Review on Neonatal Infections
Sowmya. P1*, Rajesh Voskula2, Bhanu Prasad. CH3
1Department of Virology, SLU University, Sweden
2Department of Pharmaceutics, Malla Reddy college of Pharmacy, India
3Department of Pharmaceutics, Lalitha School of Pharmacy, India
- Corresponding Author:
- Sowmya P
Department of Virology, SLU University, Sweden.
Received date: 17-06-2016 Revised date: 28-06-2016 Accepted date: 30-06-2016
Visit for more related articles at Research & Reviews in Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
Neonatal contaminations are diseases of the neonate (infant) amid the neonatal period or initial four weeks after birth. Neonatal contaminations might be shrunk by transplacental move in utero, in the birth waterway amid conveyance (perinatal), or by different means after birth. Some neonatal contaminations are evident not long after conveyance, while others may create baby blues inside the principal week or month.
Neonatal Contaminations, Sepsis
A few contaminations obtained in the neonatal period don't get to be evident until much later, for example, HIV, hepatitis B and jungle fever [1-10]. There is a higher risk of contamination with preterm or low birth weight neonates. Respiratory tract diseases shrunk by preterm neonates may proceed into adolescence or perhaps adulthood with long haul impacts that breaking point one's capacity to take part in typical physical exercises, diminishing one's personal satisfaction and expanding human services costs [11-15]. In a few occasions, neonatal respiratory tract contaminations may build one's vulnerability to future respiratory contaminations and incendiary reactions identified with lung infection.
Neonatal sepsis is a kind of neonatal contamination and particularly includes to the nearness in an infant of a bacterial circulatory system disease (BSI, (for example, meningitis, pneumonia, pyelonephritis, or gastroenteritis) in the setting of fever. More established reading material may allude to neonatal sepsis as "sepsis neonatorum"[16-25]. Criteria concerning hemodynamic bargain or respiratory disappointment are not valuable clinically on the grounds that these side effects frequently don't emerge in neonates until death is fast approaching and inevitable. Neonatal sepsis is isolated into two classes: early-onset sepsis (EOS) and late-onset sepsis (LOS). EOS alludes to sepsis showing in the initial 7 days of life (albeit some allude to EOS as inside the initial 72 hours of life), with LOS alluding to presentation of sepsis following 7 days (or 72 hours, contingent upon the framework utilized). Neonatal sepsis is the absolute most essential reason for neonatal passing in healing center and group in creating nation [26-31].
Early onset infection can happen in the main week of life. It more often than not is obvious on the main day after birth. This kind of contamination is typically obtained before the introduction of the baby. Untimely crack of films and other obstetrical entanglements can add to the danger of early-onset sepsis [32-40]. On the off chance that the amniotic layer has been burst more noteworthy than 18 hours before conveyance the newborn child might be at more hazards for this intricacy. Rashness, low birth weight, chorioamnionitis, maternal urinary tract contamination and/or maternal fever are complexities that build the danger for early-onset sepsis. Early onset sepsis is demonstrated by genuine respiratory indications. The newborn child ordinarily experiences pneumonia, hypothermia, or stun. The death rate is 30 to 50% [41-49].
Late Onset Infections
Diseases that happen after the principal week of life yet before the age of 30 days are viewed as late onset contaminations. Obstetrical and maternal intricacies are not normally the reason for these late onset contaminations; they are typically obtained by the newborn child in the doctor's facility neonatal emergency unit [50-56]. The across the board use utilization of expansive range anti-infection agents in the nursery emergency unit cause a higher commonness of obtrusive anti-infection safe bacteria. Meconium goal disorder has a death rate a little more than 4%. These records for 2% for all neonatal deaths [57-62].
Neonatal infection can be misery to the family and it starts concentrated push to treat it by clinicians. In industrialized nations, treatment for neonatal diseases happens in the neonatal emergency unit. The causes and explanations behind neonatal contamination are numerous. The cause of irresistible microorganisms and some different pathogens is frequently the maternal gastrointestinal and genitourinary tract [79-83]. A large number of the maternal contaminations with these living beings are asymptomatic in the mother. Other maternal contaminations that might be transmitted to the newborn child in utero or amid birth are bacterial and viral sexually transmitted infections. The baby's capacity to oppose disease is confused by its juvenile resistant framework. The causative specialists of neonatal disease are microorganisms, infections, and growths. Likewise, the insusceptible arrangement of the neonate may react in ways that can make issues that entangle treatment, for example, the arrival of incendiary chemicals. Innate deformities of the safe framework additionally influence the babies’ capacity to battle off the contamination [84-90].
