Fighting against the Myths among HIV Positive Person
Mohammed Mujahid1,2*, Farah Ghani1
1Department of Biochemistry, Aurora Post Graduate College, Chikkadpally, Hyderabad, India
2Department of Animal Science, Hyderabad Central University, Gachibowli, Hyderabad, India
- *Corresponding Author:
- Mohammed Mujahid
Gachibowli, Hyderabad, India
Received date: 09/08/2016; Accepted date: 09/08/2016; Published date: 16/08/2016
Visit for more related articles at Research & Reviews: Journal of Medical and Health Sciences
This review paper aims to determine fighting with myths of AIDS disease towards its transmission and affected persons. A number of research organizations have investigated that several demographics, such as women, men, spouses, parents to children that every individual who suffered with world’s deadliest disease in the early years of AIDS pandemic and many policy makers and scientists often seemed to exist in two different worlds. The overall aims of this systematic review are to collect and synthesize evidence on factors that facilitate HIV disclosure among each individual; to bridge the gap and identify any possible gaps in knowledge for future research in this field. Though overall survey trends were encouraging, usage of injecting drug and sexual intercourse through homosexual or heterosexual route among men with polygamy relationship with prostitutes to meet their sexual desire have emerged as important routes of HIV transmission in different parts of the world.
AIDS, HIV, Myths, NACO.
HIV transmission is a still global public health issue and it has devastating effects on the socio-economic development in
several countries of the world’s especially low income countries and middle income countries mostly African and Asian countries.
Even though roots of identification started from USA in the year 1986 first case of HIV unveiled [1-5]. From the date of identification
thirty years have passed but still most of the research focusing on HIV prevention has seen tremendous advancement of biomedical
and behavioral understanding among the people the challenges in preventing, diagnosing the virus and treating the particular
disease. According to UN Aids, people living HIV estimated between 34.3 million and 41.4 million. The bulk of the world’s HIV-positive
population is South Africa: 6.3 million, Nigeria the second with 3.2 million followed by India which estimates 2.1 million
in the year 2013. India estimated to have 1.8–2.9 million HIV positive persons in 2007 show decline in the HIV positive infected
person 2.1 million with an adult HIV prevalence of 0.34%, since then showed a steady decline from an estimated peak of 0.38%
in year 2001-03 through 0.34% in 2007 and 0.28% in 2012 to 0.26% in 2015. The sexual intercourse remains to be the major
mode for transmitting the disease, through injecting drug use and Men to Men sexual intercourse are on the rise in recent years
especially from 2010-2016 [5-12].
In the recent years, the country has observed the significant changing trend in HIV transmission through the sexual intercourse.
Early cases were concentrated among males but during the epidemic period, this pattern shifted towards the females with high
infection rates. The male/female ratio increased from 9:6 in 2000 to 4:5 in 2010 to 3:7 ratios in 2013 with increase in the female
high infection rates. Males have continued to represent its majority (90%) of cumulative HIV cases in India. Among men, 48% of
infection spread through by usage of infected injection and 47% through sexual intercourse may be homosexual or heterosexual
[5,7-9,13-19]. In sexual transmission about 87% infections amongst women occur through mainly heterosexual transmission, i.e.,
having sexual intercourse with infected men’s. While the infection among males shows a significant decline from 2010, the
female infection rate is showed a new quite opposite trend has increased among Women and girls increase to 21% of newly
infected persons nationwide in 2011compared which was 5% a decade ago.
AIDS & HIV: A missing link
According to the latest definition of the CDC, that about twenty nine quite similar disease its conditions – including yeast
infection, herpes, pneumonias, cancers, salmonella, diarrhoea and tuberculosis which leads to immunodeficiency lead to AIDS,
but only if they occur infected people who test positive for antibodies to HIV through diagnosis [20-26]. For example, that people
who die of cancer or tuberculosis are said to have died of AIDS if you are HIV-positive, if any one died of only tuberculosis if they
are not? Does we may missing link to understand between the HIV and AIDS.
