decoction
3
Leaves: 150g 20 min Oral
150ml
3
7
104. Jaundice 105. hepatitis 129. Oxyanthusspecioisa(Rubiaceae) Decoction
1
Leaves
50 g
10 min Oral
Adult 150 ml
Child 75 ml
Baby 25 ml
2
7 months
See 40. harunganamadagascariensis(Hypericaceae) Decoction
3
Fresh
leaves: 150g
20 min Oral
150ml
3
8 months
Diseases-particular indications stem bark: 150g 20 min Oral
150ml
3
 
106. Diabetes 130. Laporteaovalifolia (Urticaceae) TolotiItoil (Oroko), Sasa kola (Bassa), Sasangulu (Pygmies-Baka), Dabdy (Bagweri) Decoction
3
Aerial parts 20 min Oral
150ml
3
7
131. Bosquelopsisgilletti(Moraceae) associated to
132. Rauvolfiaobscura (Apocynaceae) Sebal (Fufuldé), Aton Mbin (Yemba-Menoua)
Decoction
2
Leaves
80 g
each
15 min Oral
150ml
3
3
Maceration These two recipes are taken sequentially(in2 hours time) Fresh root
50 g
each
12 hours Oral
10 ml in the morning
1
3
133. Entadagigas(Mimosaceae) Maceration
5
Powder of trunk 200 g 30 min 30 min Oral
250 ml
4
3
134. Ourateasp (Ochnaceae) Consumption 6 leaves   Oral
250 ml
2
3
107.Alchoolism 108. Tabagism 135. Cogniauxiapodolaena(Cucurbitaceae)
See 81. Sennacccidentalis(Caesalpiniaceae)
See 1. Piper umbellatum (Umbellaceae)
136-Costus afer ‘Costaceae)
See 118. Crinum natan (Amarylidaceae)
Decoction
4
Secondaryeffect Vomiting
Leaves50 g each 15 min Oral
1liter of decoction
1
109. Snack bite 137. Cocciniagrandis (Cucurbitacées)
138. Palisotahirsuta(Commelinaceae)
139-Pistia stratiotes(Araceae)
Consumption leaves   Oral
Cut into small pieces and eat like salad
1
2
140. Solenostemonmonostachyum(Lamiaceae) Triturating leaves   Ointment
Apply juice on scarifiedbitten zone
1
1
Notintestinal parasites
Filariosis
110. Loa-loa See 20. Acanthospermumhispidus
(Asteraceae)
Triturating Leaves   Instillation
2 drops per eye
2 times daily
“3
111. Other Filariasis
(elephantiasis)
141. Garciniaepunctata (Clusiaceae) Maceration
1
Stem bark
50 g
1 hour Oral
250 ml
6
10
142. Turraenthusafricanus(Meliaceae) Decoction
6
Stem bark
200 g
15 min Washstand Take a general bath
1
3
112. Malaria See 40. harunganamadagascariensis(Hypericaceae) Decoction Fresh stem bark: 300g 20 min Oral
150ml
3
7
113. Tripanosomiasis 143. Solanumlycopersium(Solanaceae)
Tomato (Bafut)
144-Nicotiana tabacum(Solanaceae)
Triturating Leaves
20 g each
15 min Instillation
3 drops per eye andper nostril
2
3
Total 113.Diseases 144 Plants Number of Recipes: 145 Number of times for each mode of preparation Decoction: 83
Triturating: 17
Maceration: 19
Pounded pasta:6 Pounded powder: 3 blacken by
burning powder:1 Grind pasta:7
Consumption:6
Infusion: 1
Scarify the breast by claws : 1
Chew a piece of stem bark: 1
Number of times for each Plant part used Leaves:68
Stem barks: 44
Roots: 10
Leaften Stem:9
Root barks: 4
Seeds, Rhizomes, Stems, Whole plant: 3 each
Bulbs, Fruits, Aerial parts and Mineral: 2 each
Tubers,
Liana Buds,Trunk, Latex, Stipules and Claws: 1 each
Number of times for each
Duration of preparation Decoction
15 min: 75
20 min: 7
30 min: 4
10 min: 3
35 min: 3
1 hour: 1 Maceration
1 hour: 10
12 hours: 2
2 hours: 3
6 hours: 1 Infusion
1 hour: 1
Number of times for each route of administration Oral: 118
Instillation:15 Ointment:13 Washstand:10 Massage: 5 Skin scarification: 3 Mouth bath: 2 Inhalation, face toilet and vaginal injection: 1 each
Number of times for each duration of treatment 7days: 40 3 days: 39 10 days: 18 2 days: 13 4 days: 13 5 days: 10 1 day: 9 1 and half months: 1
7 months,
8 months:1each

Table 1. Description of recipes following logical regroupings of diseases.