The assessment of tests for neonatal sepsis is essential in light of the fact that the contamination may exhibit an intense danger to the infant. There is a pressing need to know whether the infant has sepsis to establishment treatment as fast as could be expected under the circumstances. Affirmation of the finding may require significant investment, and analytic tests are utilized to acquire a quick sign of the contamination status [91-98]. These tests are not great. Some genuine instances of contamination will deliver negative test outcomes, though a few children without disease will test positive. The potential handiness of the test will depend, most importantly, on the clinical state of the child. In the event that the infant is truly exceptionally wiped out, the test won't give particularly extra data. Also, if the child is obviously well, a clinical examination will be adequate and a positive test outcome would not significantly build the likelihood that the infant is contaminated. It is in circumstances in which the clinical picture leaves the doctor in uncertainty about the contamination status that an analytic test is liable to be generally valuable. In this manner, the consequence of an analytic test must be assessed in the light of the clinical state of the infant [99-105].
Prevention & Treatment
To decrease neonatal contamination, routine screening of pregnant ladies for HIV, hepatitis B, syphilis, and rubella defencelessness is required in the UK. Treatment with a vaginal anti-microbial wash before birth does not counteract contamination with gathering B streptococcus bacteria. Breast milk secures against necrotizing enter colitis [106-115].
Since GBS microorganisms can colonize the lower regenerative tract of 30% of ladies, commonly pregnant ladies are tried for this pathogen from 35 to 37 weeks of pregnancy. Before conveyance treatment of the mother with anti-microbial lessens the rate of neonatal infection. Prevention of the contamination of the child is finished by treating the mother with penicillin. Since the appropriation of this prophylatic treatment, newborn child mortality from GBS contamination has diminished by 80%. Mothers with symptomatic HSV and who are treated with antiviral prophylaxis are less inclined to have a dynamic, symptomatic case at the season of birth and it might have the capacity to decrease the danger of going on HSV amid birth. Caesarean conveyance decreases the danger of contamination of the baby [116-119].
Neonates, sepsis is hard to analyze clinically. They might be moderately asymptomatic until hemodynamic and respiratory breakdown is up and coming, along these lines, if there is even a remote suspicion of sepsis, they are oftentimes treated with anti-infection agents exactly until societies are adequately turned out to be negative. Notwithstanding liquid revival and steady care, a typical anti-toxin regimen in babies with suspected sepsis is a beta-lactam anti-microbial (normally ampicillin) in blend with an aminoglycoside (normally gentamicin) or a third-era cephalosporin (generally cefotaxime—ceftriaxone is for the most part dodged in neonates because of the hypothetical danger of kernicterus.) The living beings which are focused on are species that prevail in the female genitourinary tract and to which neonates are particularly helpless against, particularly Group B Streptococcus, Escherichia coli, and Listeria monocytogenes (This is the fundamental method of reasoning for utilizing ampicillin versus other beta-lactams.) obviously, neonates are likewise defenceless against other regular pathogens that can bring about meningitis and bacteraemia, for example, Streptococcus pneumonia and Neisseria meningitides. Albeit exceptional, if anaerobic species are suspected, (for example, in situations where necrotizing enter colitis or intestinal puncturing is a worry, clindamycin is frequently included.
Up to 3.3 million babies bite the dust every year and 23.4% of these kick the bucket of neonatal contamination. About portion of the passing’s brought about by sepsis or pneumonia happen in the main week baby blues. In industrialized nations, prophylactic anti-infection treatment of the moms related to gathering B streptococcus, early distinguishing proof of sepsis in the infant, and organization of anti-toxins to the infant has lessened mortality. Neonatal herpes in North America is assessed to be from 5 – 80 for each 100,000 live births. HSV has a lower commonness in moms outside the United States. In the United Kingdom the frequency is much lower and assessed to be 1.6 for every 100,000 live births. Around 70% to 80% of tainted newborn children are destined to moms with no reported history of HSV infection [119-122].