HIV is only virus which causes a group of diseases caused by other group viruses and just like viruses attacking viruses which
said to be auto or self-disease. Moreover, when we see the diagnosis report of AIDS patients do not have any one of the 29 AIDS-causing
or defying diseases in common. In fact, AIDS diseases such as dementia, wasting syndrome and other type cancers do
not show in any kind of immune system defects to the body [13-16,27-32].
The CDC has change or expanded its definition of AIDS three times since 1981, again in 1993 the definition was expanded
again to include people who have the symptoms but have a CD4+ T-cell count of 200 or more less. Since then, more than half of
all new AIDS cases diagnosed each year have been among people who are not ill. However, some countries like Canada and most
of Europe region does not recognize the T-cell count criterion for AIDS diagnosis [33-39].
In most of African countries, according to WHO guidelines which allow patients has to be diagnosed with AIDS only if they
have combination of three or four symptoms such as chronic diarrhoea, prolonged fever, persistent cough, weight loss of 10% or
more, and generalized itching.
Pervert the patient’s immune system
AIDS/HIV identification provided tremendous boon for the pharma industry, which produces enormous profits by promoting
toxic antiviral drugs. The main impact of these drugs, however, has not been to improve patients’ long-term health, but it have
given boost the number of ‘AIDS deaths’ [40-43].
AZT drug is a highly toxic chemical compound which is created to cure cancer treatment and its nucleoside analogue drug
which stops DNA replication which it turns destroys all growing cells, including new cells produced in bone marrow where the
immune system is generated which was approved by FDA after twenty years as Anti HIV Drugs with in a stage clinical study which
produces high boost to pharma company [16,19,22,44-50]. AZT is more powerful than the strong stimulant drugs such as cocaine,
heroin which are now widely understood to have killed more patients than it has helped.
Myths About Strumpets And Hiv
Taking sex work as profession may be or may not be good one, but it has existed for across all continents has an old culture.
Nevertheless, so many myths written about sex work and sex workers still persist in the country like India any other south Asian
countries. These myths can be denigrate, devalue, and marginalize sex workers. Some widely held and unsupported views hinder
HIV responses which driving strumpets away from already scarce HIV prevention and treatment services [51-53]. Here, we aim to
dispose the most harmful of these myths with evidence-based literature. The first myth is that all strumpets are women. Although
most of the world’s strumpets are women, sex workers can be male or transgender people.
Let Us Talk About Some Myths Against HIV & Its Treatment
Myth 01: HIV does not cause AIDS?
Reality: HIV virus which causes AIDS, if you have AIDS, you must associate with HIV. If you do not have HIV, you cannot get
Myth 02: Does HIV been invented?
Reality: We do not have any evidence that HIV virus was invented in the laboratory in results any government conspiracy. A
prolong scientific data shown that it cannot be party drugs or bites of mosquitoes. HIV is a blood borne viruses that is transmitted
by body fluids including transfusion of blood, semen & vaginal fluid during the sexual intercourse and breast milk during lactation
Myth 03: Is a death sentence?
Reality: In 1980s and early 90s, this was true because everyone still little known about it how to treat people whom where
associated it. Due to the lack of knowledge, absence of most effective medication and it fear, so many people diagnosed with
HIV and were died with AIDS. Thankfully, however, this is no longer the case. We know that we have more and better HIV drugs
[44,49,51,61-69]. If you stick to your treatment regimen and take good care of your body, you can live a long, full life with HIV.
Myth 04: AIDS can be cured?
Reality: Unfortunately Answer is No, though research is currently taking place globally to find out the unanswerable to the unquestionable but some research is based on some cases that provide some hope and clues for the potential cure. For example
Berlin patient – a man who was diagnosed with HIV in mid-1995 [36,46,55,70-75], received an HIV-resistant donor's stem cells for his
bone marrow transplant in 2007, and is now reported to be HIV-free. Scientists still striving hard working hard to find one, but
there is no universal cure yet.
