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Techniques Used in Teaching English

Jemima Daniel
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Abstract

To convey some concepts more effectively and successfully to students, the teacher takes help of some instructional aids, such aids are called audio-visual aids. Such aids can serve many a purposes in teaching of English. The effectiveness of teaching aid implies its relevance to the teaching point, achievement of some instructional objective and appropriate use. F.W. Noel is right when he says, “Good instruction is the foundation of any educational programme. Audio-visual training aids are a component part of that foundation.” Hence an English teacher should know about the various audiovisual aids he can use successfully in teaching English.

I.IMPORTANCE OF AUDIO-VISUAL AIDS IN TEACHING OF ENGLISH

English is a foreign language. Students cannot understand it as they understand their mother-tongue. Therefore, teaching of English becomes difficult for us. In the teaching of language, the main purpose of the use of audio-visual aids is to enable the teacher to make his lessons effective and interesting. In the teaching of English the teacher uses the direct method. Therefore, it is for the teacher to give a clear idea to the students through audio-visual aids. Such type of teaching make the idea permanent in the pupils mind. Books and other printed materials have been the basic tools of teaching for centuries, and they are still of great importance. History suggests that the basic conditions which strongly encouraged study and experimentation with visual aids were excessive verbalization in teaching.
The main purposes of teaching through audio-visual aids are:
(i) They help to avoid excessive, empty and meaningless verbalization in teaching English.
(ii) They provide direct sense experience to students.
(iii) They help students to form clear and accurate concepts in English.
(iv) They make teaching and learning effective.
(v) They provide variety to teaching.
(vi) They provide interest and inspiration.
(vii) They create language atmosphere.
(viii) They reduce teachers talking.
(ix) They clarify the subject-matter.
(x) They save time and energy.

II.TYPES OF AUDIO-VISUAL AIDS

1. Visual Aids
(a) Black Board
It is one of the most common visual aids in use. A chalk board is generally installed facing the class which is either built into the wall or fixed and framed on the wall and provided with a ledge to keep the chalk sticks and duster.
Characteristics of a Good Chalk Board:-
(i) Its surface should be rough enough so that it is capable of holding the writing on the board. (ii) Its surface should be dull so that it can eliminate glare.
(iii) Its surface should be such that the writing on the board can be easily removed by making use of a cloth or a foam duster. (iv) Its height should be so adjusted that it is within the easy reach of the teacher and is easily visible to the students.
Use of Black Board Write in a clear and legible handwriting the important points on the chalk board but avoid overcrowding of information on the chalk board. The size of the words written on black board should be such that they can be seen even by the back-benchers. There should be proper arrangement of light in the class room so that the chalk board remains glare free. Stand on one side of the chalk board while explaining some points to the students. Students may be allowed to express their ideas on chalk board, or to make alterations or corrections.
Advantages of chalk Board
(i) It is a very convenient teaching aid for group teaching.
(ii) It is quite economical and can be used again and again.
(iii) It is one of the most valuable supplementary teaching aid.
(iv) It can be used as a good visual aid for drill and revision.
(v) It is a convenient aid for giving lesson notes to the students.
(b) Bulletin Boards
It is display board on which learning material on some topic is displayed. It is generally of the size of a black board but sometimes even bigger depending on the wall space available.
Use of Bulletin Board
(i) Effort be made jointly by the teacher and the students to procure material from various sources on a given subject or topic.
(ii) Make best use of your aesthetic sense to display the material on the bulletin board.
(iii) It is desirable if a brief description about the specific subject or topic is fixed below to title.
(iv) The material displayed should be large enough and should be provided with suitable headings.
(v) Overcrowding of material on bulletin board be avoided.
Advantages of Bulletin Boards
(i) It is a good supplement to class room teaching.
(ii) It helps in arousing the interest of students in a specific subject.
(iii) Such boards can be conveniently used for introducing a topic and for its review as well.
2. Audio-Visual Aids
Film Projector
This machine is used for showing films. Some good films on various topics are available. Advantages
(i) They draw attention of the students.
(ii) They help to bring past to the class-room.
(iii) It is possible to reduce or enlarge at the size of the object by using the machine.
(iv) They can be used to show a record of a event.
(v) They can serve a large class at a time.
(vi) They provide a good aesthetic experience.

III.PRINCIPLES FOR USE OF TEACHING AIDS

Teaching aids should be used properly to make teaching more effective. Teaching can became more effective if such aids are used widely but the use of such aids cannot provide a guarantee of good teaching. Following points are important for a proper use of teaching aids.
(i) Teaching aids should be woven with class-room teaching and these aids should be used only to supplement the oral and written work being done in the class.
(ii) While making use of any teaching aid an effort be made that the teaching aids being used in any class are in conformity with the intellectual level of the students and is n accordance with the previous experience of the students.
(iii) Only such aids be preferred which provide a stimulus to the students for greater thinking and activity.
(iv) The teaching aid used should obey exact, accurate and real as far as practicable.
(v) The teacher should use a teaching aid only after a proper planning so that the aid is used exactly at the point, in the process of teaching, where it best fits in the process of teaching.
(vi) Teaching should see that a follow up programme follows the lesson where in a teaching aid has been used.

IV.ADVANTAGES OF AUDIO-VISUAL AIDS

(i) They create interest for learning in the students. (ii) They are time saving because they explain the idea easily and precisely. (iii) By their use the burden of teacher is reduced. (iv) The teacher can improve his own English by aural aids. (v) They are the sources of a variety of experiences for students. (vi) English is a difficult language. Audio-Visual Aids make learning English easy. (vii) A good English teaching is possible only in a natural English environment. Audio-Visual aids help in creating that type of environment. (viii) They help in concentrating the attention of pupils in learning the lesson. (ix) The teacher can follow up the principle of from concrete to abstract with the help of audio-visual aids.

V.CONCLUSION

Thus audio-visual aids help our students in verbalization. But most of the teachers in our colleges do not use these aids which have great educative value. These are not the ordinary materials rather these are teaching materials. Audiovisual aids give direct sensory experience to the students.

References

1. William, Tennessee. The Glass Menagerie, New Jersy: Rutgers, 1960.

2. Jones, Robert Emmet. “Tennessee Williams” Early Heroines”, Modern Drama,ii(Dec.1956)

3. “Reflections on a Revival of a Controversial Fantasy”, New York Times(May 1, 1960).