Locales with low neonatal mortality incorporate Europe, the Western Pacific, and the Americas, which have sepsis rates that record for 9.1% to 15.3% of the aggregate neonatal passing’s around the world. This is interestingly with the 22.5 to 27.2% rate of aggregate passing’s in asset poor nations, for example, Nigeria, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, India, Pakistan, and China.
- Tewari VV. Current Evidence on Prevention and Management of Early Onset Neonatal Sepsis. J Infect Dis Ther. 2016;4:277.
- Renoldner B, et al. Early-Onset Neonatal Sepsis: Group B Streptococcal Compared to E. coli Disease. J Neonatal Biol. 2015;4:201.
- Angappan DL, et al. Evaluation of Efficacy of Sterile Saline Gastric Lavage in Reducing Early Onset Neonatal Sepsis. J Preg Child Health. 2015;2:142.
- Sharma D and Pandita A Lactoferrin and Neonates: Role in Prevention of Neonatal Sepsis and Necrotizing Enterocolitis. J Neonatal Biol. 2014;3:e110.
- Sobaih B H and Al-Mandeel H. Early and Late Onset Neonatal Sepsis in Very Low Birth Weight Infants in a Tertiary Center in Saudi Arabia. J Neonatal Biol.2013;3:159.
- Woldu MA, et al. Assessment of the Incidence of Neonatal Sepsis, its Risk Factors, Antimicrobials Use and Clinical Outcomes in Bishoftu General Hospital, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Debrezeit-Ethiopia. PediatTherapeut. 2014;4:214.
- Saez-Lopez E and Guiral E, Soto SM. Neonatal Sepsis by Bacteria: A Big Problem for Children. Clin Microbial. 2013;2:125.
- West BA, et al. The Predictive Value of Micro-Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate in Neonatal Sepsis in a Low Resource Country. Pediatr Therapeut. 2012;S2:002.
- Umlauf VN, et al. IVIG in Neonatal Sepsis: Aleaiactaest?. J Neonatal Bio. 2012;1:e102.
- de Carvalho SA and Malafaia G. What Adolescents Know About Intestinal Parasitic Infections: Contributions to the Promotion of Health in High School. Gen Med Los Angel. 2016;4:256.
- Rahman S and Alvin MD. Etiologies and Initial Evaluation of Neonatal Jaundice. J Neonatal Biol. 2016; 5:220.
- Devani K, et al. Endoscopic Management of Pancreatic Pseudo cyst Complicated with Obstructive Jaundice: Case Report and Literature Review. J Gastrointest Dig Syst. 2016;6:414.
- Cochrane J. Metastatic Lung Cancer to the Common Bile Duct Presenting as Obstructive Jaundice. J HepatolGastroint Dis. 2016;2:121.
- Garcia AJ and Smith JM Bile Duct Brushings in a Jaundiced Woman. 2015.
- Alvarez AM, et al. Non-communicating Mucinous Biliary Cystadenoma as a Rare Cause of Jaundice. J CytolHistol. 2015;6:369.
- Morin C, et al. Late Onset Infections after Surgical Treatment of Spinal Deformities in Children. J Spine. 2015;4:262.
- Bhat IH, et al. Clinical Profile and Outcome in Distal Gastrointestinal Tract Obstruction in Neonates with Special Emphasis on Role of Colostomy and its Complications. Anat Physiol. 2016;6:222.
- Abbas A. Screening and Prevention of Transmission of HIV-1 in Neonates Born to Mothers with HIV. Int J Pub Health Safe. 2016;1:103.
- Saito M, et al. High Dose Octreotide for the Treatment of Chylothorax in Three Neonates. J Neonatal Biol. 2016;5:218.
- Ogbalu OK, et al. A New Trend of Omphalitis Complicated with Myiasis in Neonates of the Niger Delta, Nigeria. Epidemiology Sunnyvale. 2016;6:231.
- Kurt A, et al. Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke during Pregnancy Restrain the Antioxidant Response of their Neonates. J Neonatal Biol. 2016;5:210.
- Kondo M.NPC-11 Phase III Trial Concerning Apnea of Prematurity in Japanese Neonates: A Study of Safety, Efficacy and Pharmacokinetics. Pharm Anal Acta. 2016;7:458.