The Myth: "Drugs newer can be powerful, let us take a 'drug holiday"
The Reality: Some people were tempted to stop taking their HIV drugs for a short interval of time because they feel well
due to side effects with HIV. However, some studies shown that interrupting their treatment or taking a 'drug holiday' can cause
problem in curing the disease [66-69].
AIDS which scientifically defined, that precaution is better than cure; people can live for dozens of year with a good health.
Like all other viruses, the presence of some antibodies which are taken as a mean value of that the person concerned is which
is least potentially protected. Long-term survival is taken as is taken as proof of immunity or cure. Indeed, in contrast to what is
alleged about the ‘AIDS virus’, no different fatal disease agent is understood to cause death in nearly all infected people; nearly
each virus causes disease in precisely a minority of infected people, since the large area unit sometimes healthy enough to mount
have a fast immunologic response [76-84].
Let Us Know Our Right
It does not matter if any human being is infected or affected with HIV. "There cannot be any valid or effective response to
HIV/AIDS without any disrespect for the human beings, to safe guards his/her fundamental freedom and dignity towards the
each among us” [85-88].
Most important rights in the HIV scenario include
The implications of HIV are very different from most other diseases. Testing for HIV needs specific and consent of the person
being tested and any analysis on knowledge of HIV positive person [88-91].
A person has the right to keep information confidential. People with HIV are often afraid to go to court to vindicate their rights
for fear of their HIV status becoming public knowledge. However, they will take the assistance of Suppression of Identity beneath
a nom de guerre. This ensures that PLHA will look for justice without concern of social ostracism or discrimination [46,78,88,92-94].
The right to be treated equally is whether it’s something as simple as using public toilets as well or something more serious
like denial of housing, admission in the college, office [95-97].
He/she can take remedy in a court of law if you are tested for HIV without informed consent, or your confidentiality is
breached, or any of rights has been violated. You have the support of the legal system to ensure it if any does these kinds of things
A positive HIV test have many psychological risk factors: This may result in stress, despair and panic which impair health.
‘AIDS counselors’ urge their patients to prepare for an early death as soon as they have tested HIV-positive! Furthermore, almost
everyone with a positive HIV status consumes anti-HIV drugs that are highly toxic destroy the immune and digestive systems, in
turn which causes 5 of the 29 official listed AIDS-defining diseases. These drugs become harmful and even deadly when used on
a daily basis [16,35,46,95,98].
As far as sexual practices were concerned, that anal sex is more hazardous because the rectal tissues can be easily being
torn in which its allows semen to directly into the bloodstream easily without any defense of antibodies against them which
triggers suppression of immune system and it is a general rule that exposure to other people’s cells triggers an immune response
. However, semen can alone particularly in minute quantity that could contact blood through the anal intercourse, is unlikely
to have an irreversible effect on the immune system. ‘Having a Safe sex’ (the use of condoms) has impact in reducing the risk
of contracting Sexually Transmitted Diseases and can also protect people from AIDS caused by anti-HIV medication but condoms
does have the high breakdown rate in anal intercourse .
- Dimonte S and Babakir-Mina. Variability and signatures of capsid amino acid of hiv-1 d-subtype from drug-naïve and arv-treated individuals. J Virol Antivir Res. 2016;5:1.
- Vázquez-Santiago F, et al. Longitudinal analysis of cerebrospinal fluid and plasma HIV-1 envelope sequences isolated from a single donor with HIV asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment. J Virol Antivir Res. 2015;4:1-4.
- Alvarez P, et al. HIV-1 RNA quantification from dried blood spots and plasma using the siemens Versant® HIV-1 RNA 1. J Virol Antivir Res. 2014;3:1-4.
- Maselko MB, et al. Basant, a polyherbal topical microbicide candidate inhibits different clades of both ccr5 and cxcr4 tropic, lab-adapted and primary isolates of human immunodeficiency virus-1 in vitro infection. J Virol Antivir Res. 2014;3:1-4.
