Novel Aspects and Strategies in Vaccination
Snehitha Megaji1*, Akhilesh Thota2, Archana Terala3
1Department of Pharmacy, Ganga Pharmacy College, Nizamabad, Telangana, India
2Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Vathsalya College of Pharmacy, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
3Department of Pharamaceutics, Vijay College of Pharmacy, Nizamabad, Telangana, India
- *Corresponding Author:
- Ganga Pharmacy College, Telangana, India
Received date: 15/02/2015 Accepted date: 24/03/2015
Visit for more related articles at Research & Reviews: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Vaccination, Infections, Hereditary, Antibody, Immunization, Resistance
Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases widespread immunity due to vaccination is largely responsible for the worldwide eradication of smallpox and the restriction of diseases such as polio, measles, and tetanus from much of the world. Inoculation is the best strategy for avoiding irresistible ailments far reaching invulnerability because of immunization is to a great extent in charge of the overall destruction of smallpox and the limitation of infections, for example, polio, measles, and tetanus from a significant part of the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) reports that licensed vaccines are currently available to prevent or contribute to the prevention and control of twenty-five infections. Inoculation is the best strategy for avoiding irresistible ailments far reaching invulnerability because of immunization is to a great extent in charge of the overall destruction of smallpox and the limitation of infections, for example, polio, measles, and tetanus from a significant part of the world.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a global public health problem, affecting an estimated 180 million people.V-5 Immunitor (V5) has been evaluated in patients with chronic hepatitis C with concomitant HIV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections . Dengue fever (DF) is a mosquito-borne viral disease widely distributed in most tropical and subtropical regions. In endemic areas where people are frequently exposed to dengue virus infection, the tetravalent vaccine is considered to induce relatively strong cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies, which is important for durable vaccine effectiveness against all four types of dengue virus .
Trends in Vaccination
Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are small DNA tumor viruses, some of which induce malignancy in genital, anal, head and neck and also skin tissues. We anticipate that the HLA-A2.1 transgenic rabbit model will be valuable for the development of therapeutic vaccines for HPV and other rabbit susceptible human pathogens . Mycobacterium bovis is the causative agent of tuberculosis in animals and has one of the broadest host ranges of any pathogen. Vaccination of free-ranging white-tailed deer with BCG Danish is unlikely to have a deleterious effect on tuberculosis surveillance measures in cattle . Aluminum hydroxide is the only adjuvant for use in human vaccines . Anti-id Mabs which carry the internal image of RP215-specific carbohydrate-associated epitope can be suitable candidates for anti-cancer vaccine development in humans . Breastmilk per se has immunopotential that protects the infant from important childhood diseases both in the immediate neonatal period and in the long term . The fear of adverse events, lack of information about this vaccine and a lack of uniformity in the information provided by professionals are the main reasons for failing to take up the vaccine . The role for systemic Th1/Th2 balance in the regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis . the effectiveness of the rotavirus vaccination in the prevention of admissions caused by rotavirus infections using a matched case-control study in a hospital setting .
Hereditary flimsiness could bring about a changed antigen make-up with decreased viability of the antibody delivered by a transformed strain . Crack Valley fever (RVF) is an arthropod-borne, multi-species zoonotic viral ailment of animals whose causative operators was initially disconnected in the 1930s. Formalin-inactivated RVF immunizations have been utilized to vaccinate creatures, lab specialists, veterinarians and other individuals at high danger of introduction to RVFV . Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is the most widely recognized sexually transmitted contamination (STI) among troopers in the US Army, Further spread of data as an "Inoculation Blitz" would help to build agreeability rates at all FDA affirmed ages . It is vital to know the disposition and consciousness of HCWs about Hepatitis B disease, inoculation and post-immunization insusceptible registration . The suspected relationship between immunization and resistant complex-like illness came about basically from two reasons- the onset of side effects following couple of days after immunizations and clinical change after plasmaferesis .
