Received date: 02/01/2020; Accepted date: 13/01/2020 Published date: 20/01/2020
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Objective: Endophytes are nothing but microflora of plant. Each plant has its own endophytic flora.C. benghalensis is weed. Day flower is unique feature of Commelina benghalensis. Which is relatively difficult to control by herbicide? So, objective of this work is to isolate and identify endophytic bacteria from dayflower of Commelina benghalensis and finding role of entophyte in herbicide resistivity.
Methods: The plant of C. benghalensis was collected from nearby Solapur area and re-cultivated in college botanical garden. Dayflowers were collected from underground roots of C. benghalensis. Separated dayflowers were brought in laboratory and wash thoroughly by tap water. Surface sterilization was carried out by 70% alcohol, Tween 20, Sodium hypochloride and distilled water. Each dayflower was cut into two pieces from its central axis. These two cut pieces were separately inoculated on nutrient agar medium (cut portion facing toward medium) and incubate for 24 hours at 37°C.
Result: After 24 hours of incubation, white bacterial growth was observed on nutrient agar medium exactly near surrounding area of cut portion of dayflower. Colonies were isolated and used for further biochemical tests.The Biochemical tests were performed on Vitek 2 biomérieux vitek 2 systems by using the identification software PIBWIN Version 2.0.0. On the basis of analysis of this system, it is finalized that the isolated bacterial strain was Micrococcusspp.
Conclusion: This resistivity to herbicides might be due to presence of micrococcus spp. in its dayflower. Because, Micrococcus actively participate in catabolic reactions by utilizing a wide range of unusual substrate like herbicides, pyridine, oil and chlorinated biphenyls.
Commellina benghalensis, Dayflower, Endophytic bacteria, Affinity chromatography, Micrococcusspecies
Bacteria and fungi which live inside plant cells without any harm to plant are called endophytes . Most plant species accommodate one, or more than one, kind of endophyte. Endophytesdevelop some associations with the host plant [2-6]. These associations can be commensal or mutualistic but, sometime few bacteria and fungi live as parasite inside the plant cells . More work was done on endophytic fungi than bacterial endophytes [8,9]. In this study, we have isolated endophytic bacteria from day flower of Commelinabenghalensis. The Commellina benghalensis is a weed plantbelongs to family commelinaceae .These weeds are normally found in crop field during monsoon season (June to September).
Commellina benghalensis commonly known as the Benghal dayflower, trophical spiderwort, wandering jew, kanshira in Bengali language while in Hindi it is called as Kana and in Sanskrit: kanchata, kosapuspi, marishajalaja. Day flower is a unique character of commelinance family. This day flower is self -pollinating. It is a native to tropical Asia and Africa.
The study suggested that, there is a great diversity in reproductive systems of dayflower of Commellina . It produces three types of flowers one male flower, chasmogamous and twohermaphroditeschasmogamous andcleistogamous. All three types develop on aerial branches. From this hermaphrodite chasmogamous flowers areon subaerial branches and cleistogamous flowers grow on underground branches. Also some plants may produce female flowers on aerial branches. The dayflowers have three ovules per ovary .
As per the review of literature maximum work was done on different plant parts of C. benghalensis expect dayflower and a bit of work was carried out on endophytes of this plant. So effort was made to isolated endophytic bacteria from day flower of Commelina benghalensis other than different plant portion.
Collection of plant
The plant of C. benghalensis was collected from nearby Solapur areaand re-cultivated in college botanical garden (Figures 1 and 2).
Isolation of Endophytic bacteria
For isolation of endophytes, dayflowers were collected from underground roots of C.benghalensis (Figure 3). Separated dayflowers were brought in laboratory andwash thoroughly by tap water. Surface sterilization was carried out by 70% alcohol, Tween 20, Sodium hypochloride and distilled water. Each dayflower was cut into two pieces from its central axis. These two cut pieces were separately inoculated on nutrient agar medium (cut portion facing toward medium) and incubate for 24 hours at 37°C.