- Archer T. Aspects of cognition/health failure by HIV-infected individuals: amelioration through exercise. HIV Curr Res. 2016;1:1.
- Moreira HP, et al. HIV-positive inflammatory activity monitoring correlated to peripheral insulin resistance - hire study. HIV Curr Res. 2016;1:101.
- Naik S, Das BR. New WHO guidelines: Implications on therapeutics and monitoring of HIV infections. HIV Curr Res. 2016;1:102.
- Oladosu TO, et al. Attending art clinic at the fmc owo, Nigeria and their antibiogram profile. HIV Curr Res. 2016;1:103.
- Tumwikirize S and Mokoboto-Zwane S. Participation in pl HIV support groups: does it enhance behavioural outcomes? HIV Curr Res.2016;1:104.
- Adeyanju K, et al. Cytoplasmic distribution of hiv-1 tat sensitizes jurkat t cells to sulphamethoxazole-hydroxylamine induced toxicity. HIV Curr Res. 2016;1:105.
- Chheda P, et al. Study of HIV-1 co-receptor tropism and resistance to integrase strand transfer inhibitors in the Indian patients for inducting new antiretroviral drugs in treatment regimens recipient. J Virol Antivir Res. 2014;3:3.
- Gwadz M, et al. Exploring factors associated with recent HIV testing among heterosexuals at high risk for HIV infection recruited with venue-based sampling. J AIDS Clin Res. 2016;7:544.
- Miguez-Burbano MJ. Platelets should be at the frontline: HIV researchers and care providers needs a lot of sticky notes. J AIDS Clin Res. 2016;7:e118.
- Upton RL. HIV prevention, infertility and concordance in partner selection among couples living with HIV and aids in rural and peri-urban contexts in Botswana. J AIDS Clin Res. 2015;6:526.
- Seloilwe ES, et al. Parent and youth communication patterns on HIV and AIDS, STIS and sexual matters: Opportunities and challenges. J Child Adolesc Behav. 2015;3:203.
- Goparaju L, et al. Women want pre-exposure prophylaxis but are advised against it by their HIV-positive counterparts. J AIDS Clin Res. 2015;6:52.
- Indridason H, et al. Long term nationwide analysis of HIV and AIDS in Iceland, 1983-2012. J AIDS Clin Res. 2014;5:387.
- Ahmad N. Influence of HIV-1 genetic variability on vertical transmission and pathogenesis. J Virol Antivir Res. 2015;4:1.
- Saggurti N, et al. Men’s heavy alcohol use and risk of HIV acquisition and transmission to sexual partners within marriage in India. J Alcohol Drug Depend. 2014;2:147.
- Majelantle RG, et al. Knowledge, opinions and attitudes towards HIV and AIDS among youth in Botswana. J Glob Econ. 2014;1:108
- Pindani M, et al. Perception of people living with HIV and AIDS regarding home based care in Malawi. J AIDS Clin Res. 2013;4:201.
- Johnbull OS. HIV and AIDS in Nigeria: Meeting the rural challenges. J AIDS Clin Res. 2013;4:e111.
- Rahman M, et al. Genetic characterization of hepatitis C viruses in HIV positive people who inject drugs, Dhaka, Bangladesh. J AIDS Clinic Res. 2012;3:165.
- Ramovha R, et al. The psychological experience of HIV and AIDS by newly diagnosed infected patients at hospital a of Vhembe district, Limpopo province. J AIDS Clinic Res S. 2016;1:1.
- Antonio MMJ, et al. Clinical and epidemiological differences between women and men with HIV infection in Mexico. J AIDS Clin Res. 2012;7:6.
- Upton RL. HIV prevention, infertility and concordance in partner selection among couples living with HIV and aids in rural and peri-urban contexts in Botswana. J AIDS Clin Res. 2016;6:551.
- Linguissi LSG, et al. Prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission. J AIDS Clin Res. 2015;6:526.
- Bagchi S, et al. Underutilization of statins for prevention of cardiovascular disease among primarily African-American HIV-infected patients. J AIDS Clin Res. 2015;6.