Crack valley fever infection (RVFV) is an individual from the variety phlebovirus that has a place with the family Bunyaviridae. The infection is basically transmitted by mosquitoes (Aedes species) and reasons a conceivably serious malady in man and animals . BCG impelled IFN-γ reactions in both Holstein-zebu cross and zebu calves albeit more grounded IFN-γ reaction was seen in Holstein-zebu cross breed when contrasted with the reaction in zebu . The vicinity of the lic13435 quality and its transcripts in pathogenic Leptospira, the immunogenicity of the recombinant protein, lic13435 does not exhibit potential as antibody antigen against leptospirosis . Wellbeing experts hazard presentation and conceivable transmission of a few illnesses that can be anticipated through inoculation .
Recombinant adenovirus 5 immunization communicating the CD4 epitope-rich HIVBr18 supplement was exceedingly immunogenic, particularly when controlled by the subcutaneous course . Flu season methodologies and the mounting confirmation in regards to nosocomial flu require an announcement that flu immunization ought to be viewed as a moral obligation and patient security issue . Staphylococcus aureus is a typical reason for extreme diseases in hospitalized patients .
Inoculation scope is a key measure of vaccination framework execution . Routine cutaneous excessive touchiness testing for TT before intramuscular organization can be utilized as a moderately protected and straightforward system .
Vaccines Preventable Diseases
Antibodies had particularly bound to the cell surface of the microscopic organisms and averted development of the microbes; and this exceedingly proposes that the antibodies could secure against bacterial disease . The normal utilization of blend immunizations has been vital in diminishing the rate of youth illnesses . Human Th1 memory cells found in human fringe blood that may work in host protection against flu in sound grown-ups . Adjuvant Systems have been created with an end goal to plan new immunizations . An antigen protein from Taenia crassiceps peptide nonamers are from a situated of adjusted peptides known not to a given MHC atom as the indicator of MHC-peptide tying .
Serologic screening is principally to recognize markers of pathogens in the body, method for diverse tests . Society filtrate proteins of MTB sputum society are essential T-cell targets . The Institute of Medicine reasoned that confirmation favors dismissal of a causal relationship between occasional TIV and Bell's paralysis . The emphasis is on the advancement of a suitable immunization to anticipate dental caries . The chicken and egg framework is a potential and novel methodology for the improvement of hostile to idiotypic immunizations . Immunization against rabies is interesting in that it is utilized post-presentation to avoid malady . Sans cell miRNA investigation, a mixture of diverse standardization procedures has been utilized to control for specialized and organic variability . Antibody and inoculation have a critical effect on worldwide wellbeing .
The created world and poor creating countries are given immunization against pertussis at reasonable rates . Acknowledgement of HPV inoculation among grown-up ladies found in restorative facilities . Creating stripped RNA, layered DNA vectors and recombinant particles are awesome resources in antibody advancement . Plant-inferred immunizations keep on giving want to more immunogenic, more viable and less extravagant inoculation methodologies against mucosal pathogens . Particular immunization treatments have been proposed as of late as could reasonably be expected option treatment modalities to interferon and antiviral medications to improve the safe reaction . The anticipated epitopes may be served as a helpful indicative reagent for assessing T-cell reactions in the connection of common disease furthermore may be useful for outlining a subunit immunization against Ebola infection .
The vaccination scope rate among kids in this provincial group was problematic and lower dropout rates may be accomplished by making immunizations promptly accessible . Regular executioner T (NKT) cells assume an imperative immunoregulatory part . Killing antibodies against the human insusceptible lack infection 1 (HIV-1) is still thought to be a certain objective of HIV immunization research . SiRNA innovation has been broadly used backward genomics . Progressed genomic, proteomic and nanotechnologies and also new immunization conveyance courses will prepare . The study of disease transmission and weight of hepatitis An additionally supports routine general immunization of youngsters . Certain plants like potato can't be eaten crude and cooking may change the properties of vaccine [50,51]. The wellbeing of the measurement of flu A (H1N1)2009 immunizations directed to COPD patients [52,53]. Immunization with a solitary measurement of Tdap and two measurements of the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) antibody is the most ideal approach to ensure people against pertussis and measles separately [54-58]. Human PBMCs would be valuable to assess the resistant reaction of mucosal immunizations containing lactic corrosive microorganisms connected with a particular antigen [59-61]. Inoculation projects are a vital segment of general wellbeing activities and safeguard prescription .