- Linnerz K, et al. Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method for the Quantification of Fentanyl and its Major Metabolite Norfentanyl in Critically Ill Neonates. J Chromatograph SeparatTechniq. 2015;S6:004.
- Cantani A. Assessment of the Essential Fatty Acids in Neonates at Risk for Atopy. J Biomol Res Ther. 2015;4:133.
- Thiel M. Is there a Normal Blood Pressure in Neonates?. J Hypertens Los Angel. 2015;4:e112.
- Vargas NSO, et al. Prognostic Markers of Neonatal Outcomes in Full Term Neonates Suffering from Perinatal Asphyxia. 2015.
- Ndu IK, et al. Maternal Risk Factors Associated with Low Birth Weight Neonates: A Multi-Centre, Cross-Sectional Study in a Developing Country. J Neonatal Biol. 2015;4:190.
- Antas PRZ, et al. Notes for the Immune Responses in Neonates: Commonly Expected Dampening of the Type-1 Associated Immunity during BCG Vaccination. J Anc Dis Prev Rem. 2015;3:124.
- Kiran B, et al. Laryngomalacia in Neonates: A Review and the Surgical Management or Severe Cases. J Neonatal Biol. 2015;4:173.
- Fakunle EE, et al. Intra and Post Circumcision Bleeding in Nigerian Neonates: Correlation with Hemostatic Parameters. J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015;5:217.
- Afolabi BM, et al. An Appraisal of the Medical Records of Critically Ill Neonates in Lagos, Nigeria. J Infect Dis Ther. 2015; 3:196.
- Wondie T, et al. Factors Associated with Macrosomia among Neonates Delivered at DebreMarkos Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia, 2014: A Case Control Study. J Diabetes Metab. 2014;5:468.
- Sharma D, etal.Late Preterm and Early Term Neonates: A New Group of High Risk Newborn in Neonatology with Varied Complications. J Neonatal Biol. 2014;3:e112.
- Sharma D and Pandita A. Lactoferrin and Neonates: Role in Prevention of Neonatal Sepsis and Necrotizing Enterocolitis. J Neonatal Biol. 2014;3:e110.
- Garcia-Molina P and Balaguer-Lopez E.The Risk Assessment Scales are an Efficient Tool in the Prevention of Pressure Ulcers in Hospitalized Neonates. J Neonatal Biol. 2014;3:151.
- Helal NF, et al. Can the Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology II SNAPII Predict Morbidity and Mortality in Neonates with Sepsis? J Neonatal Biol. 2013;2:121.
- Storm H. The Capability of Skin Conductance to Monitor Pain Compared to Other Physiological Pain Assessment Tools in Children and Neonates. PediatTherapeut. 2013;3:168.
- Fujii AM. Controversies in the Management of Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Premature Neonates. J PulmonResp Med. 2013;S13:e001.
- Ramanthan R, et al. Is there a Difference in Surfactant Treatment of Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Premature Neonates? A Review. J PulmonResp Med. 2013;S13:004.
- Kargl S, et al. Intestinal Mucormycosis in Neonates – A Surgical Disease. Surgery. 2013; S6: 001.
- Thiel M and Stockert K Acupuncture in Neonates–Old Experience or New Evidence? J Neonatal Biol. 2013; 2:114.
- Allegaert K. Tramadol Disposition in Neonates and Opioid Related Side Effects: The Route of Administration Matters. J Clin Case Rep. 2013;3:246.
- Jarullah J, et al. Detection of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency in Heterozygous Saudi Female Neonates. Enz Eng. 2012;1:105.
- Allegaert K. Propylene Glycol in Neonates: Never Prescribed, Frequently Administered, Hardly Evaluated. J Clinic Toxicol. 2012;2:e113.
- Gagan A, et al. Maternal Risk Factors Associated with Low Birth Weight Neonates in a Tertiary Care Hospital, Northern India. J Community Med Health Educ. 2012;2:177.
- Liu J. Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Full-term Neonates. J Neonatal Bio. 2012;S1:e001.
- Battisti O, et al. Lung Compliance and Airways Resistance in Healthy Neonates. Pediatr Therapeut. 2012;2:114.
