Artificial Intelligence (AI) is the intelligence exhibited by machines or software. It is also the name of the academic field of study which studies how to create computers and computer software that are capable of intelligent behavior. This term was coined in 1956 by John McCarthy. Artificial intelligence research is highly technical and specialized, and is deeply divided into subfields. The research includes reasoning, knowledge, planning, learning, natural language processing (communication), perception and the ability to move and manipulate objects.