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Importance of Effective Training in an organization a Case Study

R.Sangeetha
Asst. Professor, Department of Tourism & Hospitality Management, Bharath University, Chennai – 600073, India
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Abstract

This paper aims to reflect the effectiveness of training in local administration in the Hospitality Industry by using the Mean, Standard deviation, Standard error and‘t’ test. This study is based on secondary data concluding that training helps urban local administration to develop administrative system and to improved performance indicators in Hospitality Industry.

Keywords

Induction training; Need based training; Planned training and Utilization.

INTRODUCTION

The expectations of guests are fast increasing as they all now look forward to world class urban facilities and services. Our city dwellers need to facilitate in becoming globally competitive in all professions, in all walks of life accordingly urban management in India is undergoing a three pronged agenda of capacity building which covers on different aspect of hospitality functions and in order to overcome all these issues training is important factor in every Organizations. Training is useful for consolidating the vision that change brings with it and for identifying necessary activities. This paper will focus on the effects of training in Hospitality Administration. It is important to note from the beginning that we do not aim to study the goodness services delivery, but to discuss how to achieve a higher degree administration through training. Knowledge may be acquired by using what are traditionally known as training systems or self-study, experience, attending training program etc. In this case, we will focus specifically on effectiveness of such training. As everyone has understood the importance of training in order to develop the employee and make him suitable to the job. Job and organizational requirement are not static, they are changed from time to time in view of various advancement and change in awareness of the management system. The training is such a factor which is managed externally, since it is sole responsibility of employee to carry out the task they have been assigned after the training. Management sets up the team as a work unit (it designs the team task, chooses its members, sets out basis rules for attaining goals,) Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skill of an employee for doing a particular job. Training is a short-term educational process and utilizing a systematic and organized procedure by which employees learn technical knowledge and skills for a definite purpose. Dale S. Beach defines, “training as the organized procedure by which people learn knowledge and skill for a definite purpose”. In other words, training improves, changes, moulds the employee’s knowledge, skill, behavior, aptitude, and attitude towards the requirements of the job and organization. Training refers to the teaching and learning activities carried on for the primary purpose of helping members of an organization, to acquire and apply the knowledge, skills, abilities and attitudes needed by a particular job and organization. Thus, training bridges the differences between job requirements and employee’s present specifications. The importance of human resource management to a large extent depends on human resource development. Trained employees would be a valuable asset to an organization. Organizational efficiency, productivity, progress and development to a greater extent depend on training. Organizational objectives like viability, stability and growth can be achieved through training. Training is important as it constitutes significant part of management control. Training & Development was used to assess the extent to which the training function is being effectively managed. This function contributes to growth and development of employee competency and motivation. If training has to effective it has to be need-based, well-planned, evaluated monitored and useful. Both the senior line officers and the staff become partners in ensuring the effectiveness of training. Training effectiveness comprises four variables viz (I) Induction training; (II) Need based training; (III) Planned training and (IV) Utilization.

II.OBJECTIVES

 To examine the effectiveness of training in hospitality industry.
 To compare and analyze the opinion of Managing Director or we can say as General Manager on the effectiveness of training in sample unit.
 To test statistically whether there is significant difference in the opinion of Managing Director or General Manager regarding effectiveness of training in hospitality industry.

SELECTION OF SAMPLE & RESPONDENTS

This is basically an empirical study about the measuring the training effectiveness, based on the perception of employees/officers working in hospitality industry selected for this purpose. The second part is related to the training effectiveness and its various sub-systems such as: (i) Induction training; (ii) Need based training; (iii) Planned training and (iv) Utilization.

SCORING PATTERN

There are five choices for each statement on the basis of Five- Point- Scale.

INDUCTION TRAINING:

