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SEASONAL VARIATION OF PHYSICO CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF GROUND WATER ALONG THE VRUSHABHAVATHI RIVER STREAM

M.Harish Raju1, ET Puttaiah2
Dept. of Chemistry, Atria Institute of Technology, Bangalore1
Gulbarga University, Gulbarga2
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Abstract

Water is a crucial constituent of the atmosphere and it sustains life on earth. For families of millions of rural and urban areas, the tube well water is the source for domestic use. According to one of the surveys ground water accounts for the 50% of urban water requirement and 80% of rural domestic needs. Keeping in view of the above, an attempt was made here to evaluate the physico-chemical properties of twenty four ground water samples along the Vrushabhavathi river stream in the pre monsoon season of 2009. The investigator carried out to study and analyse the level of contamination in the tube well water sample by determining the different physico – chemical parameters namely, Temperature, turbidity, pH, TDS, salinity, EC, total hardness, total alkalinity, chloride, fluoride, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium. The results were compared with standard prescribed by BIS & WHO. It was found that some samples of underground water were contaminated and few fall within the permissible limits of the above said standards.

Keywords

Vrushabhavathi river, Ground water, Physico Chemical properties, water pollution, seasonal variation.

INTRODUCTION

The precious gift of nature is undoubtedly the water after air, although three fourth part of earth is being surrounded by water a little portion of it can be used for drinking purpose. Water is polluted day by day with increasing urbanization and industrialization. Approximately 62.5 million people are suffering from –ve effects of Fluorine either by teeth or bones through fluorosis. The prominent source of water pollution is domestic sewage; industrial waste water and agriculture run off. Bangalore is the capital of the state Karnataka in India. With a population greater than 7 million, Bangalore is India’s third largest city. It has earned the sobriquets “silicon valley of India,” pub capital of India, and the city of gardens among others. Bangalore lies in the southeast of the south Indian state of Karnataka. It is in the heart of Mysore plateau at an elevation of 920m (3018 ft). It is positioned 12.970N 77.560E and covers an area of 741 km2. The majority of the city of Bangalore lies in the Bangalore Urban district of Karnataka.

II. STUDY AREA

Currently, the river Kaveri provides around 75-80% of the total water supply to the city with the remaining 20-25% being obtained from the Thippagondanahalli, Hesaraghatta reservoirs of the Arkavathi River and Ground water. The Vrishabhavathi River is a minor river that flows north of the Indian city of Bangalore. Most of the sewage emanating from Bangalore is carried by these two rivers. Keeping this in view, the researcher tried to investigate the physio-chemical properties of bore well water along the Vrishabhavathi River.

III. Data and Methodology

Twenty four borewell samples have been collected during pre monsoon of 2009 at different stations along the Vrishabhavathi River (starting from Sumanahalli to Kumblagodu). At the spot the parameters like Temperature, pH, TDS, EC, Salinity, and DO are measured using systronics water analyser-371 and the remaining physio-chemical properties were determined in the laboratory as per the standard methods. Sodium and potassium concentrations were determined by Flame photometer (Systronics FPM digital μ controlled based). Calcium and Magnesium were determined by EDTA method, Argentometric, SPADNS, titrimetric, methods were employed to find Cl-, F- and Alkalinity concentrations. All the parameters were measured twice for accuracy.

IV. RESULTS and DISCUSSION

Physical Parameters: All the physical parameters were depicted in the Table – 1 and its variation is showed in Graph – 1 & Graph – 2.
Temperature: The temperature ranged between 21.20C to 26.10C among all the tested bore wells.
PH: Seventeen bore well samples out of twenty four samples were within the permissible limits of WHO (1993), the other seven samples crossed the permissible limits of WHO.
Turbidity: All the twenty four bore well samples tested for turbidity were within the permissible limits of WHO (1993).
Electrical Conductivity: The EC values ranged between 418μS to 2860μS.
Total Dissolved Solids: The TDS values found in the range of 229 mg/l to 1670 mg/l for the above said 24 bore well samples. Except two samples crossed the permissible limits of WHO
Salinity: The values for salinity were ranged between 220mg/l to 120 mg/l.
Chemical Parameters : Total hardness, alkalinity of water, chloride, sodium, calcium, magnesium, potassium and fluoride values were depicted in Table – 2, there variation is showed in Graph -3,4 and 5.
Total Hardness: Out of 24 samples of bore well water tested for total hardness ten samples crossed the permissible limits of WHO (Table – 2). The values ranged between 181 mg/l of CaCO3 to 929 mg/l of CaCO3.
Alkalinity: The alkalinity values were found to be varying between 68 mg/l to 660 mg/l, all the samples were within the permissible limits of WHO (Table – 2)
Chloride: All the samples collected for measurement were found to be containing chloride within the permissible limits of WHO (Table – 2) they found varying in the range of 26 mg/l to 424 mg/l.
Sodium: Table – 2 shows that all the samples tested for the presence of sodium were found in the range of 26mg/l to 350 mg/l, except two samples all the other twenty two samples were within the permissible limits of WHO
Calcium: Twenty samples of water were within the permissible range of WHO (Table – 2), they varied in the range of 80 mg/l to 503 mg/l.
Magnesium: All the collected samples for analysis were found to be within the permissible limits of WHO. They varied in the range of 02 – 120 mg/l (Table -2)
Potassium: All the collected samples were containing potassium and they varied in the range of 01 – 21 mg/l (Table – 2).
Fluoride: All the samples collected for analysis were containing fluoride less than the permissible limits of WHO, (Table -2) and they varied in the range of 0.01 – 01.0 mg/l.

Tables at a glance

Table icon Table icon
Table 1 Table 2
 

Figures at a glance

Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5
Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5
 

References

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