The best approach as we would see it is a comprehensive methodology, which incorporates canine immunization, increment of human instruction and mindfulness, mindful puppy possession and required pet pooch inoculation, and additionally legitimate prophylaxis [63-65]. CH401MAP is required to impel anticancer impacts in HER2-halfway patients and avoid repeat, proposing its relevance to adjunctive treatment [66-69]. Immunizations are viewed as the best anticipation devices against irresistible sicknesses [70-72]. Antibodies (i.e. HIV, TB, and Malaria) that have impelled great resistance in creature models have neglected to prompt invulnerability in people [73,74].
The capability of the resistant framework to control tumor, disease and the different ways that immunotherapy can help the capability of the safe framework for the advantage of the patient and invigorated the development of numerous new helpful antibodies, cell-based medications, and immunizations, which are beginning to be utilized as a part of clinical practice, either alone or in different mixes [75-80]. Antibodies, a standout amongst the best therapeutic developments against different irresistible ailments, (Hillman), now and then oblige a particle in conjugation that expands its insusceptible response [81,82].
Wuchereria bancrofti troponin protein succession contains different antigenic parts to direct and engage the insusceptible framework to shield a person from lymphatic filariasis disease . Benefactors ought to be recognized and dynamic pretended by a great many volunteers who had worked vigorously for polio annihilation ought to be highlighted . Clinical investigations of tumor immunizations have in specific cases demonstrated that starting incitement of SD or PD is trailed by consequent Tumor relapse, raising worries about assessment of against Tumor reactions utilizing the WHO or RECIST criteria[85-87]. IM inoculation with recombinant lessened S. enterica immunization strain C501 is more suitable than oral vaccination for evoking safe reactions . A house to house crusade for vaccination and keeping little size of the antibody vials could be compelling methods for lessening wastage of vaccines [89,90]. Prophylactic antibodies against HPV diseases hold guarantee for costeffective diminishments in the rate of cervical disease .
Flu inoculation of kids and young people with inactivated flu immunization altogether secured even unimmunized occupants of rustic communities [92-93]. New and inventive ways to deal with lessening obstructions to immunization against VPDs are vital so as to build inoculation rates in youthful grown-ups [94,95]. In India, under the Universal Immunization Program (UIP) immunizations for six immunization preventable ailments (tuberculosis, diphtheria, pertussis (whooping hack), tetanus, poliomyelitis, and measles) are accessible free of charge of expense to all . There are no accessible immunizations or powerful antiviral against the infection and the treatment is principally symptomatic . The relative expense adequacy of OCVs contrasted with different alternatives for cholera counteractive action stays unverifiable . Strain is intervening imperviousness to serum bacteriolysis through the traditional supplement pathway. Additionally, the hexB erasure mutant is exceptionally lessened for harmfulness [99,100].
Unpredictable antibodies in clinical improvement are not a thorough posting of flighty immunizations but instead are planned as samples of the differences of new antibody applications that are being investigated [101,102]. In perspective of the to a great degree low resistance now against smallpox, an infection discharge could chance the survival of human species on this planet . The prime-help regimens with HPV p-immunization and HPV ad5- antibody demonstrated the best capacity to shield mice from tumor outgrowth . The resistant framework utilizes an exceptionally productive guard component that incorporates antibodies and various phagocytic cells .
- Arjanova OV, et al. Phase 2 Trial of V-5 Immunitor (V5) in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C Co-infected with HIV and Mycobacterium Tuberculosis. J Vaccin Vaccinat.2010;1:103.
- Konishi E and Takizawa Y. Effect of Pre-Existing Immunity to Flaviviruses on Balanced Induction of Neutralizing Antibodies by a Dengue Tetravalent DNA Vaccine in Mice. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2010;1:102.
- Hu J, et al. Using HLA-A2.1 Transgenic Rabbit Model to Screen and Characterize New HLA-A2.1 Restricted Epitope DNA Vaccines. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2010;1:101.
- Palmer MV, et al. Investigations on Deer to Deer and Deer to Cattle Transmission of the Vaccine Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). J Vaccines Vaccin. 2010;1:104.