There are five choices for each statement on the basis of Five- Point- Scale. INDUCTION TRAINING: – There are 6 statements in total. Thus the score below 12 exhibits that this training function is ineffectively’ performed in the organization; score 12-18 effectively’ and score above 18 highly effectively’. NEED BASED TRAINING: – There are eight statements in all. So the score below 16 denotes ineffectively; score 16-24 effectively’ and score above 24 highly effectively’ performed in the Organization. PLANNED TRAINING: – There are two statements in total. So the score below 4 explains that this training function is performed Ineffectively’ score 4-6 Effectively’ and score above 6 Highly effectively’. UTILISATION: – There are four statements in all. So the score below 8 means that this function is performed in effectively’ in the organization; score 8-12 Effectively’ and score above 12 Highly effectively.’ TOOLS OF ANALYSIS The following statistical tools would be applied for the purpose of analyzing the collected data: ‘t’ Test ‘t’ Test would be used to determine whether the mean of a sample deviates significantly from the population mean. The value of the‘t’ – test is calculated as under:
Where
u = Populations mean n = the sample size S = the Standard deviation of the sample.
S = the Standard deviation of the sample. If the calculated value of‘t’ exceeds the table value at desired level of confidence, this shows that difference between x and u is significant. On the other hand, if the calculated value of ‘t’ is less than the table value at desired level of confidence, the difference between x and u is not statistically significant and hence the sample might have been drawn from a population with mean = u. In addition to above some other statistical tools such as Mean, Standard deviation, Standard Error and Percentage have also been used in accordance with the requirement of the subject matter and the nature of inference to be drawn.
The Hospitality Industry is highly effective in performing this function. So, it has to travel long distance in order to achieve the goal i.e. being highly effective in this regard. It is satisfying that the perception of all the four categories of personnel is in conformity with that of population as evident by t’ values. The’t’ values indicate that the mean score value pertaining to all the four classes of officers does not differ from the grand mean value. So, none holds the view that Hospitality Industry is highly effective in discharging this function. Thus, the Hospitality Industry needs to do much more in order to be highly effective in performing this function. It is satisfying that the views of all the four categories of officers are in agreement with that of population as witnessed by t’ values. The function is performed ineffectively as viewed by the personnel of other three categories.

III.HIERARCHY BASED ANALYSIS

According to the Hierarchy level of personnel viz. (i) Lower level of management (ii) Middle level of management and (iii) Higher level of management. The mean values show that this function is performed effectively in the Hospitality Industry as viewed by the officers of lower and middle level management. However, the job is done in highly effective manner in the Hospitality Industry t as perceived by the higher level of management. The‘t’ values indicates that the mean score value for the lower and middle level of management does not differ from the grand mean value. However, the mean score value pertaining to the Higher level of management differs from the grand mean value. So, Hospitality Industry can improve a bit or at least maintain its present position in this regard. The views of higher level of managers only are not in harmony with that of population as evidenced by‘t’ values. It appears that they have inflated opinion in this respect. The mean values indicate that this function is performed ineffectively in the Hospitality Industry as viewed by the lower level of management. However, the function is discharged effectively as perceived by the managers of middle level. But the Job is done in highly effective manner in the Hospitality Industry as opined by the higher level of management. The’t’ values show that the mean score value for the managers of lower and higher level of management differs from the grand mean value. However, the mean score value pertaining to the middle level of management does not differ from the grand mean value. So under such situation, it is very difficult to draw out inference about the extent the need-based-training is imparted in the Hospitality Industry. However, there is no harm if Hospitality Industry takes steps in identifying and, accelerates needbased- training program in future for the employees. The views of lower and higher level managers are not in agreement with that of population as shown by t’ values. The mean values indicate that this function is discharged effectively in the Hospitality Industry as viewed by the managers of lower and middle level management. However, the function is performed highly effective in the Municipal Council Department as perceived by the higher level of management. The’t’ values show that the mean score for the lower and middle level of management does not differ from the grand mean value. However, the mean score value pertaining to the managers of higher level management differs from the grand mean value. So let the Hospitality Industry maintain its present position in this regard. The perceptions of higher level of management only are in sharp contrast to that of population as proved by t’ values. It seems they might have inflated their views in this regard. The mean values indicate that this function is performed ineffectively in the Hospitality Industry as viewed by the managers of lower level management. However, the function is discharged effectively as viewed by the other two hierarchy levels of management i.e. middle and higher level of management. The’t’ values show that the mean score values for the lower and middle level management differs from the grand mean value. However, the mean score value pertaining to the higher level of management does not differ from the grand mean value. Thus, this variable is discharged ineffectively in the Hospitality Industry as viewed by the lower level of management. However, the job is done effectively as perceived by the middle and higher level of management. But none considers that training is utilized in highly effective manner in the Hospitality Industry.So it is better if Hospitality Industry takes steps to see that training is utilized in an effective manner in the organization. The perceptions of lower and middle level managers are not in harmony with that of population as proved by t’ values

