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Sandhya Sree M*
M-pharm Pharmacology, Nagarjuna University, AP, India
Received date: 04/03/2015 Accepted date: 04/04/2015
Visit for more related articles at Research & Reviews: Journal of Medical and Health Sciences
Vaccines are biological preparations with great significance in preventing dangerous diseases in cooperation with healthy lifestyle. Though we maintain healthy lifestyle there are maximum chances to be attacked by disease causing microorganisms. So, it is a good option to be vaccinated rather than quitting it with wrong religious beliefs and with wrong advises from unqualified people. Government in developed countries have already started tightening the laws to completely restrict Antivaccine slogans from unqualified people. This type of laws can be implemented only if there are good statistics about number of people being vaccinated. And in country like India they are now planning to shift from OPV to IPV where as other countries far ahead of it. Government in all countries should be a step ahead in Health sector then only the other sectors can grow and simultaneously it helps in growth of nation.
Vaccine, Immunity, Microorganism, Government
Biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular disease is called a vaccine. It is made from inactivated or killed forms of the microorganism, its toxins or from its surface proteins. Because as T-cells control both humoral and cell mediated immunity for long-lasting immunity T-cell memory is important Infants are protected from important childhood diseases both in the immediate neonatal period and in the long term on feeding with breastmilk. It contains immune modulating components with specific modulating potentials, with immune mediated disease resistance later in life .
Vaccination is the best technique for forestalling irresistible diseases; widespread resistance because of immunization is to a great extent in charge of the overall destruction of smallpox and the confinement of illnesses, for example, polio, measles, and tetanus from a significant part of the world . The World Health Organization (WHO) reports that authorized immunizations are at present accessible to avert or add to the counteractive action and control of a quarter century.
Different Types of Vaccines are
1. Live, attenuated vaccines
2. Inactivated/ Killed vaccines
3. Toxoid (inactivated toxin) vaccines
4. Subunit/ Conjugate vaccines
5. Recombinant vector vaccines
6. DNA vaccines
Live, attenuated immunizations contain a variant of the living microorganism that has been debilitated in the lab so it can't bring about ailment. Since a live, weakened immunization is the nearest thing to a characteristic disease, these immunizations are great "educators" of the safe framework: They inspire solid cell and neutralizer reactions and frequently meet deep rooted invulnerability with stand out or two dosages.
a) Measles, mumps, rubella (MMR combined vaccine)
b) Varicella (chickenpox)
c) Influenza (nasal spray)
The dead or killed virus or bacteria are used to help your body develop an immune response is called Inactivated vaccine.
a) Influenza vaccine
b) Pertussis Vaccine
c) Polio (IPV)
d) Hepatitis A
A vaccine made from a toxin of disease causing microorganism that has been made harmless but capacity to show an immune response against the toxins As they are inactivated toxins they cannot cause the disease and there is no possibility of reversion to virulence .
b) Tetanus (part of DTaP combined immunization)
The antigens that best stimulate the immune system, instead of the entire microbe is considered in subunit vaccines.
a) Hepatitis B
b) Influenza (injection)
c) Haemophilus influenza type b (Hib)
d) Pertussis (part of DTaP combined immunization)
Experimental vaccines similar to DNA vaccines are called Recombinant vector vaccines. Recombinant vector vaccines use an attenuated virus or bacterium to introduce microbial DNA into the cell .
A novel technique used to efficiently stimulate humoral and cellular immune responses to protein antigens is called Genetic/ DNA immunization.
Personal or religious beliefs against vaccination lead to more than 13000 kindergartners unvaccinated. The great opposition to vaccination is a threat to health sector [5-7]. This is propagating terrifically which even made the government to pass strict rules like “state's personal belief exemption” and this law indicates that only children who have been immunized for diseases such as measles and whooping cough be admitted to a school in California.
The disease of humans and other primates caused by Ebola viruses is called Ebola. Dreadful viruses are spreading like Ebola and swine flu; and scientists are vigorously investigating on those diseases to discover vaccines but people with unqualified vision are bypassing many innocent people towards ant vaccination.
Recently in Australia, government has taken a step forward to tighten the rules and passed a law that Australian families on welfare could see their benefits cut by up to $11,000 if they refuse vaccines for their children.
The vaccines are important to children but they are equally important with adults so the adults should keep in touch with the doctor regarding vaccines like MMR vaccine, Tdap vaccine, Shingles vaccine, Pneumococcal vaccine, Influenza vaccine, Meningococcal vaccine. [8-13].
Oral polio vaccine comprises three strains, trivalent, of which type 2 had been eradicated from the world at least 15 years back [14-21].But it is causing paralytic polio, though rarely, to the children who are fed oral doses. Almost all the vaccine derived polio cases in recent years in the world have been due to type 2 strain [22-27]. In the coming days the trivalent OPV will be replaced by bivalent OPV only with type 1 and type 3 vaccine strains. OPV carries live but weakened form of the virus which can give rise to occasional cases of polio, especially of the Type 2 strain. IPV carries inactive forms of all three strains (Type 1, 2 and 3) of the polio virus [28-33]. It has no risk of virulence. IPV is more expensive. The key measure of immunization system performance is Immunization coverage. Despite improvements in global vaccine coverage during the past decade, regional and local disparities are still observed [34-38].
Many people maintain healthy lifestyle but still there are maximum chances to be attacked by disease causing microorganisms. So, it is a good option to be vaccinated rather than quitting it with wrong religious beliefs and with wrong advises from unqualified people. Government in developed countries have already started tightening the laws to completely restrict Antivaccine slogans from unqualified people. This type of laws can be implemented only if there are good statistics about number of people being vaccinated. And in country like India they are now planning to shift from OPV to IPV where as other countries far ahead of it. Government in all countries should be a step ahead in Health sector then only the other sectors can grow and simultaneously it helps in growth of nation.