Thirteen polyspecific recipes were prepared by combining 2-5 plants. Hence AmaranthushybridusandOcimum gratissimumareassociatedto treat epistaxis;Irvingiagrandifloraand Staudtiastipitata are used to treat polymenorrhea; Tetrachidiumdidymostemon associated to Kalanchoecrenataand Cissusaralioidestreat repeated abortions, spontaneous abortions and stillborns; Ocimumgratissimum,Sennaoccidentalis ,Arachjs hypogea, Musa paradisiaca and Monodoramyristicatogether treat fracture; Erigeron floribundus,Emilia occinea and Bidenspilosaareused to control paralysis; Calancobawelwitshii, Barteriafistulosa and Sarcocephaluslatifoliusrelease myosite or musclepains; Amaranthusviridus, Kalanchoecrenataand Asystasiagangeticatreat nevrosity,AlchorneacordifoliaandErigeron floribundusare used againstdental algia or teedache;TamarindusindicaandManihotesculenta treat chickenpox; Diodiascandensand Mitracarpusscabertreat ringworm;Tetrorchidiumdidymostemon and Bryophylumpinnataare usedin the prevention of Neonatal infantile death; Cogniauxiapodolaena, Sennacccidentalis, Piper umbellatum, Costusafer ‘and Crinum natan are used to stop alchoolismand tabagism. At last Cocciniagrandis, Pistiastratiotesand Palisotahirsuta are combined to control snack bite.

The distribution of ethnopharmacological modes of recipes’ preparation, natural resources’ parts used distribution of administration routes of recipes and distribution of durations of treatments are presented in Figures 1-4.

pharmacy-pharmaceutical-sciences-recipes-preparation

Figure 1. Distribution of Ethnopharmacological modes of recipes preparation.

pharmacy-pharmaceutical-sciences-natural-resource

Figure 2. Distribution of natural resource parts used.

pharmacy-pharmaceutical-sciences-administration-routes

Figure 3. Distribution of administration routes of recipes.

pharmacy-pharmaceutical-sciences-Distribution-durations

Figure 4. Distribution of durations of treatments.

The Figure 1 shows that the decoction (57%) is the main mode of ethnopharmacological preparation of recipes, following by maceration (13%) and triturating (12%).

The Figure 2 reveals that the leaves (42%) and the stem barks (27%) are the important plant parts used; following by roots (6%) and leaften stems (6%).

The Figure 3 shows that oral route (70%) is widely used. It is followed by inhalation (9%), Ointment (8%) and washstand (6%).

The Figure 4 reveals that the most important duration of treatment are 7 days (19%), 3 days (18%) and 10 days (17%), following by 2 days (12%) and 4 days (12%). The most long treatment durations are 7-8 months for repeated abortions, hepatitis, threat of abortion and stillborn.

Discussion

Some recorded plants (43%)are investigated for their phytochemical and pharmacological properties confirming of the rationalization of their traditional uses. For examples Pausinystaliayohimbe stem bark contains yohimbine: an aphrodisiac alkaloid; Catharanthusroseusdry root constitutes a source ofajmalicine, a hypotensive of spasmolytic alpha blocker groups that is adrenolytic and increases cerebral blood flux up to 30% of carotidal rate of flow. It ensures a better irrigation of the brain and presents a slight anxiolytic and anticonvulsive activity. Acanthospermumhispidus presents antibacterial, antiproliferativeand immunomodulatric activities, antiplasmodial, antitrypanosomial and Leishmanicidal activity in vitro. But the plant presents a renal, hepatic and spleen toxicity after symptoms manifested by diarrhea, dyspnea and alopecia; Allium sativum presents antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal and anthelmintic properties. Piper umbellatum leaf warmed and placed on the affected area is used for body pain in Venezuela [6].Analgesic and antiinflammatory activity has been shown for the water and water–ethanolic extract of this plant. The vasorelaxant effects of Perseaamerica leaf extract appeared to contribute significantly to the hypotensive (antihypertensive) effects. However, this activity tends to suggest that P.americana leaf could be used as a natural supplementary remedy in the management, control and/or treatment of essential hypertension and certain cardiac disorders in some rural Africa communities[7].

Tetrorchidiumdidymostemon and the association of Sarcocephaluslatifolius, Citrus auranthifolia and Allium sativum are documented for the first time for their medicinal uses. Some nontoxic recorded species are transformed into low-cost phytodrugs by private small laboratories or pharmacists(Figures 5-7).They can contribute to the improvement of people’ heath and reduce importation.

pharmacy-pharmaceutical-sciences-Existing-phytodrugs

Figures 5-7. Existing phytodrugs officially authorized in Africa from recorded plants including respectively Emilia coccinea, Dissotis rotundifolia and Pausinystalia yohimbe [1].

The results of this study stimulate a sustainable development by providing the basis for drugs discovery and by documenting biodiversity for long time exploitation.

Conclusion

At the end of this study 113 diseases were treated by 144 plant species. Some of them have been documented for the treatment of diverse diseases. Certain active ingredients have been isolated from some of these plants and confirm their traditional use. However, several other medicinal plants need to be recorded in Cameroon. Therefore investigations must be carried out to record manifold medicinal plants and some other uses.

Acknowledgments

The authors are thankful to traditional healers and all informants who share their knowledge with us.

References