- Wang W, et al. The Protection Potential of an Alum-Adjuvanted F1 Protein in Dry Powder against Plague in Mice . J Vaccines Vaccin. 2010;1:105.
- Lee G, et al. Monoclonal Anti-idiotype Antibodies against Carbohydrate-associate Epitope for Anti-Cancer Vaccine Development. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2010;1:106.
- Alasil SM and Kutty P. Breastfeeding as a Tool that Empowers Infant Immunity through Maternal Vaccination. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2015;6:271.
- Lo Giudice D, et al. Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Coverage among Adolescents Living in Southern Italy. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2015;6:273.
- Qi F, et al. Immune-Based Modulation of Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis, Link to Systemic Th1/Th2 Balance. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2015;6:274.
- Gimenez-Sanchez F, et al. A Matched Case-Control Study Measuring the Effectiveness of the Rotavirus Vaccines to Prevent Gastroenteritis Hospitalizations. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2015;6:275.
- Bröker M, et al. Genetic Stability of a Tick- Borne Encephalitis (TBE) Virus Strain used for the Production of a TBE Vaccine. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2011;2:114.
- Abd el-Razek NEE, et al. Nanocapsulated Rift Valley Fever Vaccine Candidates and Relative Immunological and Histopathological Reactivity in Out Bred Swiss Mice. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2011;2:115.
- LaRocque DJ and Berry-CabÃ¡n CS. Human Papilloma Virus Vaccination Coverage among Soldiers in a Military Treatment Facility. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2007-2010;2:116.
- Singhal V, et al. Prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Healthcare Workers of a Tertiary Care Centre in India and Their Vaccination Status. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2011;2:118.
- Tubek S, et al. Immune Complexes-Like Disease in the Course of Enterobacter cloacae sepsis Due to CholelithicCholecystitis, Preceded by Influenza Vaccination. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2011;2:119.
- Atwa MH, et al. ZH501-VSVRI: Is it Still the Best Choice for Vaccination Against Rift Valley Fever in Egypt? J Vaccines Vaccin. 2011;2:121.
- Tafess K and Ameni G. Immune Response in Holstein-Zebu Cross and Zebu Calves Vaccinated with Bacillus Calmette-GuÃ©rin (BCG) at Bako Agricultural Research Centre, Western Ethiopia. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2011;2:122.
- Hashimoto VL, et al. Failure of lic13435 Protein of LeptospirainterrogansSerovarCopenhageni to Confer Protection in Immunized Hamsters. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2011;2:120
- Saridi M, et al. Vaccination Coverage among Health Care Workers in A Greek Hospital. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2011;2:123.
- Rosa DS, et al. A Recombinant Adenovirus Encoding Multiple HIV-1 Epitopes Induces Stronger CD4+ T cell Responses than a DNA Vaccine in Mice. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2011;2:124.
- Wicker S. Influenza Vaccination among Healthcare Workers Deserves a Higher Priority. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2011;2:e102.
- Rapose A. Development of Antimicrobial Antibodies: A Novel Line of Attack in the Battle Against Infection. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2012;3:e103.
- Petrovic V and Šeguljev Z. Immunization Coverage in South Backa County of Vojvodina, Serbia. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2012;3:125.
- Das S and Mondal S. Tetanus Toxoid Induced Anaphylaxis. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2012;3:126.
- JustizVaillant AA, et al. In vitro Inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus Isolates by Anti-Anti-Idiotypic Antibodies to Staphylococcal Protein (SpA). J Vaccines Vaccin.2012;3:127.
- Lanata C, et al. Immunogenicity and Safety of a Fully Liquid DTaP-IPV-Hep B-PRP-T Vaccine at 2-4-6 Months of Age in Peru. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2012;3:128.
- Chen S, et al. Human CD4+ Memory T-cell Populations Secrete Th1 Cytokines in Response to Influenza Antigen Stimulation. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2012;3:129
- Garcon N,et al. Designing Vaccines against Human Papillomavirus and Hepatitis B Virus: Similarities and Differences for Preventable Viral Infections and role of AS04 Adjuvant System in Addressing Specific Challenges. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2012;3:130.