- Abiodun O, et al. The effect of training on traditional birth attendants’ PMTCT related knowledge and care practices in Nigeria. J AIDS Clin Res. 2015;6:499.
- Pereira H, et al. HIV prevalence and hiv-related sexual practices among men who have sex with men in Portuguese bathhouses. J AIDS Clin Res. 2015;6:498.
- Asare-Bempong G, et al. Recruiting black men who have sex with men and women. J AIDS Clin Res. 2015;6:415.
- Chamroonsawasdi K, et al. Monitoring and evaluation of a model development project and strategic campaign on HIV/AIDS prevention among Muslim communities in Thailand. J AIDS Clin Res. 2015;5.
- Mathur P, et al. Rising syphilis infection among rural HIV-infected men who routinely received risk- reduction counseling: new challenges to HIV prevention in clinical care. J AIDS Clin Res. 2014;5:384.
- Lilian O, et al. The role of a special prevention of mother to child transmission clinic in improving prevention, care and treatment of infected and exposed infants; Taso Masaka experience. J AIDS Clin Res. 2014;5:333.
- Birk TJ, et al. Prolonged and shorter aerobic exercise training in HIV. J AIDS Clin Res. 2014;5.
- Jbilou J, et al. Men-centered approaches for primary and secondary prevention of HIV/AIDS: A scoping review of effective interventions. J AIDS Clin Res. 2013;5:270
- Anígilájé EA, et al. The prevalence and predictors of HIV infection among children of mothers who missed prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV interventions in Makurdi, Nigeria. J AIDS Clin Res. 2013;4:257.
- Horner P, et al. Social cultural stressors in Dominican republic HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment. J AIDS Clin Res. 2013;4:249.
- Tjen-A-Looi A, et al. Hypophosphatemic osteomalacia associated with tenofovir use in HIV-infected patients: A case series and review of the literature. J AIDS Clinic Res S. 2013;4:242.
- Nachega JB, et al. Adherence to antiretroviral therapy for the success of emerging interventions to prevent HIV transmission: A wakeup call. J AIDS Clinic Res S. 2012;4:8.
- Hong SY, et al. Knowledge of HIV transmission and associated factors among HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients in rural Kenya. J AIDS Clinic Res. 2012;3:7.
- Avery AK, et al. Decreasing missed opportunities for HIV testing in primary care through enhanced utilization of the electronic medical record. J AIDS Clinic Res S. 2012;4:170.
- Rice E, et al. Sex risk among young men who have sex with men who use GRINDR, a smartphone geosocial networking application. J AIDS Clinic Res S. 2012;4:6.
- Frew P, et al. Assessment of a microbicide candidate among a diverse cohort of urban southern us women and their male sexual partners. J AIDS Clinic Res S. 2012;4:5.
- Ramjee G, et al. Targeted combination HIV prevention packages to halt the global HIV epidemic. J AIDS Clinic Res S. 2012;4:4.
- Horton A, et al. AIDS in black America: a study of the city of Chicago. J Addict Res Ther. 2012;4:2.
- Chamcha V, et al. Probiotics based approaches to target mucosal compartments: Potential novel approaches to HIV vaccine development. J AIDS Clin Res. 2013;7:148.
- Moulignier A, et al. Back pain in HIV-infected patients may be due to spinal epidural lipomatosis. J AIDS Clin Res. 2016;6:e119.
- Linguissi LSG, et al. Prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission. J AIDS Clin Res. 2015;6:505.
- Umoren EB, et al. Influence of long term administration of nevirapine on serum liver enzymes profile in albino wistar rats. J AIDS Clin Res. 2015;6.
- Fuchs JD, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of a recombinant adenovirus serotype 35-vectored HIV-1 vaccine in adenovirus serotype 5 seronegative and seropositive individuals. J AIDS Clin Res. 2015;6:491.
- NHabibzadeh, et al. How can improve DNA vaccine modalities as a therapeutic approach against HIV infections? J AIDS Clin Res. 2015;6:461.
