E- ISSN: 2320 - 3528
P- ISSN: 2347 - 2286

All submissions of the EM system will be redirected to Online Manuscript Submission System. Authors are requested to submit articles directly to Online Manuscript Submission System of respective journal.

Amazing porn model Belle Delphine nudes on sexe-libre.org. Watch free video collection of Belle Delphine nede leaked

Rare Muslim porn and سكس on sexsaoy.com. Tons of Arab porn clips.

XNXX and Xvideos porn clips free on xnxxarabsex.com. Best XnXX porn tube channels, categorized sex videos, homemade and amateur porn.

Exlusive russian porn russiainporn.com. Get uniqe porn clips from Russia

Find out on sexjk.com best collection of Arabain and Hijab سكس

Possibility of Using the Interferon Gamma Release Level As a Dynamic Biomarker

Tomonori Hirashima1*, Hidekazu Suzuki1, TomohiroKanai1,4, Hiroko Yoshida2, Yoshitaka Tamura2, Norio Okamoto1,Toshio Tanaka3

1Department of Thoracic Oncology, Osaka Habikino Medical Center, 3-7-1 Habikino, Habikino City, Osaka 583-8588, Japan

2Department of Clinical Laboratory, Osaka Habikino Medical Center, 3-7-1 Habikino, Habikino City, Osaka 583-8588, Japan

3Department of Allergy, Osaka Habikino Medical Center, 3-7-1 Habikino, Habikino City, Osaka 583- 8588, Japan

4Department of Respiratory Medicine, Osaka General Medical Center 3-1-56, Mandai-Higashi, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8558, Japan

*Corresponding Author:
Tomonori Hirashima
Department of Thoracic Oncology
Osaka Habikino Medical Center
Habikino, Habikino City, Osaka 583-8588, Japan

Received date: 04/05/2020; Accepted date: 15/05/2020 Published date: 22/05/2020

Visit for more related articles at Research & Reviews: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology

Abstract

The potential of using interferon-γ (IFN-γ) release as a biomarker was examined in the previous study. Twenty-nine patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors were divided into three groups according to their IFN-γ release level in the positive control after enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The three groups showed clear differences in clinical outcomes. IGR can be a new dynamic biomarker to determine the immunological status of a patient at the pretreatment stage or any change in the state of their immunity during the treatment of various diseases.

Abstract

The potential of using interferon-γ (IFN-γ) release as a biomarker was examined in the previous study. Twenty-nine patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors were divided into three groups according to their IFN-γ release level in the positive control after enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The three groups showed clear differences in clinical outcomes. IGR can be a new dynamic biomarker to determine the immunological status of a patient at the pretreatment stage or any change in the state of their immunity during the treatment of various diseases.

Keywords

Interferon-gamma release;Immune checkpoint inhibitor; Biomarker; Lung cancer; Cytomegalovirus infection;Systemic lupus erythematosus

Introduction

Several studies [1-3] have reported that the programmed cell death 1 (PD-1)/PD-1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) axis and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) are important for acquiring cellular immunity to Mcobacterium Tuberculosis (TB pathogen). In the previous study [4], we attempted to verify the hypothesis that there are changes in the IFN-γ release (IGR) after immune checkpoint inhibitor treatment (ICI-tx) and also examined the usefulness of IGR as a biomarker. IGR was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [QuantiFERON®-TB Gold Plus (QFT-TB)]. Based on the IFN-γ levels in the positive control, identified by a response to phytohemagglutinin (PHA), 29 patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) enrolled in the our study were divided into three groups: Group-1 (n=8), consisting of patients with <10 IU/ml at pretreatment, Group-2 (n=12) which included patients who displayed a decrease in the IFN-γ level to <10 IU/ml during ICI-tx, and Group-3 (n=9) where the IFN-γ levels in patients did not decrease below 10 IU/ml even after treatment. Group-1 tended to have higher levels of both neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and C-reactive protein, and lower levels of both body mass index and serum albumin, than the other groups. Group-1 may have a poor immunological status, including cancer-associated inflammation and malnutrition, as described in our previous study [5]. Early progression and ICI-induced interstitial pneumonitis were frequently observed in Group-1 and Group-2, respectively. Group-3 exhibited more treatment cycles than the other groups. Subsequently, we concluded that IFN-γ levels could be a biomarker for ICI-Tx.

Huang et al. [6] reported that a higher pre-treatment PHA-stimulated IFN-γ response (High-PHA) was associated with better survival among advanced NSCLC patients treated with chemotherapy. This result was similar to that of our recent study [7], which indicated High-PHA, which may reflect a better immunological status, was associated with better progression free survival. Yong et al. [8] reported that low IFN-γ response to PHA in the Quantiferon®-Cytomegalovirus at the 3-month time-point following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation was predictive of reduced 12-month overall survival, increased non-relapse mortality, and reduced survival in recipients with acute graft versus host disease (GVHD). This result was similar to our previous study [4] that the reduction of response to PHA after ICI-tx was correlated with both poor treatment outcomes and ICI-induced interstitial pneumonitis. In our recent study [7], we explained that common post-treatment reduction is observed in the following scenarios: 1) As a cytotoxic T-Cell (CTL) in GVHD recognizes a specific antigen in the recipients, it will display a low response to any non-specific stimulation from PHA; 2) ICI-tx would promote T-Cell to differentiate into a CTL that respond to specific antigen and, subsequently, may remove non-specific response for PHA. Therefore, we speculated that a decrease in the IFN-γ levels in patients with immunerelated adverse events may resemble the loss of response for PHA in severe GVHD. Thomason et al. [9] suggested that elevated IGR in the negative control of the QFT-TB assay may offer a readily available tool in the form of a biomarker for assessing the disease activity in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Furthermore, in future, if cancer-antigen [10] in substitution for TB antigen could be used on QFT-TB, prediction of ICI-tx efficacy may become possible by improved QFT-TB.

Thus, IGR can be a dynamic biomarker to detect the immunological status at pretreatment or the change in the state of immunity during various diseases.

References