IV.QUALIFICATION BASED ANALYSIS

According to the qualification of personnel i.e. (i) Up to Graduates; (ii) Post Graduates and (iii) Professionals like B.E., B. Tech., MBA, CA, ICWA, CS etc. The mean values indicate that this function is performed effectively in the Hospitality Industry as perceived by personnel effectively in the Hospitality Industry as perceived by performed of all the four groups. The ’t’ values show that the mean score values for the managers of categories (i) and (ii) differ from the managers of categories (i) and (ii) differ from the grand mean value. The mean score values pertaining to the personnel of class (iii) do not differ from the grand mean value. Thus, the function, Induction Training’ of training effectiveness is conducted effectively in the organization as viewed by the managers of all the three categories. However, none is of the opinion that the Hospitality Industry is highly effective in discharging this function. So, there is still room for improvement in this respect. It is bit disturbing that the perception of I and II categories of managers is not in harmony with that of population as evident by‘t’ values. The mean values indicate that this training function is discharged ineffectively in the organization as perceived by the managers of groups (i) and (iii). However, the function is done effectively as viewed by the personnel of category (ii). The ’t’ values show that the mean score values pertaining to the managers of classes (i) and (ii) differ from the grand mean value. The mean score value for (iii) category managers of do not differ from the grand mean value. Thus, there is every need for exploring the possibility of need-based-training for the employees in the Hospitality Industry. It is bit disturbing that view of I and II categories of managers are not in agreement with that of population as t’ values prove. The mean values show that this function is done ineffectively in the Hospitality Industry as viewed by the managers of group (i). However, the function is discharged effectively as perceived by the personnel of groups (ii) and (iii). The’t’ values indicate that the mean score value for the managers of I category differs from the grand mean value. However, the mean score values pertaining to the managers of II and III groups do not differ from the grant mean value. So, it can be inferred that there is need to improve planning aspect of training in the Hospitality Industry. It is better if training function is performed in planned way rather in haphazard manner. The mean values indicate that this training function is performed ineffectively in the Hospitality Industry as viewed by all the three groups of personnel. The’t’ values show that the mean score value for each of the three categories of personnel does not differ from the grand mean value. Thus, the Utilization’ aspect of training effectiveness is ineffectiveness in the organization as perceived by the managers of all the three categories. This is really somewhat unpleasing situation. So, Hospitality Industry should take necessary steps for the utilization of training effectively in the organization. It is satisfying that the perceptions of all the three categories of managers match with that of population as witnessed by t’ values.

V.EXPERIENCE BASED ANALYSIS

According to the length of Experience of the personnel of Municipal Council Department i.e. (i) Low experienced (Below 8 years); (ii) Medium experienced (Between 8-18 years) and (iii) Highly experienced (Above 18 years) personnel. The mean values indicate that this training function is performed effectively in the Municipal Councils as viewed by all the three category of personnel. The’t’ values show that the mean score value pertaining to all the three categories of managers doesn’t differ from the grand mean value. So, the Induction Training’ aspect of training effectiveness is done effectively in the Hospitality Industry as perceived by all the three categories of managers. There is still room for improvement i.e. being highly effective in this regard. So let the Hospitality Industry maintain its present position in discharging this function. It is also satisfying that the perception of all the three classes of managers is in conformity with that of population as proved by t’ values.
The mean values indicate that this function is done ineffectively in the Hospitality Industry as viewed by the group of managers. However, the function is discharged effectively as perceived by the personnel of (ii) and (iii) categories. The’t’ values show that the mean score value for the managers of I Category differs from the grand mean value. However, the mean score value pertaining to the II and III groups of personnel does not differ from the grand mean value. So, none is of the view that the Hospitality Industry is highly effective in discharging this function. Thus, Hospitality Industry needs to do much more in order to strengthen need-based-training for employees in the organization. The perception of I category of managers only differs from that of population as t’ value proves. The mean values show that this function is performed ineffectively in the Hospitality Industry as perceived by the managers of class (i). However, the function is discharged effectively as viewed by the personnel of classes (ii) and (iii). The’t’ values indicate that the mean score value pertaining to I category of managers differs from the grand mean value. However, the mean score values for the managers of second and third groups do not differ from the grand mean value. So, offices need to improve it in this regard. The perception of I category of managers only differs from that of population as t’ value proves. The mean values indicate that the function is discharged ineffectively in the Hospitality Industry as viewed by all the three grouping manager. The’t’ values show that the mean score value for the each of the two categories of personnel does not differ from the grand mean value. Thus, the function, Utilization of training effectiveness is ineffective in the organization as viewed by the managers of all the three categories. This is reason enough for to think over as to how training can be utilized in a highly effective manner. It is good that the views of all the three categories of managers are in agreement with that of population as evident by’t’ values.

References

1. Bhatia SK (2009) Training and Development ‘Deep & Deep Publication’ New Delhi

2. Dale S.Beach, (1980), Personnel, Macmillan, New York, p.290.

3. Rao, Subba, P., (2010), Management: Theory and Practice, Himalaya Publishing House, New Delhi, and PP324-350.

4. Singh, B.R., (1982), “Designing Training and Development Systems”, Indian Journal of Training and Development, July-Sept. and Oct.-Dec., PP. 1-6.