- Du P, et al. Comparisons of vlp-based Elisa, neutralization assays with native HPV and neutralization assays with PSV in detecting HPV antibody responses in HIV-infected women. J AIDS Clin Res. 2015;6:440.
- Iyer AS, et al. Response to pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination in HIV-positive individuals on long term highly active. Antiretroviral Therapy J AIDS Clin Res. 2015;6:433.
- Ma M, et al. Predictors of willingness of participate in HIV vaccine trials among African. Americans J AIDS Clin Res. 2015;5:421.
- Olanrewaju O, et al. Willingness to participate in cardiovascular clinical research among African-Americans. J Clinic Res Bioeth. 2014;6:361.
- Nageswara Rao A. The pursuit of a HIV vaccine – Trials, challenges and strategies. J AIDS Clin Res. 2014;5:1-5.
- Salah S, et al. A novel approach to inhibit HIV-1 infection by actively neutralizing the antibodies of reverse transcriptase system. J AIDS Clin Res. 2014;5:298.
- Gouvêa AdFTB, et al. Long-term persistence of hepatitis a antibodies in pediatric HIV-infected patients after primary immunization: Association with immunological profile and response to revaccination. J AIDS Clin Res. 2014;5:310.
- Shete A, et al. Is prime boost strategy a promising approach in HIV vaccine development? J AIDS Clin Res. 2014;5:295.
- Van Regenmortel MHV, et al. Paradigm changes and the future of HIV vaccine research: A summary of a workshop held in Baltimore on 20 November 2013. J AIDS Clin Res. 2014;5.
- Desaint C, et al. Long-term persistence of vaccine-induced HIV seropositivity in healthy volunteers. J AIDS Clin Res. 2014;5:281.
- Okpokoro E, et al. Preparing for HIV vaccine trials in Nigeria: Building the capacity of the community and national coordinating, regulatory and ethical bodies. J AIDS Clin Res. 2014;4:275.
- Varela M, et al. The current state of HIV vaccine research. J AIDS Clinic Res. 2013;8:260.
- Van Regenmortel MHV. An introduction to the current state of HIV vaccine research. J AIDS Clinic Res. 2012;8:e002.
- Kong L, et al. Antigenicity and immunogenicity in HIV-1 antibody-based vaccine design. J AIDS Clinic Res. 2012;8:e001.
- Vose M, et al. Acanthamoeba keratitis in an HIV positive daily disposable contact lens wearer. J Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2012;6:3-5.
- Santiago FV, et al. Envelope gene evolution and HIV-1 neuropathogenesis. J Neuroinfect Dis S. 2015;2:456-458.
- Musso C, et al. Proximal tubule function and free water clearance: Comparison between healthy elderly and young HIV+ patients. Aging Sci. 2015;1:3.
- Horton A, et al. AIDS in black America: A study of the city of Chicago. J Addict Res Ther. 2013;4:106.
- Dhalla S, et al. What are the current advances regarding HIV vaccines and HIV vaccine trials. J Bioanal Biomed. 2013;4:148.
- Bastian AR. Microbicides that can pop HIV-1. J Antivir Antiretroviral. 2012;6:54-56.
- Reeves RK. Mechanisms, consequences, and treatment of chronic inflammation in HIV disease. J Antivir Antiretroviral. 2010;6:51-56.
- Nguyen L, et al. Prevalence of nocturnal oxygen desaturation in subjects with HIV infection. J AIDS Clin Res. 2014;7.
- Le Dû D, et al. Maraviroc intensification in HIV-1 infected patients with persistent low level Viremia. J AIDS Clin Res. 2014;7:54-56.
- Jean Louis F, et al. Low prevalence of cryptococcal antigenemia among patients infected with HIV/AIDS in Haiti. J AIDS Clin Res.2014;7:35-37.
- Nizami S, et al. Evaluation of fib-4 index as a marker for hepatocellular carcinoma in HIV - hepatitis C co-infection. J AIDS Clin Res.2016;7:580.