- Mohamad O and Yu SP. Plenty of Pain in Neonates: The Mission to Find a Treatment for the Complications of Premature Birth. J Pain Relief. 2012;1:e103
- Resch B. The Challenge of Early Diagnosis of Bacterial Infection in Neonates. J Neonatal Biol. 2012; 1:e101.
- Jain S, et al. Barriers of Exclusive Breast Feeding in Healthy Term and Late Preterm Neonates. J Community Med Health Edu.2011;1:113.
- Shah D, et al. Pre-Term Exposure Patterns in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Alters Immunological Outcome in Neonates. J Aller Ther.2011;2:106.
- Conroy N, et al. Reducing Neonatal Mortality in Resource-poor Settings: What works?. J Neonatal Biol. 2014;3:139.
- Bora R Breast Feeding in Developing Countries: Is there a Scope for Improvement. J Neonatal Biol. 2016;5:208.
- Sherick I. Extended Breast Feeding: A Proposal for Further Study: Brief Communication. PediatTherapeut. 2015;5:269.
- Hegazy RA, e al. Failed Breast Feeding among Egyptian Women at One Month Postpartum: A Cross-Sectional Community Based Study. Clinics Mother Child Health. 2015;12:170.
- Fonseca AP and LealaV.Use of Antidepressants to Treat Postpartum Depression, During Breast Feeding. J Depress Anxiety. 2014;3:148.
- Singh K and Verma B Breast Feeding- An Ayurveda Perceptive. J HomeopAyurv Med. 2012;1:112.
- Mamtarani, et al. Socio-Demographic Features and Breast Feeding Profile of Mothers Attending Teaching Hospital in Gujarat State, India. J Community Med Health Educ. 2012;2:159.
- Jain S, et al. Barriers of Exclusive Breast Feeding in Healthy Term and Late Preterm Neonates. J Community Med Health Edu. 2011;1:113.
- Renoldner B, et al. Early-Onset Neonatal Sepsis: Group B Streptococcal Compared to E. coli Disease. J Neonatal Biol. 2015;4:201.
- Roongsangmanoon W and Raveesunthornkiat M Group B Streptococcal Myocarditis. J Clin Case Rep. 2015;5:593.
- Tarakci N, et al. The Delayed Diagnoses of Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis due to Hospitalization in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: A Report of 5 Cases. J Gastrointest Dig Syst. 2016;6:429.
- Gowda R and Hegde V .Neonatal Non-KetoticHyperglycinaemia in a 2 Day Old Baby. J Clin Case Rep. 2016;6:796.
- duMesniladelee A, et al. Contributions of Procalcitonin in the Treatment of Neonatal Late Onset Sepsis: A Prospective Observational Study. J Preg Child Health. 2016;3:256.
- Michaiel G, et al. Health Practitioners Knowledge, Beliefs, and Attitudes Regarding the Use of Donor Human Milk in Neonatal Intensive Care. Matern Pediatr Nutr. 2016;2:108.
- Ohoka M, et al. Changes in Neonatal Microbiota Distribution Influenced by the Environment of the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit in the First Month of Life. J Neonatal Biol. 2016;5:222.
- Trabelsi F, et al. Obstructed Hemivagina and Ipsilateral Renal Agenesis with Uterus Didelphys: A Case of Neonatal Diagnosis. Gynecol Obstet Sunnyvale. 2016;6:377.
- Rahman S, et al. Etiologies and Initial Evaluation of Neonatal Jaundice. J Neonatal Biol. 2016;5:220.
- Zareba-Szczudlik J, et al. The Impact of Type, Dosage and Time of Prenatal Steroid Administration on Neonatal Outcome. J Community Med Health. 2016;6:423.
- Tewari VV.Current Evidence on Prevention and Management of Early Onset Neonatal Sepsis. J Infect Dis Ther. 2016;4:277.
- Fadel MG, et al. Severe Iron-Deficiency Anemia on Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes. J Preg Child Health.2016;3:242.
- Gonzalez-Melado FJ, etal.FamilyCentered Bioethics: A New Bioethical Framework for Decision-Making in Neonatal and Pediatric Units. J Clin Res Bioeth. 2016:7:263.