- Gomase VS and Chitlange NR. Sensitive Quantitative Predictions of MHC Binding Peptides and Fragment Based Peptide Vaccines from Taeniacrassiceps. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2012;3:131.
- Adeoti FM, et al. Evolution of the Residual Risk of Transmitting HIV, HCV and HBV in the Blood Transfusion from 1998 to 2009 in Cote d’Ivoire. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2012;3:132.
- Husain AA, et al. Evaluation and Identification of in vitro Cellular Immune Response to Culture Filtrate Antigens of M. tuberculosis Culture. Implications for Vaccine Design. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2012;3:133.
- Cano M, et al. Bell’s Palsy Cases Following Administration of Influenza A (H1N1) 2009 Monovalent Vaccine Reported to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS). J Vaccines Vaccin. 2012;3:134.
- Gambhir RS, et al. Vaccine against Dental Caries- An Urgent Need. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2012;3:136.
- Vaillant AAJ, et al. The Chicken and Egg System for the Development of Anti-Idiotypic Vaccines. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2012;3:137
- Johnson N. Is Vaccination an Option for Treating Rabies? J Vaccines Vaccin. 2012;3:e104.
- Yang X. Use Circulating microRNAs as Biomarkers of Drug- Induced Liver Injury. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2012;3:e105.
- Aref NEMM. Vaccine and Vaccination: Impact and Challenges. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2012;3:e106.
- Mukkur T and Richmond P. Development of Affordable Effective Vaccines against Whooping Cough for the Developing World. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2012;3:e107.
- Liu FW, et al. Cervical Cancer and HPV Vaccination: Knowledge and Attitudes of Adult Women in Lusaka, Zambia. J Vaccines Vaccin
- Lundstrom K. Alphavirus Vectors in Vaccine Development. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2012;3:139.
- Hefferon KL. Plant-Made Vaccines. J Vaccines Vaccin.2012;3:e108.
- Mansour-Ghanaei F, et al. Efficacy of Double Dose Intradermal Vaccination in Chronic Hepatitis B Carriers: A Double- Blinded Randomized Clinical Trial. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2012;3:140.
- Saraswat A, et al. Immuno-Informatic Speculation and Computational Modeling of Novel MHC-II Human Leukocyte Antigenic Alleles to Elicit Vaccine for Ebola Virus. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2012;3:141.
- Adebayo BE, et al. Immunization Coverage in A Rural Community in Southwestern Nigeria. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2012;3:143.
- Subrahmanyam P, et al. Natural Killer T Cell Based Immunotherapy. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2012;3:144.
- Behrendt R, et al. Induction of Antibodies Specific for Gp41 of HIV-1 by Gene Gun DNA Vaccination. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2012;3:145.
- Hefferon KL. SiRNA in Vivo Delivery Systems: A New Frontier in Biotechnology. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2012;3:e109.
- Aref NEMM. ETEC Vaccine between Reality and Expectations. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2012;3:e110.
- YURDAKÖK K, et al. Immunogenicity and Safety of an Inactivated Hepatitis A Vaccine Given with Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine to 12-13 Month Old Turkish Children. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2012;3:146.
- Awale MM, et al. Transgenic Plant Vaccine: A Breakthrough in Immunopharmacotherapeutics. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2012;3:147.
- Zimmerman DH, et al. LEAPS Therapeutic Vaccines as Antigen Specific Suppressors of Inflammation in Infectious and Autoimmune Diseases. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2012;3:149.
- Yokomichi H, et al. Safety of the Influenza A (H1N1)2009 Vaccine in Chronic Pulmonary Obstructive Disease: A Matched Case-Control Study. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2012;3:148.
- Mohamadzadeh M. Novel Oral Targeted Mini Gene- Vaccine Platform Resists Influenza A Challenge. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2012;3:e112.
- Rapose A. Re-Emerging Infectious Diseases: Need for Improving Uptake of Existing Vaccines. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2012;3:e111.
- SahayB,et al. Directional Activation of Intestinal Dendritic Cells by Oral Targeted Multivalent Vaccine. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2012;3:e113.