- Chatterjee A, et al. Congenital cytomegaloviral infection causing severe pulmonary hypertension in a newborn with an HIV seropositive mother - a case report from eastern India. J AIDS Clin Res. 2016;7:578.
- Laresgoiti E, et al. Depressive symptomatology, tnf-a, and perinatal outcomes among HIV- seropositive pregnant women. J AIDS Clin Res. 2016;7:577.
- Mzingwane ML, et al. Molecular characterization and HIV drug resistance patterns of HIV-1 variants in plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells sample pairs. J AIDS Clin Res. 2016;7:570.
- Antonio MMJ, et al. Clinical and epidemiological differences between women and men with HIV infection in Mexico. J AIDS Clin Res. 2016;7:567.
- Delavande A, et al. The impact of repeat HIV testing on risky sexual behavior: Evidence from a randomized controlled trial in Malawi. J AIDS Clin Res. 2016;7:564.
- Schadé A, et al. Mindfulness based cognitive therapy. J AIDS Clin Res. 2016;7:562.
- Gwadz M, et al. Exploring factors associated with recent HIV testing among heterosexuals at high risk for HIV infection recruited with venue-based sampling. J AIDS Clin Res. 2016;7:551.
- Rico JC, et al. The presence of a malignant comorbidity is a significant predictor of increased 30 day hospital readmission rates in HIV-1 infected individuals. J AIDS Clin Res. 2016;6:549.
- Upton RL, et al. HIV prevention, infertility and concordance in partner selection among couples living with HIV and aids in rural and peri-urban contexts in Botswana. J AIDS Clin Res. 2016;6.
- Iwuji CC, et al. The art of HIV elimination: Past and present science. J AIDS Clin Res. 2016;6:544.
- Pereira H, et al. Sexual behavior and HIV testing practices among men who have sex with men in Portugal. J AIDS Clin Res. 2015;6:532.
- Goparaju L, et al. Women want pre-exposure prophylaxis but are advised against it by their HIV-positive counterparts. J AIDS Clin Res. 2015;6:526.
- Hamdela B, et al. Predictors of early antenatal care booking in government health facilities of hosanna town, Hadiya zone, south Ethiopia: Unmatched case control study. J AIDS Clin Res. 2015;6:525.
- Patekar D, et al. Prevalence of viral co-infections with ebv and cmv and its correlation with cd4 count in HIV- 1 serpositive patients. J AIDS Clin Res. 2015;6:524.
- Liu X, et al. A quantitative exploration of health care workers’ opinions and attitudes towards HIV infected co-workers and patients in Beijing, China. J AIDS Clin Res. 2015;6:522.
- Chakraborty A, et al. Cytomegalovirus retinitis with multiple co infections in an HIV/AIDS patient having extreme low cd4 count: A case report and review of literature. J AIDS Clin Res. 2015;5:521.
- Srivastava S, et al. To probe the conformational adaptability of conserved g-p-g-r segment in the v3 loop of HIV-1. J Antivir Antiretrovir. 2015;4:520.
- A Tolerability Review of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors: focus on laboratory measures of clinical relevance. J Antivir Antiretrovir. 2015;4:519.
- Férir G, et al. Griffiths in, alone and combined with all classes of antiretroviral drugs, potently inhibits HIV cell-cell transmission and destruction of cd4+ t cells. J Antivir Antiretrovir. 2014;4:394.
- Naga Anusha P. Antiretroviral strategies for treatment of HIV. J Antivir Antiretrovir. 2011;3:055-059.
- Giunta J, et al. Sleep disorders and cardio-renal disease: Implications for minority populations. Epidemiology (Sunnyvale). 2016;6:1-5.
- Bjorkenstam C, et al. Is work disability more common among same-sex than different-sex married people? Epidemiology (Sunnyvale).2014:6:1-9.
- Benbrahim Z, et al. Health related quality of life in patients with lung cancer in Morocco. Arch Surg Oncol.2016: 2:1-6.