- Bains S, et al. A Comparison of Health Care Workers Assessment and Management of Pain between a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit in India and Norway. J Palliat Care Med. 2016;6:255.
- Lopes JM, et al. Neonatal Morbidities in Late-Preterm Infants Compared with Term Infants admitted to an Intensive Care Unit and Born Predominantly by Cesarean Section. J Preg Child Health. 2016;3:237.
- Szczepanik E, et al. Neonatal Seizures do not Exclude Dravet Syndrome Diagnosis. J Neurol Neurophysiol. 2016;7:360.
- PerézAM, et al. A Practical Approach to Emergencies in the Neonatal Period. J Neonatal Biol. 2016; 5:213.
- Ueda H, et al. Neonatal Central Diabetes Insipidus Caused by Severe Perinatal Asphyxia. PediatTherapeut. 2016;6:278.
- Talbert D.Cerebral Venous Malformation as a Cause of Neonatal Intra-Ventricular Haemorrhage and Unexplained Infant Subdural Haemorrhage. Anat Physiol. 2016;6:202.
- Kido J and Matsumoto T.Neural Stem and Progenitor Cells with High Proliferation Potential in Injured Areas in a Model of Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy. J Neurol Neurophysiol. 2016;7:348.
- Shoar Z, et al. Maternal Obesity, Maternal Gestational Diabetes Mellitus, and Maternal and Neonatal Outcomes. J Obes Weight Loss Ther. 2016;6:292.
- Silvestri F,et al. L225P Mutation of ABCC8 Gene: A Case of Transient Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus with Thrombophilic Predisposition and Epilepsy. PediatTherapeut. 2016;6:274.
- Ahmad I, et al. Acid Base Disorders in Critically Ill Neonatal Intensive Care Patients and Predicting Survival by the Presence of Deranged Acid-Base Variables. J Neonatal Biol. 2015;5:207.
- Fritz K, et al. Parechovirus Sepsis and Meningitis in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. J Neuroinfect Dis. 2015;6:187.
- Jovandaric MZ. Neonatal Thrombocytopenia. Clinics Mother Child Health.2015;12:199.
- Amir Kushnir, et al. When Knowledge Management and the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Add Up to a Triplet Success Story. Primary Health Care.2015;5:205.
- Ugianskiene A, et al. Teenage Pregnancies: Obstetric and Neonatal Outcomes at a Danish Regional Hospital. J Women’s Health Care. 2015;4:283.
- Mohan K, etal.Clinical Presentation and Management of Neonatal Malaria: A Review. Malar ChemothCont Elimination. 2014;3:126.
- Stevens DC.Single-Room Neonatal Intensive Care: State of the Practice. J Nurs Care. 2015;4:257.
- Sundararajan S, et al. Toxic Metal Contamination of Banked Blood Designated for Neonatal Transfusion. J Clin Toxicol. 2015;5:267.
- Renoldner B, etal.Early-Onset Neonatal Sepsis: Group B Streptococcal Compared to E. coli Disease. J Neonatal Biol. 2015;4:201.
- Silva ES, et al. Alpha-1- Antitrypsin Deficiency Presenting as Neonatal Cholestasis: Predictors of Outcome and Effect of Ursodeoxycholic Acid. J Liver. 2015;4:185.
- Rutering J, et al. Improved Method for Isolation of Neonatal Rat Cardiomyocytes with Increased Yield of C-Kit+ Cardiac Progenitor Cells. J Stem Cell Res Ther. 2015;5:305.
- Nowakowski P, et al. Maternal and Neonatal Characteristics of Umbilical Cord Blood Units from the Polish Public Stem Cell Bank of the Regional Science and Technology Center. J Blood Disord Transfus. 2015;6:306.
- Martin SR, et al. PerimortemCesarean Section with Sudden Maternal Recovery and Intact Maternal and Neonatal Survival. Emerg Med Los Angel. 2015;5:279.
- Pruenglampoo B, et al. Perception, Concern and Acceptability of Neonatal Male Circumcision among Postpartum Mothers in Thailand. J AIDS Clin Res. 2015;6:487.
- Vargas NSO, et al. Prognostic Markers of Neonatal Outcomes in Full Term Neonates Suffering from Perinatal Asphyxia. J Neonatal Biol. 2015;4:193.