- Kato K, et al. Synthetic Peptides of Epstein–Barr Virus-major Envelope Glycoprotein-350/220 do not Prevent Infection in a Rabbit Epstein–Barr Virus Infection Model. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2012;3:148.
- Harbie AA, et al. Is BacilleCalmette-Guérin (BCG) Vaccine a Known Risk Factor for Latent Tuberculosis Infection?: A Cross-sectional Study on 180 New Immigrants from BCG-vaccinated Countries to Kuwait. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2012;3:151.
- Varela JN,et al. Membrane Protein as Novel Targets for Vaccine Production in Haemophilusinfluenzae and Neisseria meningitidis. J Vaccines Vaccin.2012;3:152.
- VintiÃ±iE,etal. Specific Immune Response Induced by a Lactobacillus Associated with a Pneumococcal Antigen in an â€œinvitroâ€? Human Cells Model. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2012;3:153.
- Farhangi A, et al. Immunotherapy of 436 Morphine Addicts by Therapeutic Morphine Vaccine in Kerman Province (I.R. Iran). J Vaccines Vaccin. 2012;3:154.
- Manna L, et al. Development and Clinical Trial of a Novel DNA Vaccine as Immunotherapy during Canine Leishmaniasis. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2012;3:155.
- Wood SP. Vaccination Programs among Urban Homeless Populations: A Literature Review. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2012;3:156.
- Malerczyk C. Rabies Pre-Exposure Vaccination in Rabies Endemic Countries. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2012;3:e114.
- Mohammed-Jafar S, et al. Prepregnancy Pertussis Immunization: Effect on Materno-Neonatal Antibody Titers and Infant Immune Response to Whole-Cell Pertussis Vaccination.
- Owiafe PK, et al. Differential Cytokine Levels in Adults Induced by a Novel Candidate TB Boost Vaccine, MVA85A-According to Previous BCG Vaccination Status. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2012;3:158.
- Tsuda B , et al. A Human B cell Receptor Epitope-Based erbB-2 Peptide (N: 163-182) with Pan-Reactivity to the T cells of Japanese Breast Cancer Patients. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2012;3:159.
- Carrion Jr R, et al. Vaccine Platforms to Control Arenaviral Hemorrhagic Fevers. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2012;3:160.
- GonzÃ¡lezBosquet E and Mazarico E. Importance of Different Hpv Genotypes in the Development of Cervical Cancer. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2012;3:161.
- Huu TN, et al. Safety and Immunogenicity of Recombinant, Live Attenuated Tetravalent Dengue Vaccine (CYD- TDV) in Healthy Vietnamese Adults and Children. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2012;3:162.
- Shimi E. Childhood Immunization Refusal: The Return of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2012;3:e115.
- Corocleanu M. Embryonic-Like Stem Cells Derived from Postpartum Placenta Delivered After Spotaneous Labor Emerging as Universal Prophylactic Cancer Vaccine. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2012;3:163.
- Thompson KM and Tebbens RJD. Development of Investment Cases for Globally-Coordinated Management of Infectious Diseases. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2012;3:164.
- Thompson KM, et al. National and Global Options for Managing the Risks of Measles and Rubella. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2012;3:165.
- Trivedi S,et al. Interleukin-3 and Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor Expression, a Biomarker of Memory CD8+ T Cell Immunity and Vaccine Efficacy. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2012;3:166.
- Elsaie ML. Tumor Immunology. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2013;S1:e001.
- Gregory SM, et al. Cancer Vaccination, Will You Have To Pay The Toll? J Vaccines Vaccin. 2011;S1:001.
- Hayashi T, et al. Tumor Immunoediting, from T Cell-Mediated Immune Surveillance to Tumor-Escape of Uterine Leiomyosarcoma. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2012; S1:002.
- Boghossian S and Von-Delwig A. Tumour Vaccines, Monoclonals, Proteins or Whole Cell Therapies. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2012;S1:003.
- Bostan N, et al. Current and Future Prospects of Torque Teno Virus. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2013;S1:004.
- Nnenna TB, et al. Knowledge of Rotavirus Disease among Health Care Providers and Their Acceptance of Rotavirus Vaccines in South-East, Nigeria. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2013;S1:005.