Biochemical characterization of Endophyte
The isolated endophytic bacterial colonies were identified on the basis of morphological, cultural and biochemical characteristics. The Biochemical tests were performed on Vitek 2 biomérieuxvitek 2 systems using the identification software PIBWIN Version 2.0.0 .
Isolation of Entophytic bacteria
In the present study, After 24 hours of incubation, white bacterial growth was observed on nutrient agar medium exactly near surrounding area of cut portion of dayflower. Four quadrant streaking method was performed to isolate single colony of respective bacteria. Well isolated colony was streak and maintain on separate nutrient agar slant. These isolated colonies were used for further biochemical tests (Figure 4).
The isolated endophyticbacteria were gram positive with white coloured colony morphology (Figure 5). These strain showed positive results for biochemical tests such as Catalase, Arginine, Hihydrolase 1, Beta galactosidase, Alpha glucosidase, Lascinarmylamidase, L-prolinearmylamidase, Alanine, Arylamidase, Tyrosine armylamidase, Urease, D-glucose, D-ribose, N-acetyl - D-glucosamine, D-maltose, Bactracin resistance, D-mannitol, D-mannose, Methyl -B-D-glucopyranoside, Saccharose \ Sucrose, D-trehalose and optochin resistance. The Biochemical tests were performed on Vitek 2 biomérieuxvitek 2 systems by using the identification software PIBWIN Version 2.0.0. On the basis of analysis of this system, it is finalized that the isolated bacterial strain was Micrococcusspp. The result of biochemical tests (Table 1).
|White Creame Colony||-|
|Yellow Orange colony||-|
|Pink Red colony||-|
|Phosphatidylinositol Phospholipase C||-|
|Arginine Hihydrolase 1||+|
|L Aspartate Arylamidase||-|
|Polymyxin B Resistance||-|
|Growth In 6.5% NaCl||-|
|O/129 Resistance (Comp. Vibrio.)||-|
Table 1. Biochemical tests for identification of isolated entophytic strains from Dayflower of Commellina benghalensis.
The planet having about 300,000 species of plants, from these, majority of plants contain endophytes . In nature, an endophyte-free plant is a rare exception . Endophytes help plant to cope up with infections developed by pathogen and various environmental stress .
he most frequently found genera of bacterial endophytes are Pseudomonas, Micrococcus, Bacillus, Stenotrophomonas, Burkholde-ria, Pantoea, Microbacterium, [16-22]. Genus micrococcus have been detected an endophytes in several other plants including the Aloe vera , zea , cotton , rice seed , the roots of Polysporaaxillaris  and Aquilariasinensis .
The result of this study indicates that the isolated strain of endophyte shows distinct features of different species of genus micrococcus, that it should be described as novel species in day flower of C. benghalensis. This micrococcus spp. are likely involved in biodegradation of different environmental pollutant to and decrease their toxicity [27-30]. Some Micrococcus isolates also can produce different useful products, such as long-chain aliphatic hydrocarbons for lubricating oils.
Medicinal plants are source of great economic value all over the World. On literature available it can be said that C. benghalensis plant, show unique characteristic of presence of day flower whose entophytic screening were studied. According to this study an endophytic bacteria of dayflower of said plant is nothing but micrococcus spp.
C. benghalensis is relatively difficult to control by herbicide. This resistivity to herbicides might be due to presence of micrococcusspp. In its dayflower. Because, Micrococcus actively participate in catabolic reactions by utilizing a wide range of unusual substrate like herbicides, pyridine, oil and chlorinated biphenyls.
I would like to acknowledge Department of Genetics, Department of biotechnology Walchand College Solapur. Also I would to thank Dr. S. P. Gaikwad and Dr. R.D. Gore from Department of Botany,Walchand College Solapurfor their help in identification of plant species. Also I acknowledge Dr. DilipKarad, department of Microbiology, Shivaji college, Barshi for identification of endophyte.