- Alsafadi TRM, et al. The Effect of Platelet Transfusions on the Mortality in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit. J Blood Disord Transfus. 2015;6:287.
- Alexandropoulou IG, et al. Preventing Neonatal Legionellosis-The Environmental Surveillance Approach. Clin Microbiol. 2015;4:e125.
- Yehuala S, et al. Survival Analysis of Premature Infants Admitted to Neonatal Intensive Care Unit NICU in Northwest Ethiopia using Semi-Parametric Frailty Model. J BiomBiostat. 2015;6:223.
- Gutiérrez-Padilla JA, et al. Propofol for Procedural Anaesthesia During Laser Treatment of Retinopathy of Prematurity in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit NICU. J Neonatal Biol. 2015;4:180.
- Herruzo R, et al. Controlling an Outbreak of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit: Multivariate Analysis of Risk Factors through a Case-Case- Control Study. J Neonatal Biol. 2014;3:163.
- Alsulaimani AA, et al. Inflammatory Cytokines in Neonatal Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy and their Correlation with Brain Marker S100 Protein: A Case Control Study in Saudi Arabia. J Clin Cell Immunol. 2015;6:289.
- Alburke S, et al. Neonatal and Perinatal Mortality Rates in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Misurata Teaching Hospital – Libya/2013. J Hematol Thrombo Dis. 2015;3:184.
- Haggerty CL, et al. Risk of sequelae after Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection in women. J Infect Dis.2010;2:S134-155.
- WHO 2012. Global incidence and prevalence of selected curable sexually transmitted infections - 2008.
- Numazaki K Current problems of perinatal Chlamydia trachomatis infections. J Immune Based Ther Vaccines. 2004;2:4.
- Numazaki K, et al. Chlamydia trachomatis infection in early neonatal period. BMC Infect Dis. 2003;3:2.
- Hernández-Trejo M, et al. Uncommon cause of late neonatal death with refractory respiratory distress syndrome. ActaPaediatr. 2007;96:39-140.
- Gorbunov EF, et al. [Characteristics of perinatal visceral lesions caused by chlamydia trachomatis]. ArkhPatol. 2007;69:33-36.
- Rours GI, et al. Chlamydia trachomatis and placental inflammation in early preterm delivery. Eur J Epidemiol. 2011;26:421-428.
- Banks J, et al. Chlamydia trachomatis infection of mouse trophoblasts. Infect Immun. 1982;38:368-370.
- Equils O, et al. Chlamydia heat shock protein 60 induces trophoblast apoptosis through TLR4. J Immunol. 2006;177:1257-1263.
- Hernandez-Trejo M, et al. Reporting detection of Chlamydia trachomatis DNA in tissues of neonatal death cases. J Pediatr Rio J. 2014;90:182-189.
- de Jesús De Haro-Cruz M, et al.Genotyping of Chlamydia trachomatis from endocervical specimens of infertile Mexican women. EnfermInfeccMicrobiolClin. 2011;29:102-108.
- Gallo Vaulet L, et al. Distributionstudy of Chlamydia trachomatis genotypes in symptomatic patients in Buenos Aires, Argentina: association between genotype E and neonatal conjunctivitis. BMC Res.2010;3:34.
- Martinez MA, et al. Chlamydia trachomatis genotypes associated with pneumonia in Chilean infants. Scand J Infect Dis. 2009;41:313-316.
- Belland RJ, et al. Chlamydia trachomatis cytotoxicity associated with complete and partial cytotoxin genes. ProcNatlAcadSci U S A. 2001;98:13984-13989.
- ReislerE.Actin molecular structure and function. CurrOpin Cell Biol. 1993;5:41-47.
- Cirino F, et al. Detection of Chlamydia in the peripheral blood cells of normal donors using in vitro culture, mmunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry techniques. BMC Infect Dis. 2006;6:23.
- Djukia S, et al. Intra-amniotic Chlamydia trachomatis infection. GynecolObstet Invest. 1996;42: 109-112.
- Jerchel S, et al. A human fallopian tube model for investigation of C. trachomatis infections. J Vis Exp.2012.
- Nelson MR, et al. STI-GMaS: an open-source environment for simulation of sexually-transmitted infections. BMC SystBiol.2014;8:66.