- AiyerHarini P, et al. An Overview of Immunologic Adjuvants - A Review. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2013;4:167.
- James-Berry CM.Vaccine Control of Avian Influenza H5N1 in Poultry: Need for a Positive Marker. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2013;4:168.
- Gomase VS, et al. Prediction of WuchereriaBancrofti Troponin Antigenic Peptides: Application in Synthetic Vaccine Design to Counter Lymphatic Filariasis. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2013;4:169.
- Paul Y. Compassion and Compensation for Polio Cases. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2013;4:170.
- Terasaki M, et al. Controversies in Clinical Trials of Cancer Vaccines for Glioblastoma. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2013;4:171.
- Natunen K. Cost-Effectiveness of HPV-Vaccination in Medium or Low Income Countries with High Cervical Cancer Incidence – A Systematic Review. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2013;4:172.
- Sabri MY. Comparison Prior and Post Vaccination of Inactivated Recombinant Vaccine Against Mannheimiosis in Boer Goats Farm in Sabah. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2013;4:173.
- Zou HY, et al. Immunologic Effect of Attenuated Salmonella enteric SerovarCholeraesuis C501 Expressing Recombinant Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae P97R1 Adhesin and NrdF Antigens in Mice. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2013;4:174.
- Mukherjee A, et al. An Assessment of Wastage Multiplier Factor (WMF) and Percent Wastage of Vaccines during Routine Immunization Under the Universal Immunization Programme (UIP), Government of India (GOI). J Vaccines Vaccin. 2013;4:181.
- Tiwari JG, et al. Trends Intherapeutic and Prevention Strategies for Management of Bovine Mastitis: An Overview. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2013;4:176.
- Elsaie ML. Vaccines from a Dermatology Perspective: HPV Vaccines. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2013;4:e116.
- Mossad SB, et al. Characteristics of Transplant Recipients Who Developed Influenza in 2007-08 Despite Influenza Vaccination. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2013;4:177.
- Burton A. Estimating Coverage of Hepatitis B Birth Dose Vaccination: A Pilot Study in Western Pacific Countries. J Vaccines Vaccin.2013;4:178.
- Bhattacharya LK, et al. Knowledge and Utilization of Recommended Preventative Vaccines among Young Adults. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2013;4:179.
- ElNaby HH, et al. Multisegmental Herpes Zoster in a Healthy Girl. J Vaccines Vaccin.2013;4:180.
- Mukherjee A, et al. An Assessment of Wastage Multiplier Factor (WMF) and Percent Wastage of Vaccines during Routine Immunization Under the Universal Immunization Programme (UIP), Government of India (GOI). J Vaccines Vaccin. 2013;4:181.
- de Oliveira MD, et al. Enhancement of Dengue-2 E Protein Expression by the Expression of the Precursor Membrane Protein (Prm) of the Dengue-3 Virus. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2013;4:182.
- Thompson KM, et al. Managing Cholera as a Preventable Global Threat. J Vaccines Vaccin . 2013;4:183.
- Zhang YF,et al. Construction and Characterization of an Acapsular Mutant of Pasteurellamultocida Strain P-1059 (A:3). J Vaccines Vaccin. 2013;4:184.
- Banihashemi R. Development of Leptospira Killed Whole Culture Vaccine Using Different Adjuvants and Evaluation of Humoral Immune Response in Hamsters. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2013;4:185.
- Petrovsky N. Unconventional Vaccines: Progress and Challenges. J Vaccines Vaccin . 2013;4:186.
- Mormile R and Vittori G. Celiac Disease, Hepatitis B Vaccine Nonresponse and Endometriosis: What is the Link? J Vaccines Vaccin. 2013;4:187.
- Arita I. Smallpox Eradication and Human Morality in Evolution. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2013;4:188.
- Fang-Cheng Z, et al. Evaluation of Pre-Clinical Efficacy to HPV16 L2E6E7 Vaccine and HPV16 E6E7 Adenovirus-5 Vector Vaccine with Different Dosages and Prime-Booster Regiments in Mouse Model. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2013;4:189.
- Saxena R. HIV/AIDS Vaccine Design and Strategies. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2013;4:190.