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Role of Motivation for Improving Organisational Development

J. Pavithra
Assistant Professor, Department of Management Studies, Bharath University, Chennai -73, India
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Motivation is a central study of employees input and output psychology in an organisation. It can be defined as the energy a person puts forward work treated behaviours. While motivation can often be used as tool to help predict behaviour, it varies greatly among individuals and must often combined with ability and environmental factors actually influence behaviour and performance, because of motivation’s role in influencing work place behaviour and performance , it is key for organisations to understand and structure the work environment to encourage productive behaviour and help to boost those who are unproductive.


Today, the modern world, motivation plays an important element to achieve organisational objectives which can be applied in the different form of method for changing employees morale, attitude, behaviours etc these are crucial role to change the people mind set from old practice to new one which lead to organisational development. Motivation involves three psychological process. a) Arousal : It is what initiates action. It is fuelled by a person, need or desire for some thing that is missing from their lives at a given movement, either totally or partially . b) Direction : It refers to the path employees take in accomplishing the goals they set for themselves . c) Intensity : It is is the vigour and amount of energy employees put into this goal – directed work performance. These level of intensity is based on the importance and difficulty of the goal. These 3 psychological process result in four out comes First - motivation serves to direct attention, focusing on particular issues, people work, responsibility etc. Second - serves to stimulate an employee to put forth effort . Third - motivation results in persistence, preventing one from deviating from the goal –seeking behaviour Fourth - motivation results in task strategies, which as of behaviour to reach particular goal In 1964, Victor .H. Vroom, the professor of Yale university school of management developed in his Expectancy Theory which stated that the employee will work smarter or harder if he believes his additional efforts will lead to valued rewards . By his mathematical form in the form of an equation . F = E ( Σ I x v ) F = ( motivational force ) = effort the employee will expand to achieve the desired the desired performance E( Expectancy ) = Belief that effort will result in desired level of performance I (Instrumentality) = Belief that desired level of performance will result in desired out come V(valence) value of the out come of the employee .


The behavioural approach to work place motivation is known organisational behavioural motivation. This approach applies to promote employee behaviours towards development of organisation. An employees behaviour can also be shaped during the learning process if ideal behaviour are praised or rewarded. While frequent praise durning the learning process can be beneficial. Compensation and other reward programs provide behavioural reinforcement, if carefully crafted , can provide powerful incentives to employees . The system of punishment can negatively impact employee’s perception of fairness in the work place . The motivation factors influences the level of challenges, the work itself, responsibility, recognition , advancement, Intrinsic interest , autonomy .The primary source of motivation involves in pay , job security, status working condition , fringe benefits, job polices and opportunities for creativity and relation with co-workers.


Organisational rewarding system have a significant on employees level of motivation. Rewards can be either tangible or intangible. Various forms of pay, such as salary, commission, bonus, employees, ownership program and various type of profit or gain sharing program, are all important tangible rewards. While fringe benefits have a positive impact on attraction of retention which influences the employees directly on attraction and retention. Salaries play a crucial role in the tangible reward system. These are important factor in attracting new talent to an organisation as well as retaining talent. If the organisation paying top payments for their employees it shows the positive reputation in the job market. Employees can be guided to focus their attention and efforts on certain organisational goals. The goals that are reinforced through incentives pay should carefully considered to make sure they are in alignment with organisational objectives. The multiple rewards program can be introduced if conflicting to reach goals. Individual and team – based reward can be introduced to work for getting fruitful result. Importance forms of intangible rewards include, praise, recognition and rewards. Intangible rewards are ones from which an employee does not derive any material gain. Such rewards have greatest impact on behaviour and are closely tied to the performance. If an organisation wants to use praise or other tangible rewards effectively , praise should be offered by higher level of authority, Providing increased autonomy create trust in an employee and also decrease stress and improve job satisfaction . Since it may be hard for employee to achieve a similar level of trust in a new organisation, increased autonomy may also help to improve retention. Motivation through simplification of work: Reward -based systems are certainly the more common practice for attempting to influence motivation with an organisation, but some employees strive it simplify the work itself to be more conductive. There are multiple ways an organisation can leverage job design and simplification in method which increase motivation. The job should be provided intellectual stimulation, opportunity for creativity and greater discretion over work- related activities. Motivation creates job satisfaction: Motivation plays significant role to improve the job satisfaction, particularly their emotion, behaviours, and attitudes on work. Job satisfaction has theoretical and psychological linked to important job out comes including attitudinal variable, absenteeism, employee turnover and job performance. Job satisfaction is strongly correlated with attitudinal variables such as job involvement, organizational commitment, job tension, frustration, and feelings of anxiety. Job satisfaction also has a weak correlation with employee’s absentee behaviours and turn over from an organisation with employees more likely to miss work or find other jobs if they are not satisfied. Most of research study found a positive relation ship exists between job satisfaction and performance., it is linked by the use of rewards at an organisation and strength of employee’s attitudes about their job. Motivation through good promotion policy Promotion and up gradation are devices used by management to reward employees for better performance and increase their moral. Promotion is similar to transfer involving re-assignment of an employee to a position of higher status, higher responsibilities, more opportunities, increased fringe benefits, greater utilisation of potential and increased decision making. a) A chart can be indicated the existing position in various department b) Job analysis for each job can be carried out c) Inter- departmental disparity in promotion should be eliminated d) Employees who are isolated should be provided opportunities for growth depending upon their qualification and experience. e) Gaps in organisation hierarchy should be reduced. Motivation through stable employment a) The objective, condition, and types for transfer should be clearly specified and defined. It should not have any ambiguity. b) The basis for transfer must be spelled out and precisely. c) The person responsible for doing this job should indicated clearly. d) Proper communication and other relevant information should provided for an effective transfer policy.


Motivation plays key role in an organisation to change the employee’s moral towards organisational goals. Motivation develops enthusiasm among employees and create job satisfaction, and removes frustration and fears on work which reflects better productivity with involvement. Motivation as tonic to the employees for making better career planning and growth which strengthen for retention of employees and lead to develop the organisation health and make business excellence .


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